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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 13501-13600   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremrelexpaddd 13501 Relation composition becomes addition under exponentiation. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝑀 ∈ ℕ0) → ((𝑅𝑟𝑁) ∘ (𝑅𝑟𝑀)) = (𝑅𝑟(𝑁 + 𝑀))))
 
5.8.5  Reflexive-transitive closure as an indexed union
 
Syntaxcrtrcl 13502 Extend class notation with recursively defined reflexive, transitive closure.
class t*rec
 
Definitiondf-rtrclrec 13503* The reflexive, transitive closure of a relation constructed as the union of all finite exponentiations. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.)
t*rec = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 (𝑟𝑟𝑛))
 
Theoremdfrtrclrec2 13504* If two elements are connected by a reflexive, transitive closure, then they are connected via 𝑛 instances the relation, for some 𝑛. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝐴(t*rec‘𝑅)𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 𝐴(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝐵))
 
Theoremrtrclreclem1 13505 The reflexive, transitive closure is indeed reflexive. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ 𝑅) ⊆ (t*rec‘𝑅))
 
Theoremrtrclreclem2 13506 The reflexive, transitive closure is indeed a closure. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑𝑅 ⊆ (t*rec‘𝑅))
 
Theoremrtrclreclem3 13507 The reflexive, transitive closure is indeed transitive. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ((t*rec‘𝑅) ∘ (t*rec‘𝑅)) ⊆ (t*rec‘𝑅))
 
Theoremrtrclreclem4 13508* The reflexive, transitive closure of 𝑅 is the smallest reflexive, transitive relation which contains 𝑅 and the identity. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑠((( I ↾ (dom 𝑅 ∪ ran 𝑅)) ⊆ 𝑠𝑅𝑠 ∧ (𝑠𝑠) ⊆ 𝑠) → (t*rec‘𝑅) ⊆ 𝑠))
 
Theoremdfrtrcl2 13509 The two definitions t* and t*rec of the reflexive, transitive closure coincide if 𝑅 is indeed a relation. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (t*‘𝑅) = (t*rec‘𝑅))
 
5.8.6  Principle of transitive induction.

If we have a statement that holds for some element, and a relation between elements that implies if it holds for the first element then it must hold for the second element, the principle of transitive induction shows the statement holds for any element related to the first by the (reflexive-)transitive closure of the relation.

 
Theoremrelexpindlem 13510* Principle of transitive induction, finite and non-class version. The first three hypotheses give various existences, the next three give necessary substitutions and the last two are the basis and the induction hypothesis. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜂 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜂𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜂𝑆 ∈ V)    &   (𝑖 = 𝑆 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑥 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑗 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   (𝜂𝜒)    &   (𝜂 → (𝑗𝑅𝑥 → (𝜃𝜓)))       (𝜂 → (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑆(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝑥𝜓)))
 
Theoremrelexpind 13511* Principle of transitive induction, finite version. The first three hypotheses give various existences, the next three give necessary substitutions and the last two are the basis and the induction hypothesis. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.) (Revised by RP, 30-May-2020.)
(𝜂 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜂𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜂𝑆 ∈ V)    &   (𝜂𝑋 ∈ V)    &   (𝑖 = 𝑆 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑥 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑗 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋 → (𝜓𝜏))    &   (𝜂𝜒)    &   (𝜂 → (𝑗𝑅𝑥 → (𝜃𝜓)))       (𝜂 → (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑆(𝑅𝑟𝑛)𝑋𝜏)))
 
Theoremrtrclind 13512* Principle of transitive induction. The first four hypotheses give various existences, the next four give necessary substitutions and the last two are the basis and the induction step. (Contributed by Drahflow, 12-Nov-2015.)
(𝜂 → Rel 𝑅)    &   (𝜂𝑅 ∈ V)    &   (𝜂𝑆 ∈ V)    &   (𝜂𝑋 ∈ V)    &   (𝑖 = 𝑆 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑥 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑖 = 𝑗 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋 → (𝜓𝜏))    &   (𝜂𝜒)    &   (𝜂 → (𝑗𝑅𝑥 → (𝜃𝜓)))       (𝜂 → (𝑆(t*‘𝑅)𝑋𝜏))
 
