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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 17001-17100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremissgrpv 17001* The predicate "is a semigroup" for a structure which is a set. (Contributed by AV, 1-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    = (+g𝑀)       (𝑀𝑉 → (𝑀 ∈ SGrp ↔ ∀𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵 ((𝑥 𝑦) ∈ 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥 𝑦) 𝑧) = (𝑥 (𝑦 𝑧)))))

Theoremissgrpn0 17002* The predicate "is a semigroup" for a structure with a nonempty base set. (Contributed by AV, 1-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    = (+g𝑀)       (𝐴𝐵 → (𝑀 ∈ SGrp ↔ ∀𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵 ((𝑥 𝑦) ∈ 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑧𝐵 ((𝑥 𝑦) 𝑧) = (𝑥 (𝑦 𝑧)))))

Theoremisnsgrp 17003 A condition for a structure not to be a semigroup. (Contributed by AV, 30-Jan-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    = (+g𝑀)       ((𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵𝑍𝐵) → (((𝑋 𝑌) 𝑍) ≠ (𝑋 (𝑌 𝑍)) → 𝑀 ∉ SGrp))

Theoremsgrpmgm 17004 A semigroup is a magma. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by AV, 6-Jan-2020.)
(𝑀 ∈ SGrp → 𝑀 ∈ Mgm)

Theoremsgrpass 17005 A semigroup operation is associative. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by AV, 30-Jan-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ SGrp ∧ (𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵𝑍𝐵)) → ((𝑋 𝑌) 𝑍) = (𝑋 (𝑌 𝑍)))

Theoremsgrp0 17006 Any set with an empty base set and any group operation is a semigroup. (Contributed by AV, 28-Aug-2021.)
((𝑀𝑉 ∧ (Base‘𝑀) = ∅) → 𝑀 ∈ SGrp)

Theoremsgrp0b 17007 The structure with an empty base set and any group operation is a semigroup. (Contributed by AV, 28-Aug-2021.)
{⟨(Base‘ndx), ∅⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), 𝑂⟩} ∈ SGrp

Theoremsgrp1 17008 The structure with one element and the only closed internal operation for a singleton is a semigroup. (Contributed by AV, 10-Feb-2020.)
𝑀 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩}       (𝐼𝑉𝑀 ∈ SGrp)

10.1.5  Definition and basic properties of monoids

According to Wikipedia ("Monoid", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid, 6-Feb-2020,) "In abstract algebra [...] a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element. Monoids are semigroups with identity.". In the following, monoids are defined in the second way (as semigroups with identity), see df-mnd 17010, whereas many authors define magmas in the first way (as algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element, i.e. without the need of a definition for/knowledge about semigroups), see ismnd 17012. See, for example, the definition in [Lang] p. 3: "A monoid is a set G, with a law of composition which is associative, and having a unit element".

Syntaxcmnd 17009 Extend class notation with class of all monoids.
class Mnd

Definitiondf-mnd 17010* A monoid is a semigroup, which has a two-sided neutral element. Definition 2 in [BourbakiAlg1] p. 12. In other words (according to the definition in [Lang] p. 3), a monoid is a set equipped with an everywhere defined internal operation (see mndcl 17016), whose operation is associative (see mndass 17017) and has a two-sided neutral element (see mndid 17018), see also ismnd 17012. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2015.) (Revised by AV, 1-Feb-2020.)
Mnd = {𝑔 ∈ SGrp ∣ [(Base‘𝑔) / 𝑏][(+g𝑔) / 𝑝]𝑒𝑏𝑥𝑏 ((𝑒𝑝𝑥) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥𝑝𝑒) = 𝑥)}

Theoremismnddef 17011* The predicate "is a monoid", corresponding 1-to-1 to the definition. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by AV, 1-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd ↔ (𝐺 ∈ SGrp ∧ ∃𝑒𝐵𝑎𝐵 ((𝑒 + 𝑎) = 𝑎 ∧ (𝑎 + 𝑒) = 𝑎)))

Theoremismnd 17012* The predicate "is a monoid". This is the definig theorem of a monoid by showing that a set is a monoid if and only if it is a set equipped with a closed, everywhere defined internal operation (so, a magma, see mndcl 17016), whose operation is associative (so, a semigroup, see also mndass 17017) and has a two-sided neutral element (see mndid 17018). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2015.) (Revised by AV, 1-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd ↔ (∀𝑎𝐵𝑏𝐵 ((𝑎 + 𝑏) ∈ 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑐𝐵 ((𝑎 + 𝑏) + 𝑐) = (𝑎 + (𝑏 + 𝑐))) ∧ ∃𝑒𝐵𝑎𝐵 ((𝑒 + 𝑎) = 𝑎 ∧ (𝑎 + 𝑒) = 𝑎)))

