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Theorem ackm 8025
Description: A remarkable equivalent to the Axiom of Choice that has only 5 quantifiers (when expanded to 
e.,  = primitives in prenex form), discovered and proved by Kurt Maes. This establishes a new record, reducing from 6 to 5 the largest number of quantified variables needed by any ZFC axiom. The ZF-equivalence to AC is shown by theorem dfackm 7725. Maes found this version of AC in April, 2004 (replacing a longer version, also with 5 quantifiers, that he found in November, 2003). See Kurt Maes, "A 5-quantifier ( e.,=)-expression ZF-equivalent to the Axiom of Choice" (http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0705/0705.3162v1.pdf).

The original FOM posts are: http://www.cs.nyu.edu/pipermail/fom/2003-November/007631.html http://www.cs.nyu.edu/pipermail/fom/2003-November/007641.html. (Contributed by NM, 29-Apr-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-May-2015.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)

Assertion
Ref Expression
ackm  |-  A. x E. y A. z E. v A. u ( ( y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  y  ->  ( ( v  e.  x  /\  -.  y  =  v )  /\  z  e.  v
) ) )  \/  ( -.  y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  x  ->  (
( v  e.  z  /\  v  e.  y )  /\  ( ( u  e.  z  /\  u  e.  y )  ->  u  =  v ) ) ) ) )
Distinct variable group:    x, y, z, v, u

Proof of Theorem ackm
StepHypRef Expression
1 axac3 8023 . 2  |- CHOICE
2 dfackm 7725 . 2  |-  (CHOICE  <->  A. x E. y A. z E. v A. u ( ( y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  y  ->  ( ( v  e.  x  /\  -.  y  =  v )  /\  z  e.  v
) ) )  \/  ( -.  y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  x  ->  (
( v  e.  z  /\  v  e.  y )  /\  ( ( u  e.  z  /\  u  e.  y )  ->  u  =  v ) ) ) ) ) )
31, 2mpbi 201 1  |-  A. x E. y A. z E. v A. u ( ( y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  y  ->  ( ( v  e.  x  /\  -.  y  =  v )  /\  z  e.  v
) ) )  \/  ( -.  y  e.  x  /\  ( z  e.  x  ->  (
( v  e.  z  /\  v  e.  y )  /\  ( ( u  e.  z  /\  u  e.  y )  ->  u  =  v ) ) ) ) )
Colors of variables: wff set class
Syntax hints:   -. wn 5    -> wi 6    \/ wo 359    /\ wa 360   A.wal 1532   E.wex 1537    = wceq 1619    e. wcel 1621  CHOICEwac 7675
This theorem was proved from axioms:  ax-1 7  ax-2 8  ax-3 9  ax-mp 10  ax-5 1533  ax-6 1534  ax-7 1535  ax-gen 1536  ax-8 1623  ax-11 1624  ax-13 1625  ax-14 1626  ax-17 1628  ax-12o 1664  ax-10 1678  ax-9 1684  ax-4 1692  ax-16 1927  ax-ext 2237  ax-rep 4071  ax-sep 4081  ax-nul 4089  ax-pow 4126  ax-pr 4152  ax-un 4449  ax-ac2 8022
This theorem depends on definitions:  df-bi 179  df-or 361  df-an 362  df-3an 941  df-tru 1315  df-ex 1538  df-nf 1540  df-sb 1884  df-eu 2121  df-mo 2122  df-clab 2243  df-cleq 2249  df-clel 2252  df-nfc 2381  df-ne 2421  df-ral 2520  df-rex 2521  df-reu 2522  df-rab 2523  df-v 2742  df-sbc 2936  df-csb 3024  df-dif 3097  df-un 3099  df-in 3101  df-ss 3108  df-nul 3398  df-if 3507  df-pw 3568  df-sn 3587  df-pr 3588  df-op 3590  df-uni 3769  df-iun 3848  df-br 3964  df-opab 4018  df-mpt 4019  df-id 4246  df-xp 4640  df-rel 4641  df-cnv 4642  df-co 4643  df-dm 4644  df-rn 4645  df-res 4646  df-ima 4647  df-fun 4648  df-fn 4649  df-f 4650  df-f1 4651  df-fo 4652  df-f1o 4653  df-fv 4654  df-ac 7676
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