5.9  Elementary real and complex functions
 
5.9.1  The "shift" operation
 
Syntaxcshi 13513 Extend class notation with function shifter.
class shift
 
Definitiondf-shft 13514* Define a function shifter. This operation offsets the value argument of a function (ordinarily on a subset of ) and produces a new function on . See shftval 13521 for its value. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.)
shift = (𝑓 ∈ V, 𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ {⟨𝑦, 𝑧⟩ ∣ (𝑦 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑦𝑥)𝑓𝑧)})
 
Theoremshftlem 13515* Two ways to write a shifted set (𝐵 + 𝐴). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ⊆ ℂ) → {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵} = {𝑥 ∣ ∃𝑦𝐵 𝑥 = (𝑦 + 𝐴)})
 
Theoremshftuz 13516* A shift of the upper integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ (ℤ𝐵)} = (ℤ‘(𝐵 + 𝐴)))
 
Theoremshftfval 13517* The value of the sequence shifter operation is a function on . 𝐴 is ordinarily an integer. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝑥𝐴)𝐹𝑦)})
 
Theoremshftdm 13518* Domain of a relation shifted by 𝐴. The set on the right is more commonly notated as (dom 𝐹 + 𝐴) (meaning add 𝐴 to every element of dom 𝐹). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → dom (𝐹 shift 𝐴) = {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ dom 𝐹})
 
Theoremshftfib 13519 Value of a fiber of the relation 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴) “ {𝐵}) = (𝐹 “ {(𝐵𝐴)}))
 
Theoremshftfn 13520* Functionality and domain of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐹 Fn 𝐵𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴) Fn {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵})
 
Theoremshftval 13521 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐵𝐴)))
 
Theoremshftval2 13522 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift (𝐴𝐵))‘(𝐴 + 𝐶)) = (𝐹‘(𝐵 + 𝐶)))
 
Theoremshftval3 13523 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 20-Jul-2005.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift (𝐴𝐵))‘𝐴) = (𝐹𝐵))
 
Theoremshftval4 13524 Value of a sequence shifted by -𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift -𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)))
 
Theoremshftval5 13525 Value of a shifted sequence. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘(𝐵 + 𝐴)) = (𝐹𝐵))
 
Theoremshftf 13526* Functionality of a shifted sequence. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐹:𝐵𝐶𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹 shift 𝐴):{𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ (𝑥𝐴) ∈ 𝐵}⟶𝐶)
 
Theorem2shfti 13527 Composite shift operations. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴) shift 𝐵) = (𝐹 shift (𝐴 + 𝐵)))
 
Theoremshftidt2 13528 Identity law for the shift operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐹 shift 0) = (𝐹 ↾ ℂ)
 
Theoremshftidt 13529 Identity law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ((𝐹 shift 0)‘𝐴) = (𝐹𝐴))
 
Theoremshftcan1 13530 Cancellation law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 4-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (((𝐹 shift 𝐴) shift -𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹𝐵))
 
Theoremshftcan2 13531 Cancellation law for the shift operation. (Contributed by NM, 4-Aug-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (((𝐹 shift -𝐴) shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹𝐵))
 
Theoremseqshft 13532 Shifting the index set of a sequence. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 27-Feb-2014.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℤ) → seq𝑀( + , (𝐹 shift 𝑁)) = (seq(𝑀𝑁)( + , 𝐹) shift 𝑁))
 
