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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 9601-9700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremfacwordi 9601 Ordering property of factorial. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2005.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝑀𝑁) → (!‘𝑀) ≤ (!‘𝑁))

Theoremfaclbnd 9602 A lower bound for the factorial function. (Contributed by NM, 17-Dec-2005.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝑀↑(𝑁 + 1)) ≤ ((𝑀𝑀) · (!‘𝑁)))

Theoremfaclbnd2 9603 A lower bound for the factorial function. (Contributed by NM, 17-Dec-2005.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → ((2↑𝑁) / 2) ≤ (!‘𝑁))

Theoremfaclbnd3 9604 A lower bound for the factorial function. (Contributed by NM, 19-Dec-2005.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝑀𝑁) ≤ ((𝑀𝑀) · (!‘𝑁)))

Theoremfaclbnd6 9605 Geometric lower bound for the factorial function, where N is usually held constant. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 28-Dec-2007.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℕ0) → ((!‘𝑁) · ((𝑁 + 1)↑𝑀)) ≤ (!‘(𝑁 + 𝑀)))

Theoremfacubnd 9606 An upper bound for the factorial function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Apr-2016.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (!‘𝑁) ≤ (𝑁𝑁))

Theoremfacavg 9607 The product of two factorials is greater than or equal to the factorial of (the floor of) their average. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2005.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (!‘(⌊‘((𝑀 + 𝑁) / 2))) ≤ ((!‘𝑀) · (!‘𝑁)))

3.6.8  The binomial coefficient operation

Syntaxcbc 9608 Extend class notation to include the binomial coefficient operation (combinatorial choose operation).
class C

Definitiondf-bc 9609* Define the binomial coefficient operation. For example, (5C3) = 10 (ex-bc 10254).

In the literature, this function is often written as a column vector of the two arguments, or with the arguments as subscripts before and after the letter "C". (𝑁C𝐾) is read "𝑁 choose 𝐾." Definition of binomial coefficient in [Gleason] p. 295. As suggested by Gleason, we define it to be 0 when 0 ≤ 𝑘𝑛 does not hold. (Contributed by NM, 10-Jul-2005.)

C = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0, 𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑛), ((!‘𝑛) / ((!‘(𝑛𝑘)) · (!‘𝑘))), 0))

Theorembcval 9610 Value of the binomial coefficient, 𝑁 choose 𝐾. Definition of binomial coefficient in [Gleason] p. 295. As suggested by Gleason, we define it to be 0 when 0 ≤ 𝐾𝑁 does not hold. See bcval2 9611 for the value in the standard domain. (Contributed by NM, 10-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑁C𝐾) = if(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁), ((!‘𝑁) / ((!‘(𝑁𝐾)) · (!‘𝐾))), 0))

Theorembcval2 9611 Value of the binomial coefficient, 𝑁 choose 𝐾, in its standard domain. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) → (𝑁C𝐾) = ((!‘𝑁) / ((!‘(𝑁𝐾)) · (!‘𝐾))))

Theorembcval3 9612 Value of the binomial coefficient, 𝑁 choose 𝐾, outside of its standard domain. Remark in [Gleason] p. 295. (Contributed by NM, 14-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ ∧ ¬ 𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑁C𝐾) = 0)

Theorembcval4 9613 Value of the binomial coefficient, 𝑁 choose 𝐾, outside of its standard domain. Remark in [Gleason] p. 295. (Contributed by NM, 14-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ ∧ (𝐾 < 0 ∨ 𝑁 < 𝐾)) → (𝑁C𝐾) = 0)

Theorembcrpcl 9614 Closure of the binomial coefficient in the positive reals. (This is mostly a lemma before we have bccl2 9629.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2014.)
(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) → (𝑁C𝐾) ∈ ℝ+)

Theorembccmpl 9615 "Complementing" its second argument doesn't change a binary coefficient. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Mar-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑁C𝐾) = (𝑁C(𝑁𝐾)))

Theorembcn0 9616 𝑁 choose 0 is 1. Remark in [Gleason] p. 296. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2013.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C0) = 1)

