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Theorem carden 9585
Description: Two sets are equinumerous iff their cardinal numbers are equal. This important theorem expresses the essential concept behind "cardinality" or "size." This theorem appears as Proposition 10.10 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 85, Theorem 7P of [Enderton] p. 197, and Theorem 9 of [Suppes] p. 242 (among others). The Axiom of Choice is required for its proof. Related theorems are hasheni 13350 and the finite-set-only hashen 13349.

This theorem is also known as Hume's Principle. Gottlob Frege's two-volume Grundgesetze der Arithmetik used his Basic Law V to prove this theorem. Unfortunately Basic Law V caused Frege's system to be inconsistent because it was subject to Russell's paradox (see ru 3575). Later scholars have found that Frege primarily used Basic Law V to Hume's Principle. If Basic Law V is replaced by Hume's Principle in Frege's system, much of Frege's work is restored. Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, once Basic Law V is replaced, proves "Frege's theorem" (the Peano axioms of arithmetic can be derived in second-order logic from Hume's principle). See https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/frege-theorem . We take a different approach, using first-order logic and ZFC, to prove the Peano axioms of arithmetic.

The theory of cardinality can also be developed without AC by introducing "card" as a primitive notion and stating this theorem as an axiom, as is done with the axiom for cardinal numbers in [Suppes] p. 111. Finally, if we allow the Axiom of Regularity, we can avoid AC by defining the cardinal number of a set as the set of all sets equinumerous to it and having the least possible rank (see karden 8933). (Contributed by NM, 22-Oct-2003.)

Assertion
Ref Expression
carden ((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) → ((card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵) ↔ 𝐴𝐵))

Proof of Theorem carden
StepHypRef Expression
1 numth3 9504 . . . . . 6 (𝐴𝐶𝐴 ∈ dom card)
21ad2antrr 764 . . . . 5 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → 𝐴 ∈ dom card)
3 cardid2 8989 . . . . 5 (𝐴 ∈ dom card → (card‘𝐴) ≈ 𝐴)
4 ensym 8172 . . . . 5 ((card‘𝐴) ≈ 𝐴𝐴 ≈ (card‘𝐴))
52, 3, 43syl 18 . . . 4 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → 𝐴 ≈ (card‘𝐴))
6 simpr 479 . . . . 5 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵))
7 numth3 9504 . . . . . . 7 (𝐵𝐷𝐵 ∈ dom card)
87ad2antlr 765 . . . . . 6 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → 𝐵 ∈ dom card)
98cardidd 9583 . . . . 5 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → (card‘𝐵) ≈ 𝐵)
106, 9eqbrtrd 4826 . . . 4 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → (card‘𝐴) ≈ 𝐵)
11 entr 8175 . . . 4 ((𝐴 ≈ (card‘𝐴) ∧ (card‘𝐴) ≈ 𝐵) → 𝐴𝐵)
125, 10, 11syl2anc 696 . . 3 (((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) ∧ (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵)) → 𝐴𝐵)
1312ex 449 . 2 ((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) → ((card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵) → 𝐴𝐵))
14 carden2b 9003 . 2 (𝐴𝐵 → (card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵))
1513, 14impbid1 215 1 ((𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐷) → ((card‘𝐴) = (card‘𝐵) ↔ 𝐴𝐵))
Colors of variables: wff setvar class
Syntax hints:  wi 4  wb 196  wa 383   = wceq 1632  wcel 2139   class class class wbr 4804  dom cdm 5266  cfv 6049  cen 8120  cardccrd 8971
This theorem was proved from axioms:  ax-mp 5  ax-1 6  ax-2 7  ax-3 8  ax-gen 1871  ax-4 1886  ax-5 1988  ax-6 2054  ax-7 2090  ax-8 2141  ax-9 2148  ax-10 2168  ax-11 2183  ax-12 2196  ax-13 2391  ax-ext 2740  ax-rep 4923  ax-sep 4933  ax-nul 4941  ax-pow 4992  ax-pr 5055  ax-un 7115  ax-ac2 9497
This theorem depends on definitions:  df-bi 197  df-or 384  df-an 385  df-3or 1073  df-3an 1074  df-tru 1635  df-ex 1854  df-nf 1859  df-sb 2047  df-eu 2611  df-mo 2612  df-clab 2747  df-cleq 2753  df-clel 2756  df-nfc 2891  df-ne 2933  df-ral 3055  df-rex 3056  df-reu 3057  df-rmo 3058  df-rab 3059  df-v 3342  df-sbc 3577  df-csb 3675  df-dif 3718  df-un 3720  df-in 3722  df-ss 3729  df-pss 3731  df-nul 4059  df-if 4231  df-pw 4304  df-sn 4322  df-pr 4324  df-tp 4326  df-op 4328  df-uni 4589  df-int 4628  df-iun 4674  df-br 4805  df-opab 4865  df-mpt 4882  df-tr 4905  df-id 5174  df-eprel 5179  df-po 5187  df-so 5188  df-fr 5225  df-se 5226  df-we 5227  df-xp 5272  df-rel 5273  df-cnv 5274  df-co 5275  df-dm 5276  df-rn 5277  df-res 5278  df-ima 5279  df-pred 5841  df-ord 5887  df-on 5888  df-suc 5890  df-iota 6012  df-fun 6051  df-fn 6052  df-f 6053  df-f1 6054  df-fo 6055  df-f1o 6056  df-fv 6057  df-isom 6058  df-riota 6775  df-wrecs 7577  df-recs 7638  df-er 7913  df-en 8124  df-card 8975  df-ac 9149
This theorem is referenced by:  cardeq0  9586  ficard  9599
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