5.9.2  Signum (sgn or sign) function
 
Syntaxcsgn 13533 Extend class notation to include the Signum function.
class sgn
 
Definitiondf-sgn 13534 Signum function. Pronounced "signum" , otherwise it might be confused with "sine". Defined as "sgn" in ISO 80000-2:2009(E) operation 2-9.13. It is named "sign" (with the same definition) in the "NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions" , front introduction, "Common Notations and Definitions" section at http://dlmf.nist.gov/front/introduction#Sx4. We define this over * (df-xr 9833) instead of so that it can accept +∞ and -∞. Note that df-psgn 17626 defines the sign of a permutation, which is different. Value shown in sgnval 13535. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 15-May-2015.)
sgn = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ* ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, if(𝑥 < 0, -1, 1)))
 
Theoremsgnval 13535 Value of Signum function. Pronounced "signum" . See df-sgn 13534. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 15-May-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ* → (sgn‘𝐴) = if(𝐴 = 0, 0, if(𝐴 < 0, -1, 1)))
 
Theoremsgn0 13536 Proof that signum of 0 is 0. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 15-May-2015.)
(sgn‘0) = 0
 
Theoremsgnp 13537 Proof that signum of positive extended real is 1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 15-May-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ* ∧ 0 < 𝐴) → (sgn‘𝐴) = 1)
 
Theoremsgnrrp 13538 Proof that signum of positive reals is 1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 18-May-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ+ → (sgn‘𝐴) = 1)
 
Theoremsgn1 13539 Proof that the signum of 1 is 1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 26-Jun-2016.)
(sgn‘1) = 1
 
Theoremsgnpnf 13540 Proof that the signum of +∞ is 1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 26-Jun-2016.)
(sgn‘+∞) = 1
 
Theoremsgnn 13541 Proof that signum of negative extended real is -1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 15-May-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ*𝐴 < 0) → (sgn‘𝐴) = -1)
 
Theoremsgnmnf 13542 Proof that the signum of -∞ is -1. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 26-Jun-2016.)
(sgn‘-∞) = -1
 
5.9.3  Real and imaginary parts; conjugate
 
Syntaxccj 13543 Extend class notation to include complex conjugate function.
class
 
Syntaxcre 13544 Extend class notation to include real part of a complex number.
class
 
Syntaxcim 13545 Extend class notation to include imaginary part of a complex number.
class
 
Definitiondf-cj 13546* Define the complex conjugate function. See cjcli 13616 for its closure and cjval 13549 for its value. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
∗ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℂ ((𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝑥𝑦)) ∈ ℝ)))
 
Definitiondf-re 13547 Define a function whose value is the real part of a complex number. See reval 13553 for its value, recli 13614 for its closure, and replim 13563 for its use in decomposing a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)
ℜ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ((𝑥 + (∗‘𝑥)) / 2))
 
Definitiondf-im 13548 Define a function whose value is the imaginary part of a complex number. See imval 13554 for its value, imcli 13615 for its closure, and replim 13563 for its use in decomposing a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)
ℑ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (ℜ‘(𝑥 / i)))
 
Theoremcjval 13549* The value of the conjugate of a complex number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ((𝐴 + 𝑥) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝐴𝑥)) ∈ ℝ)))
 
Theoremcjth 13550 The defining property of the complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ((𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ ∧ (i · (𝐴 − (∗‘𝐴))) ∈ ℝ))
 
Theoremcjf 13551 Domain and codomain of the conjugate function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
∗:ℂ⟶ℂ
 
Theoremcjcl 13552 The conjugate of a complex number is a complex number (closure law). (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremreval 13553 The value of the real part of a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = ((𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) / 2))
 
Theoremimval 13554 The value of the imaginary part of a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = (ℜ‘(𝐴 / i)))
 
Theoremimre 13555 The imaginary part of a complex number in terms of the real part function. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = (ℜ‘(-i · 𝐴)))
 
Theoremreim 13556 The real part of a complex number in terms of the imaginary part function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Mar-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = (ℑ‘(i · 𝐴)))
 
Theoremrecl 13557 The real part of a complex number is real. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremimcl 13558 The imaginary part of a complex number is real. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremref 13559 Domain and codomain of the real part function. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Oct-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
ℜ:ℂ⟶ℝ
 