Theoremisnmnd 17013* A condition for a structure not to be a monoid: every element of the base set is not a left identity for at least one element of the base set. (Contributed by AV, 4-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    = (+g𝑀)       (∀𝑧𝐵𝑥𝐵 (𝑧 𝑥) ≠ 𝑥𝑀 ∉ Mnd)

Theoremmndsgrp 17014 A monoid is a semigroup. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by AV, 6-Jan-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 6-Feb-2020.)
(𝐺 ∈ Mnd → 𝐺 ∈ SGrp)

Theoremmndmgm 17015 A monoid is a magma. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by AV, 6-Jan-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 6-Feb-2020.)
(𝑀 ∈ Mnd → 𝑀 ∈ Mgm)

Theoremmndcl 17016 Closure of the operation of a monoid. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-2011.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 8-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵) → (𝑋 + 𝑌) ∈ 𝐵)

Theoremmndass 17017 A monoid operation is associative. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-2011.) (Proof shortened by AV, 8-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ (𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵𝑍𝐵)) → ((𝑋 + 𝑌) + 𝑍) = (𝑋 + (𝑌 + 𝑍)))

Theoremmndid 17018* A monoid has a two-sided identity element. (Contributed by NM, 16-Aug-2011.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → ∃𝑢𝐵𝑥𝐵 ((𝑢 + 𝑥) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥 + 𝑢) = 𝑥))

Theoremmndideu 17019* The two-sided identity element of a monoid is unique. Lemma 2.2.1(a) of [Herstein] p. 55. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Dec-2014.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → ∃!𝑢𝐵𝑥𝐵 ((𝑢 + 𝑥) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥 + 𝑢) = 𝑥))

Theoremmnd32g 17020 Commutative/associative law for monoids, with an explicit commutativity hypothesis. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2016.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 + 𝑍) = (𝑍 + 𝑌))       (𝜑 → ((𝑋 + 𝑌) + 𝑍) = ((𝑋 + 𝑍) + 𝑌))

Theoremmnd12g 17021 Commutative/associative law for monoids, with an explicit commutativity hypothesis. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2016.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + 𝑌) = (𝑌 + 𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝑌 + 𝑍)) = (𝑌 + (𝑋 + 𝑍)))

Theoremmnd4g 17022 Commutative/associative law for commutative monoids, with an explicit commutativity hypothesis. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2016.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑊𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 + 𝑍) = (𝑍 + 𝑌))       (𝜑 → ((𝑋 + 𝑌) + (𝑍 + 𝑊)) = ((𝑋 + 𝑍) + (𝑌 + 𝑊)))

Theoremmndidcl 17023 The identity element of a monoid belongs to the monoid. (Contributed by NM, 27-Aug-2011.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 27-Dec-2014.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → 0𝐵)

Theoremmndplusf 17024 The group addition operation is a function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Aug-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (+𝑓𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → :(𝐵 × 𝐵)⟶𝐵)

Theoremmndlrid 17025 A monoid's identity element is a two-sided identity. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2011.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → (( 0 + 𝑋) = 𝑋 ∧ (𝑋 + 0 ) = 𝑋))

Theoremmndlid 17026 The identity element of a monoid is a left identity. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2011.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → ( 0 + 𝑋) = 𝑋)

Theoremmndrid 17027 The identity element of a monoid is a right identity. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-2011.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → (𝑋 + 0 ) = 𝑋)

Theoremismndd 17028* Deduce a monoid from its properties. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺))    &   (𝜑+ = (+g𝐺))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵𝑧𝐵)) → ((𝑥 + 𝑦) + 𝑧) = (𝑥 + (𝑦 + 𝑧)))    &   (𝜑0𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐵) → ( 0 + 𝑥) = 𝑥)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐵) → (𝑥 + 0 ) = 𝑥)       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremmndpfo 17029 The addition operation of a monoid as a function is an onto function. (Contributed by FL, 2-Nov-2009.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Oct-2013.) (Revised by AV, 23-Jan-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (+𝑓𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → :(𝐵 × 𝐵)–onto𝐵)

Theoremmndfo 17030 The addition operation of a monoid is an onto function (assuming it is a function). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Oct-2013.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Jan-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ + Fn (𝐵 × 𝐵)) → + :(𝐵 × 𝐵)–onto𝐵)

