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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 9901-10000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremcjmulrcl 9901 A complex number times its conjugate is real. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremcjmulval 9902 A complex number times its conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 1-Feb-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴)↑2) + ((ℑ‘𝐴)↑2)))

Theoremcjmulge0 9903 A complex number times its conjugate is nonnegative. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → 0 ≤ (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)))

Theoremcjneg 9904 Complex conjugate of negative. (Contributed by NM, 27-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘-𝐴) = -(∗‘𝐴))

Theoremaddcj 9905 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jan-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴)))

Theoremcjsub 9906 Complex conjugate distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 28-Apr-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (∗‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) − (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremcjexp 9907 Complex conjugate of positive integer exponentiation. (Contributed by NM, 7-Jun-2006.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (∗‘(𝐴𝑁)) = ((∗‘𝐴)↑𝑁))

Theoremimval2 9908 The imaginary part of a number in terms of complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 30-Apr-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = ((𝐴 − (∗‘𝐴)) / (2 · i)))

Theoremre0 9909 The real part of zero. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
(ℜ‘0) = 0

Theoremim0 9910 The imaginary part of zero. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
(ℑ‘0) = 0

Theoremre1 9911 The real part of one. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jun-2006.)
(ℜ‘1) = 1

Theoremim1 9912 The imaginary part of one. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jun-2006.)
(ℑ‘1) = 0

Theoremrei 9913 The real part of i. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jun-2006.)
(ℜ‘i) = 0

Theoremimi 9914 The imaginary part of i. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jun-2006.)
(ℑ‘i) = 1

Theoremcj0 9915 The conjugate of zero. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
(∗‘0) = 0

Theoremcji 9916 The complex conjugate of the imaginary unit. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-2005.)
(∗‘i) = -i

Theoremcjreim 9917 The conjugate of a representation of a complex number in terms of real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by NM, 1-Jul-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (∗‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = (𝐴 − (i · 𝐵)))

Theoremcjreim2 9918 The conjugate of the representation of a complex number in terms of real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by NM, 1-Jul-2005.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (∗‘(𝐴 − (i · 𝐵))) = (𝐴 + (i · 𝐵)))

Theoremcj11 9919 Complex conjugate is a one-to-one function. (Contributed by NM, 29-Apr-2005.) (Proof shortened by Eric Schmidt, 2-Jul-2009.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((∗‘𝐴) = (∗‘𝐵) ↔ 𝐴 = 𝐵))

Theoremcjap 9920 Complex conjugate and apartness. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((∗‘𝐴) # (∗‘𝐵) ↔ 𝐴 # 𝐵))

Theoremcjap0 9921 A number is apart from zero iff its complex conjugate is apart from zero. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 # 0 ↔ (∗‘𝐴) # 0))

Theoremcjne0 9922 A number is nonzero iff its complex conjugate is nonzero. Also see cjap0 9921 which is similar but for apartness. (Contributed by NM, 29-Apr-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ≠ 0 ↔ (∗‘𝐴) ≠ 0))

Theoremcjdivap 9923 Complex conjugate distributes over division. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 # 0) → (∗‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) / (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremcnrecnv 9924* The inverse to the canonical bijection from (ℝ × ℝ) to from cnref1o 8803. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-Aug-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ, 𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + (i · 𝑦)))       𝐹 = (𝑧 ∈ ℂ ↦ ⟨(ℜ‘𝑧), (ℑ‘𝑧)⟩)

Theoremrecli 9925 The real part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ

Theoremimcli 9926 The imaginary part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ

Theoremcjcli 9927 Closure law for complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘𝐴) ∈ ℂ

Theoremreplimi 9928 Construct a complex number from its real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by NM, 1-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       𝐴 = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (i · (ℑ‘𝐴)))

Theoremcjcji 9929 The conjugate of the conjugate is the original complex number. Proposition 10-3.4(e) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘(∗‘𝐴)) = 𝐴

Theoremreim0bi 9930 A number is real iff its imaginary part is 0. (Contributed by NM, 29-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)

Theoremrerebi 9931 A real number equals its real part. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 27-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)

Theoremcjrebi 9932 A number is real iff it equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)

Theoremrecji 9933 Real part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = (ℜ‘𝐴)

Theoremimcji 9934 Imaginary part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = -(ℑ‘𝐴)

Theoremcjmulrcli 9935 A complex number times its conjugate is real. (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ

Theoremcjmulvali 9936 A complex number times its conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴)↑2) + ((ℑ‘𝐴)↑2))

Theoremcjmulge0i 9937 A complex number times its conjugate is nonnegative. (Contributed by NM, 28-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       0 ≤ (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴))

Theoremrenegi 9938 Real part of negative. (Contributed by NM, 2-Aug-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘-𝐴) = -(ℜ‘𝐴)

Theoremimnegi 9939 Imaginary part of negative. (Contributed by NM, 2-Aug-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘-𝐴) = -(ℑ‘𝐴)

Theoremcjnegi 9940 Complex conjugate of negative. (Contributed by NM, 2-Aug-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘-𝐴) = -(∗‘𝐴)

Theoremaddcji 9941 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴))

𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵))

𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵))

Theoremremuli 9944 Real part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimmuli 9945 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremcjaddi 9946 Complex conjugate distributes over addition. Proposition 10-3.4(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) + (∗‘𝐵))

Theoremcjmuli 9947 Complex conjugate distributes over multiplication. Proposition 10-3.4(c) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵))

