MPE Home Metamath Proof Explorer < Previous   Next >
Nearby theorems
Mirrors  >  Home  >  MPE Home  >  Th. List  >  barbara Structured version   Visualization version   GIF version

Theorem barbara 2455
Description: "Barbara", one of the fundamental syllogisms of Aristotelian logic. All 𝜑 is 𝜓, and all 𝜒 is 𝜑, therefore all 𝜒 is 𝜓. (In Aristotelian notation, AAA-1: MaP and SaM therefore SaP.) For example, given "All men are mortal" and "Socrates is a man", we can prove "Socrates is mortal". If H is the set of men, M is the set of mortal beings, and S is Socrates, these word phrases can be represented as 𝑥(𝑥𝐻𝑥𝑀) (all men are mortal) and 𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑆𝑥𝐻) (Socrates is a man) therefore 𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑆𝑥𝑀) (Socrates is mortal). Russell and Whitehead note that the "syllogism in Barbara is derived..." from syl 17. (quote after Theorem *2.06 of [WhiteheadRussell] p. 101). Most of the proof is in alsyl 1792. There are a legion of sources for Barbara, including http://www.friesian.com/aristotl.htm, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-logic/, and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syllogism. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 24-Aug-2016.)
Hypotheses
Ref Expression
barbara.maj 𝑥(𝜑𝜓)
barbara.min 𝑥(𝜒𝜑)
Assertion
Ref Expression
barbara 𝑥(𝜒𝜓)

Proof of Theorem barbara
StepHypRef Expression
1 barbara.min . 2 𝑥(𝜒𝜑)
2 barbara.maj . 2 𝑥(𝜑𝜓)
3 alsyl 1792 . 2 ((∀𝑥(𝜒𝜑) ∧ ∀𝑥(𝜑𝜓)) → ∀𝑥(𝜒𝜓))
41, 2, 3mp2an 703 1 𝑥(𝜒𝜓)
Colors of variables: wff setvar class
Syntax hints:  wi 4  wal 1472
This theorem was proved from axioms:  ax-mp 5  ax-1 6  ax-2 7  ax-3 8  ax-gen 1700  ax-4 1713
This theorem depends on definitions:  df-bi 195  df-an 384
This theorem is referenced by:  celarent  2456  barbari  2459
  Copyright terms: Public domain W3C validator