Theoremmndpropd 17031* If two structures have the same base set, and the values of their group (addition) operations are equal for all pairs of elements of the base set, one is a monoid iff the other one is. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jan-2015.)
(𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐾))    &   (𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐿))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵)) → (𝑥(+g𝐾)𝑦) = (𝑥(+g𝐿)𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝐾 ∈ Mnd ↔ 𝐿 ∈ Mnd))

Theoremmndprop 17032 If two structures have the same group components (properties), one is a monoid iff the other one is. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Oct-2013.)
(Base‘𝐾) = (Base‘𝐿)    &   (+g𝐾) = (+g𝐿)       (𝐾 ∈ Mnd ↔ 𝐿 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremissubmnd 17033* Characterize a submonoid by closure properties. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐻 = (𝐺s 𝑆)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑆𝐵0𝑆) → (𝐻 ∈ Mnd ↔ ∀𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆 (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆))

Theoremress0g 17034 0g is unaffected by restriction. This is a bit more generic than submnd0 17035. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Oct-2017.)
𝑆 = (𝑅s 𝐴)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 0𝐴𝐴𝐵) → 0 = (0g𝑆))

Theoremsubmnd0 17035 The zero of a submonoid is the same as the zero in the parent monoid. (Note that we must add the condition that the zero of the parent monoid is actually contained in the submonoid, because it is possible to have "subsets that are monoids" which are not submonoids because they have a different identity element.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)    &   𝐻 = (𝐺s 𝑆)       (((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐻 ∈ Mnd) ∧ (𝑆𝐵0𝑆)) → 0 = (0g𝐻))

Theoremprdsplusgcl 17036 Structure product pointwise sums are closed when the factors are monoids. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑆Xs𝑅)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑌)    &    + = (+g𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑅:𝐼⟶Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 + 𝐺) ∈ 𝐵)

Theoremprdsidlem 17037* Characterization of identity in a structure product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑆Xs𝑅)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑌)    &    + = (+g𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑅:𝐼⟶Mnd)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       (𝜑 → ( 0𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐵 (( 0 + 𝑥) = 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥 + 0 ) = 𝑥)))

Theoremprdsmndd 17038 The product of a family of monoids is a monoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑆Xs𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑅:𝐼⟶Mnd)       (𝜑𝑌 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremprds0g 17039 Zero in a product of monoids. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 10-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑆Xs𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑅:𝐼⟶Mnd)       (𝜑 → (0g𝑅) = (0g𝑌))

Theorempwsmnd 17040 The structure power of a monoid is a monoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐼)       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐼𝑉) → 𝑌 ∈ Mnd)

Theorempws0g 17041 Zero in a product of monoids. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Jan-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐼)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐼𝑉) → (𝐼 × { 0 }) = (0g𝑌))

Theoremimasmnd2 17042* The image structure of a monoid is a monoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑈 = (𝐹s 𝑅))    &   (𝜑𝑉 = (Base‘𝑅))    &    + = (+g𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑉onto𝐵)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉) ∧ (𝑝𝑉𝑞𝑉)) → (((𝐹𝑎) = (𝐹𝑝) ∧ (𝐹𝑏) = (𝐹𝑞)) → (𝐹‘(𝑎 + 𝑏)) = (𝐹‘(𝑝 + 𝑞))))    &   (𝜑𝑅𝑊)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑉𝑦𝑉) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑉)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑉𝑦𝑉𝑧𝑉)) → (𝐹‘((𝑥 + 𝑦) + 𝑧)) = (𝐹‘(𝑥 + (𝑦 + 𝑧))))    &   (𝜑0𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑉) → (𝐹‘( 0 + 𝑥)) = (𝐹𝑥))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑉) → (𝐹‘(𝑥 + 0 )) = (𝐹𝑥))       (𝜑 → (𝑈 ∈ Mnd ∧ (𝐹0 ) = (0g𝑈)))

Theoremimasmnd 17043* The image structure of a monoid is a monoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑈 = (𝐹s 𝑅))    &   (𝜑𝑉 = (Base‘𝑅))    &    + = (+g𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑉onto𝐵)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉) ∧ (𝑝𝑉𝑞𝑉)) → (((𝐹𝑎) = (𝐹𝑝) ∧ (𝐹𝑏) = (𝐹𝑞)) → (𝐹‘(𝑎 + 𝑏)) = (𝐹‘(𝑝 + 𝑞))))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ Mnd)    &    0 = (0g𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝑈 ∈ Mnd ∧ (𝐹0 ) = (0g𝑈)))