Theoremimf 13560 Domain and codomain of the imaginary part function. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 22-Oct-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Nov-2013.)
ℑ:ℂ⟶ℝ
 
Theoremcrre 13561 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremcrim 13562 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 12-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵)
 
Theoremreplim 13563 Reconstruct a complex number from its real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → 𝐴 = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))
 
Theoremremim 13564 Value of the conjugate of a complex number. The value is the real part minus i times the imaginary part. Definition 10-3.2 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘𝐴) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))
 
Theoremreim0 13565 The imaginary part of a real number is 0. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)
 
Theoremreim0b 13566 A number is real iff its imaginary part is 0. (Contributed by NM, 26-Sep-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0))
 
Theoremrereb 13567 A number is real iff it equals its real part. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 20-Aug-2008.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴))
 
Theoremmulre 13568 A product with a nonzero real multiplier is real iff the multiplicand is real. (Contributed by NM, 21-Aug-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ≠ 0) → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (𝐵 · 𝐴) ∈ ℝ))
 
Theoremrere 13569 A real number equals its real part. One direction of Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremcjreb 13570 A number is real iff it equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jul-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ↔ (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴))
 
Theoremrecj 13571 Real part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = (ℜ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremreneg 13572 Real part of negative. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℜ‘-𝐴) = -(ℜ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremreadd 13573 Real part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremresub 13574 Real part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremremullem 13575 Lemma for remul 13576, immul 13583, and cjmul 13589. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))) ∧ (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))) ∧ (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremremul 13576 Real part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremremul2 13577 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Aug-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremrediv 13578 Real part of a division. Related to remul2 13577. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 10-Jun-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ≠ 0) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) / 𝐵))
 
Theoremimcj 13579 Imaginary part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremimneg 13580 The imaginary part of a negative number. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘-𝐴) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremimadd 13581 Imaginary part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimsub 13582 Imaginary part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) − (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimmul 13583 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremimmul2 13584 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Aug-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimdiv 13585 Imaginary part of a division. Related to immul2 13584. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ≠ 0) → (ℑ‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) / 𝐵))
 
Theoremcjre 13586 A real number equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 8-Oct-1999.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremcjcj 13587 The conjugate of the conjugate is the original complex number. Proposition 10-3.4(e) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jul-1999.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘(∗‘𝐴)) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremcjadd 13588 Complex conjugate distributes over addition. Proposition 10-3.4(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 31-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (∗‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) + (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcjmul 13589 Complex conjugate distributes over multiplication. Proposition 10-3.4(c) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jul-1999.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremipcnval 13590 Standard inner product on complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐵))) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremcjmulrcl 13591 A complex number times its conjugate is real. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremcjmulval 13592 A complex number times its conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 1-Feb-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴)↑2) + ((ℑ‘𝐴)↑2)))
 
Theoremcjmulge0 13593 A complex number times its conjugate is nonnegative. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → 0 ≤ (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)))
 
Theoremcjneg 13594 Complex conjugate of negative. (Contributed by NM, 27-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (∗‘-𝐴) = -(∗‘𝐴))
 
Theoremaddcj 13595 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jan-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴)))
 
Theoremcjsub 13596 Complex conjugate distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by NM, 28-Apr-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (∗‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) − (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcjexp 13597 Complex conjugate of positive integer exponentiation. (Contributed by NM, 7-Jun-2006.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (∗‘(𝐴𝑁)) = ((∗‘𝐴)↑𝑁))
 
Theoremimval2 13598 The imaginary part of a number in terms of complex conjugate. (Contributed by NM, 30-Apr-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (ℑ‘𝐴) = ((𝐴 − (∗‘𝐴)) / (2 · i)))
 
Theoremre0 13599 The real part of zero. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
(ℜ‘0) = 0
 
Theoremim0 13600 The imaginary part of zero. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
(ℑ‘0) = 0
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