Theorembc0k 9617 The binomial coefficient " 0 choose 𝐾 " is 0 for a positive integer K. Note that (0C0) = 1 (see bcn0 9616). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.)
(𝐾 ∈ ℕ → (0C𝐾) = 0)

Theorembcnn 9618 𝑁 choose 𝑁 is 1. Remark in [Gleason] p. 296. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2013.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C𝑁) = 1)

Theorembcn1 9619 Binomial coefficient: 𝑁 choose 1. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2013.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C1) = 𝑁)

Theorembcnp1n 9620 Binomial coefficient: 𝑁 + 1 choose 𝑁. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jun-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Nov-2013.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → ((𝑁 + 1)C𝑁) = (𝑁 + 1))

Theorembcm1k 9621 The proportion of one binomial coefficient to another with 𝐾 decreased by 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2014.)
(𝐾 ∈ (1...𝑁) → (𝑁C𝐾) = ((𝑁C(𝐾 − 1)) · ((𝑁 − (𝐾 − 1)) / 𝐾)))

Theorembcp1n 9622 The proportion of one binomial coefficient to another with 𝑁 increased by 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2014.)
(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) → ((𝑁 + 1)C𝐾) = ((𝑁C𝐾) · ((𝑁 + 1) / ((𝑁 + 1) − 𝐾))))

Theorembcp1nk 9623 The proportion of one binomial coefficient to another with 𝑁 and 𝐾 increased by 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Jan-2015.)
(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) → ((𝑁 + 1)C(𝐾 + 1)) = ((𝑁C𝐾) · ((𝑁 + 1) / (𝐾 + 1))))

Theoremibcval5 9624 Write out the top and bottom parts of the binomial coefficient (𝑁C𝐾) = (𝑁 · (𝑁 − 1) · ... · ((𝑁𝐾) + 1)) / 𝐾! explicitly. In this form, it is valid even for 𝑁 < 𝐾, although it is no longer valid for nonpositive 𝐾. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Nov-2021.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑁C𝐾) = ((seq((𝑁𝐾) + 1)( · , I , ℂ)‘𝑁) / (!‘𝐾)))

Theorembcn2 9625 Binomial coefficient: 𝑁 choose 2. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-May-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C2) = ((𝑁 · (𝑁 − 1)) / 2))

Theorembcp1m1 9626 Compute the binomial coefficient of (𝑁 + 1) over (𝑁 − 1) (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-May-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-May-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → ((𝑁 + 1)C(𝑁 − 1)) = (((𝑁 + 1) · 𝑁) / 2))

Theorembcpasc 9627 Pascal's rule for the binomial coefficient, generalized to all integers 𝐾. Equation 2 of [Gleason] p. 295. (Contributed by NM, 13-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ) → ((𝑁C𝐾) + (𝑁C(𝐾 − 1))) = ((𝑁 + 1)C𝐾))

Theorembccl 9628 A binomial coefficient, in its extended domain, is a nonnegative integer. (Contributed by NM, 10-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Nov-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐾 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑁C𝐾) ∈ ℕ0)

Theorembccl2 9629 A binomial coefficient, in its standard domain, is a positive integer. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2014.)
(𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) → (𝑁C𝐾) ∈ ℕ)

Theorembcn2m1 9630 Compute the binomial coefficient "𝑁 choose 2 " from "(𝑁 − 1) choose 2 ": (N-1) + ( (N-1) 2 ) = ( N 2 ). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 7-Jan-2018.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝑁 − 1) + ((𝑁 − 1)C2)) = (𝑁C2))

Theorembcn2p1 9631 Compute the binomial coefficient "(𝑁 + 1) choose 2 " from "𝑁 choose 2 ": N + ( N 2 ) = ( (N+1) 2 ). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Jan-2018.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁 + (𝑁C2)) = ((𝑁 + 1)C2))