Theoremimasmndf1 17044 The image of a monoid under an injection is a monoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
𝑈 = (𝐹s 𝑅)    &   𝑉 = (Base‘𝑅)       ((𝐹:𝑉1-1𝐵𝑅 ∈ Mnd) → 𝑈 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremxpsmnd 17045 The binary product of monoids is a monoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Aug-2015.)
𝑇 = (𝑅 ×s 𝑆)       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑆 ∈ Mnd) → 𝑇 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremmnd1 17046 The (smallest) structure representing a trivial monoid consists of one element. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by AV, 11-Feb-2020.)
𝑀 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩}       (𝐼𝑉𝑀 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremmnd1id 17047 The singleton element of a trivial monoid is its identity element. (Contributed by AV, 23-Jan-2020.)
𝑀 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), {𝐼}⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), {⟨⟨𝐼, 𝐼⟩, 𝐼⟩}⟩}       (𝐼𝑉 → (0g𝑀) = 𝐼)

10.1.6  Monoid homomorphisms and submonoids

Syntaxcmhm 17048 Hom-set generator class for monoids.
class MndHom

Syntaxcsubmnd 17049 Class function taking a monoid to its lattice of submonoids.
class SubMnd

Definitiondf-mhm 17050* A monoid homomorphism is a function on the base sets which preserves the binary operation and the identity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
MndHom = (𝑠 ∈ Mnd, 𝑡 ∈ Mnd ↦ {𝑓 ∈ ((Base‘𝑡) ↑𝑚 (Base‘𝑠)) ∣ (∀𝑥 ∈ (Base‘𝑠)∀𝑦 ∈ (Base‘𝑠)(𝑓‘(𝑥(+g𝑠)𝑦)) = ((𝑓𝑥)(+g𝑡)(𝑓𝑦)) ∧ (𝑓‘(0g𝑠)) = (0g𝑡))})

Definitiondf-submnd 17051* A submonoid is a subset of a monoid which contains the identity and is closed under the operation. Such subsets are themselves monoids with the same identity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
SubMnd = (𝑠 ∈ Mnd ↦ {𝑡 ∈ 𝒫 (Base‘𝑠) ∣ ((0g𝑠) ∈ 𝑡 ∧ ∀𝑥𝑡𝑦𝑡 (𝑥(+g𝑠)𝑦) ∈ 𝑡)})

Theoremismhm 17052* Property of a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑆)    &   𝐶 = (Base‘𝑇)    &    + = (+g𝑆)    &    = (+g𝑇)    &    0 = (0g𝑆)    &   𝑌 = (0g𝑇)       (𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) ↔ ((𝑆 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑇 ∈ Mnd) ∧ (𝐹:𝐵𝐶 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵 (𝐹‘(𝑥 + 𝑦)) = ((𝐹𝑥) (𝐹𝑦)) ∧ (𝐹0 ) = 𝑌)))

Theoremmhmrcl1 17053 Reverse closure of a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
(𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) → 𝑆 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremmhmrcl2 17054 Reverse closure of a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
(𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) → 𝑇 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremmhmf 17055 A monoid homomorphism is a function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑆)    &   𝐶 = (Base‘𝑇)       (𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) → 𝐹:𝐵𝐶)

Theoremmhmpropd 17056* Monoid homomorphism depends only on the monoidal attributes of structures. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2015.)
(𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐶 = (Base‘𝐾))    &   (𝜑𝐵 = (Base‘𝐿))    &   (𝜑𝐶 = (Base‘𝑀))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵)) → (𝑥(+g𝐽)𝑦) = (𝑥(+g𝐿)𝑦))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝐶𝑦𝐶)) → (𝑥(+g𝐾)𝑦) = (𝑥(+g𝑀)𝑦))       (𝜑 → (𝐽 MndHom 𝐾) = (𝐿 MndHom 𝑀))

Theoremmhmlin 17057 A monoid homomorphism commutes with composition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑆)    &    + = (+g𝑆)    &    = (+g𝑇)       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) ∧ 𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐵) → (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑌)) = ((𝐹𝑋) (𝐹𝑌)))

Theoremmhm0 17058 A monoid homomorphism preserves zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
0 = (0g𝑆)    &   𝑌 = (0g𝑇)       (𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) → (𝐹0 ) = 𝑌)

Theoremidmhm 17059 The identity homomorphism on a monoid. (Contributed by AV, 14-Feb-2020.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       (𝑀 ∈ Mnd → ( I ↾ 𝐵) ∈ (𝑀 MndHom 𝑀))