Theoremipcni 9948 Standard inner product on complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐵))) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremcjdivapi 9949 Complex conjugate distributes over division. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐵 # 0 → (∗‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) / (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremcrrei 9950 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴

Theoremcrimi 9951 The imaginary part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵

Theoremrecld 9952 The real part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremimcld 9953 The imaginary part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremcjcld 9954 Closure law for complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) ∈ ℂ)

Theoremreplimd 9955 Construct a complex number from its real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑𝐴 = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))

Theoremremimd 9956 Value of the conjugate of a complex number. The value is the real part minus i times the imaginary part. Definition 10-3.2 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))

Theoremcjcjd 9957 The conjugate of the conjugate is the original complex number. Proposition 10-3.4(e) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(∗‘𝐴)) = 𝐴)

Theoremreim0bd 9958 A number is real iff its imaginary part is 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremrerebd 9959 A real number equals its real part. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremcjrebd 9960 A number is real iff it equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremcjne0d 9961 A number which is nonzero has a complex conjugate which is nonzero. Also see cjap0d 9962 which is similar but for apartness. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) ≠ 0)

Theoremcjap0d 9962 A number which is apart from zero has a complex conjugate which is apart from zero. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 11-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) # 0)

Theoremrecjd 9963 Real part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = (ℜ‘𝐴))

Theoremimcjd 9964 Imaginary part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))

Theoremcjmulrcld 9965 A complex number times its conjugate is real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremcjmulvald 9966 A complex number times its conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴)↑2) + ((ℑ‘𝐴)↑2)))

Theoremcjmulge0d 9967 A complex number times its conjugate is nonnegative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)))

Theoremrenegd 9968 Real part of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘-𝐴) = -(ℜ‘𝐴))

Theoremimnegd 9969 Imaginary part of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘-𝐴) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))

Theoremcjnegd 9970 Complex conjugate of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘-𝐴) = -(∗‘𝐴))

Theoremaddcjd 9971 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴)))

Theoremcjexpd 9972 Complex conjugate of positive integer exponentiation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴𝑁)) = ((∗‘𝐴)↑𝑁))

Theoremreaddd 9973 Real part distributes over addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimaddd 9974 Imaginary part distributes over addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremresubd 9975 Real part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimsubd 9976 Imaginary part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) − (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremremuld 9977 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))

Theoremimmuld 9978 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))))

Theoremcjaddd 9979 Complex conjugate distributes over addition. Proposition 10-3.4(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) + (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremcjmuld 9980 Complex conjugate distributes over multiplication. Proposition 10-3.4(c) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremipcnd 9981 Standard inner product on complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐵))) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))

Theoremcjdivapd 9982 Complex conjugate distributes over division. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 # 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) / (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremrered 9983 A real number equals its real part. One direction of Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)

Theoremreim0d 9984 The imaginary part of a real number is 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)

Theoremcjred 9985 A real number equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)

Theoremremul2d 9986 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimmul2d 9987 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremredivapd 9988 Real part of a division. Related to remul2 9887. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐵 / 𝐴)) = ((ℜ‘𝐵) / 𝐴))

Theoremimdivapd 9989 Imaginary part of a division. Related to remul2 9887. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐵 / 𝐴)) = ((ℑ‘𝐵) / 𝐴))

Theoremcrred 9990 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴)

Theoremcrimd 9991 The imaginary part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵)

3.7.3  Sequence convergence

Theoremcaucvgrelemrec 9992* Two ways to express a reciprocal. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 # 0) → (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝐴 · 𝑟) = 1) = (1 / 𝐴))

Theoremcaucvgrelemcau 9993* Lemma for caucvgre 9994. Converting the Cauchy condition. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑛 < 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝑛 · 𝑟) = 1)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝑛 · 𝑟) = 1)))))

Theoremcaucvgre 9994* Convergence of real sequences.

A Cauchy sequence (as defined here, which has a rate of convergence built in) of real numbers converges to a real number. Specifically on rate of convergence, all terms after the nth term must be within 1 / 𝑛 of the nth term.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-Jul-2021.)

(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))

Theoremcvg1nlemcxze 9995 Lemma for cvg1n 9999. Rearranging an expression related to the rate of convergence. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ((((𝐶 · 2) / 𝑋) / 𝑍) + 𝐴) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → (𝐶 / (𝐸 · 𝑍)) < (𝑋 / 2))

Theoremcvg1nlemf 9996* Lemma for cvg1n 9999. The modified sequence 𝐺 is a sequence. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶ℝ)

Theoremcvg1nlemcau 9997* Lemma for cvg1n 9999. By selecting spaced out terms for the modified sequence 𝐺, the terms are within 1 / 𝑛 (without the constant 𝐶). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐺𝑛) < ((𝐺𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐺𝑘) < ((𝐺𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))

Theoremcvg1nlemres 9998* Lemma for cvg1n 9999. The original sequence 𝐹 has a limit (turns out it is the same as the limit of the modified sequence 𝐺). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))

Theoremcvg1n 9999* Convergence of real sequences.

This is a version of caucvgre 9994 with a constant multiplier 𝐶 on the rate of convergence. That is, all terms after the nth term must be within 𝐶 / 𝑛 of the nth term.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)

(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))

Theoremuzin2 10000 The upper integers are closed under intersection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Dec-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ran ℤ𝐵 ∈ ran ℤ) → (𝐴𝐵) ∈ ran ℤ)

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