Theorempermnn 9632 The number of permutations of 𝑁𝑅 objects from a collection of 𝑁 objects is a positive integer. (Contributed by Jason Orendorff, 24-Jan-2007.)
(𝑅 ∈ (0...𝑁) → ((!‘𝑁) / (!‘𝑅)) ∈ ℕ)

Theorembcnm1 9633 The binomial coefficent of (𝑁 − 1) is 𝑁. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-May-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C(𝑁 − 1)) = 𝑁)

Theorem4bc3eq4 9634 The value of four choose three. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Jun-2016.)
(4C3) = 4

Theorem4bc2eq6 9635 The value of four choose two. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jan-2017.)
(4C2) = 6

3.7  Elementary real and complex functions

3.7.1  The "shift" operation

Syntaxcshi 9636 Extend class notation with function shifter.
class shift

Definitiondf-shft 9637* Define a function shifter. This operation offsets the value argument of a function (ordinarily on a subset of ) and produces a new function on . See shftval 9647 for its value. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.)
shift = (𝑓 ∈ V, 𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ {⟨𝑦, 𝑧⟩ ∣ (𝑦 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑦𝑥)𝑓𝑧)})

Theoremshftlem 9638* Two ways to write a shifted set (𝐵 + 𝐴). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ⊆ ℂ) → {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵} = {𝑥 ∣ ∃𝑦𝐵 𝑥 = (𝑦 + 𝐴)})

Theoremshftuz 9639* A shift of the upper integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ (ℤ𝐵)} = (ℤ‘(𝐵 + 𝐴)))

Theoremshftfvalg 9640* The value of the sequence shifter operation is a function on . 𝐴 is ordinarily an integer. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐹𝑉) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑥𝐴)𝐹𝑦)})

Theoremovshftex 9641 Existence of the result of applying shift. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2021.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) ∈ V)

Theoremshftfibg 9642 Value of a fiber of the relation 𝐹. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2021.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴) “ {𝐵}) = (𝐹 “ {(𝐵𝐴)}))

Theoremshftfval 9643* The value of the sequence shifter operation is a function on . 𝐴 is ordinarily an integer. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑥𝐴)𝐹𝑦)})

Theoremshftdm 9644* Domain of a relation shifted by 𝐴. The set on the right is more commonly notated as (dom 𝐹 + 𝐴) (meaning add 𝐴 to every element of dom 𝐹). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → dom (𝐹 shift 𝐴) = {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ dom 𝐹})

Theoremshftfib 9645 Value of a fiber of the relation 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴) “ {𝐵}) = (𝐹 “ {(𝐵𝐴)}))

Theoremshftfn 9646* Functionality and domain of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐹 Fn 𝐵𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) Fn {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵})

Theoremshftval 9647 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremshftval2 9648 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift (𝐴𝐵))‘(𝐴 + 𝐶)) = (𝐹‘(𝐵 + 𝐶)))

Theoremshftval3 9649 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift (𝐴𝐵))‘𝐴) = (𝐹𝐵))

Theoremshftval4 9650 Value of a sequence shifted by -𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift -𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)))

Theoremshftval5 9651 Value of a shifted sequence. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘(𝐵 + 𝐴)) = (𝐹𝐵))

Theoremshftf 9652* Functionality of a shifted sequence. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐹:𝐵𝐶𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴):{𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵}⟶𝐶)

Theorem2shfti 9653 Composite shift operations. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴) shift 𝐵) = (𝐹 shift (𝐴 + 𝐵)))

Theoremshftidt2 9654 Identity law for the shift operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐹 shift 0) = (𝐹 ↾ ℂ)

Theoremshftidt 9655 Identity law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ((𝐹 shift 0)‘𝐴) = (𝐹𝐴))

Theoremshftcan1 9656 Cancellation law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 4-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (((𝐹 shift 𝐴) shift -𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹𝐵))

Theoremshftcan2 9657 Cancellation law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 4-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (((𝐹 shift -𝐴) shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹𝐵))

Theoremshftvalg 9658 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Dec-2017.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremshftval4g 9659 Value of a sequence shifted by -𝐴. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-Aug-2021.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift -𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)))

3.7.2  Real and imaginary parts; conjugate

Syntaxccj 9660 Extend class notation to include complex conjugate function.
class

Syntaxcre 9661 Extend class notation to include real part of a complex number.
class

Syntaxcim 9662 Extend class notation to include imaginary part of a complex number.
class

Definitiondf-cj 9663* Define the complex conjugate function. See cjcli 9734 for its closure and cjval 9666 for its value. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
∗ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℂ ((𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝑥𝑦)) ∈ ℝ)))

Definitiondf-re 9664 Define a function whose value is the real part of a complex number. See reval 9670 for its value, recli 9732 for its closure, and replim 9680 for its use in decomposing a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)
ℜ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ((𝑥 + (∗‘𝑥)) / 2))

Definitiondf-im 9665 Define a function whose value is the imaginary part of a complex number. See imval 9671 for its value, imcli 9733 for its closure, and replim 9680 for its use in decomposing a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)
ℑ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (ℜ‘(𝑥 / i)))

Theoremcjval 9666* The value of the conjugate of a complex number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ((𝐴 + 𝑥) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝐴𝑥)) ∈ ℝ)))

Theoremcjth 9667 The defining property of the complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ((𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝐴 − (∗‘𝐴))) ∈ ℝ))

Theoremcjf 9668 Domain and codomain of the conjugate function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
∗:ℂ⟶ℂ

Theoremcjcl 9669 The conjugate of a complex number is a complex number (closure law). (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) ∈ ℂ)

Theoremreval 9670 The value of the real part of a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = ((𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) / 2))

Theoremimval 9671 The value of the imaginary part of a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = (ℜ‘(𝐴 / i)))

Theoremimre 9672 The imaginary part of a complex number in terms of the real part function. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = (ℜ‘(-i · 𝐴)))

Theoremreim 9673 The real part of a complex number in terms of the imaginary part function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Mar-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = (ℑ‘(i · 𝐴)))

Theoremrecl 9674 The real part of a complex number is real. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremimcl 9675 The imaginary part of a complex number is real. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremref 9676 Domain and codomain of the real part function. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Oct-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
ℜ:ℂ⟶ℝ

Theoremimf 9677 Domain and codomain of the imaginary part function. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Oct-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
ℑ:ℂ⟶ℝ

Theoremcrre 9678 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴)

Theoremcrim 9679 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵)

Theoremreplim 9680 Reconstruct a complex number from its real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → 𝐴 = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))

Theoremremim 9681 Value of the conjugate of a complex number. The value is the real part minus i times the imaginary part. Definition 10-3.2 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))

Theoremreim0 9682 The imaginary part of a real number is 0. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)

Theoremreim0b 9683 A number is real iff its imaginary part is 0. (Contributed by NM, 26-Sep-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0))

Theoremrereb 9684 A number is real iff it equals its real part. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 20-Aug-2008.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴))

Theoremmulreap 9685 A product with a real multiplier apart from zero is real iff the multiplicand is real. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 # 0) → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (𝐵 · 𝐴) ∈ ℝ))

Theoremrere 9686 A real number equals its real part. One direction of Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)

Theoremcjreb 9687 A number is real iff it equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴))

Theoremrecj 9688 Real part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = (ℜ‘𝐴))

Theoremreneg 9689 Real part of negative. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘-𝐴) = -(ℜ‘𝐴))

Theoremreadd 9690 Real part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremresub 9691 Real part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremremullem 9692 Lemma for remul 9693, immul 9700, and cjmul 9706. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))) ∧ (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))) ∧ (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵))))

Theoremremul 9693 Real part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))

Theoremremul2 9694 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Aug-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremredivap 9695 Real part of a division. Related to remul2 9694. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 # 0) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) / 𝐵))

Theoremimcj 9696 Imaginary part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))

Theoremimneg 9697 The imaginary part of a negative number. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘-𝐴) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))

Theoremimadd 9698 Imaginary part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimsub 9699 Imaginary part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) − (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremimmul 9700 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))))

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