Theoremmhmf1o 17060 A monoid homomorphism is bijective iff its converse is also a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by AV, 22-Oct-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝐶 = (Base‘𝑆)       (𝐹 ∈ (𝑅 MndHom 𝑆) → (𝐹:𝐵1-1-onto𝐶𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑅)))

Theoremsubmrcl 17061 Reverse closure for submonoids. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
(𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 𝑀 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremissubm 17062* Expand definition of a submonoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    0 = (0g𝑀)    &    + = (+g𝑀)       (𝑀 ∈ Mnd → (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) ↔ (𝑆𝐵0𝑆 ∧ ∀𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆 (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆)))

Theoremissubm2 17063 Submonoids are subsets that are also monoids with the same zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    0 = (0g𝑀)    &   𝐻 = (𝑀s 𝑆)       (𝑀 ∈ Mnd → (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) ↔ (𝑆𝐵0𝑆𝐻 ∈ Mnd)))

Theoremissubmd 17064* Deduction for proving a submonoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 23-Aug-2015.) (Revised by Stefan O'Rear, 5-Sep-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &    + = (+g𝑀)    &    0 = (0g𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝜒)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ ((𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵) ∧ (𝜃𝜏))) → 𝜂)    &   (𝑧 = 0 → (𝜓𝜒))    &   (𝑧 = 𝑥 → (𝜓𝜃))    &   (𝑧 = 𝑦 → (𝜓𝜏))    &   (𝑧 = (𝑥 + 𝑦) → (𝜓𝜂))       (𝜑 → {𝑧𝐵𝜓} ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀))

Theoremsubmss 17065 Submonoids are subsets of the base set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 𝑆𝐵)

Theoremsubmid 17066 Every monoid is trivially a submonoid of itself. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 15-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       (𝑀 ∈ Mnd → 𝐵 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀))

Theoremsubm0cl 17067 Submonoids contain zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
0 = (0g𝑀)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 0𝑆)

Theoremsubmcl 17068 Submonoids are closed under the monoid operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
+ = (+g𝑀)       ((𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) ∧ 𝑋𝑆𝑌𝑆) → (𝑋 + 𝑌) ∈ 𝑆)

Theoremsubmmnd 17069 Submonoids are themselves monoids under the given operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐻 = (𝑀s 𝑆)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 𝐻 ∈ Mnd)

Theoremsubmbas 17070 The base set of a submonoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 15-Jun-2015.)
𝐻 = (𝑀s 𝑆)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 𝑆 = (Base‘𝐻))

Theoremsubm0 17071 Submonoids have the same identity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Mar-2015.)
𝐻 = (𝑀s 𝑆)    &    0 = (0g𝑀)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀) → 0 = (0g𝐻))

Theoremsubsubm 17072 A submonoid of a submonoid is a submonoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
𝐻 = (𝐺s 𝑆)       (𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝐺) → (𝐴 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝐻) ↔ (𝐴 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝐺) ∧ 𝐴𝑆)))

Theorem0mhm 17073 The constant zero linear function between two monoids. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 5-Sep-2015.)
0 = (0g𝑁)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑁 ∈ Mnd) → (𝐵 × { 0 }) ∈ (𝑀 MndHom 𝑁))

Theoremresmhm 17074 Restriction of a monoid homomorphism to a submonoid is a homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.)
𝑈 = (𝑆s 𝑋)       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑆)) → (𝐹𝑋) ∈ (𝑈 MndHom 𝑇))

Theoremresmhm2 17075 One direction of resmhm2b 17076. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jun-2015.)
𝑈 = (𝑇s 𝑋)       ((𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑈) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑇)) → 𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇))

Theoremresmhm2b 17076 Restriction of the codomain of a homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Jun-2015.)
𝑈 = (𝑇s 𝑋)       ((𝑋 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑇) ∧ ran 𝐹𝑋) → (𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) ↔ 𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑈)))

Theoremmhmco 17077 The composition of monoid homomorphisms is a homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Jun-2015.)
((𝐹 ∈ (𝑇 MndHom 𝑈) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇)) → (𝐹𝐺) ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑈))

Theoremmhmima 17078 The homomorphic image of a submonoid is a submonoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Mar-2015.)
((𝐹 ∈ (𝑀 MndHom 𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑀)) → (𝐹𝑋) ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑁))

Theoremmhmeql 17079 The equalizer of two monoid homomorphisms is a submonoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 7-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-May-2015.)
((𝐹 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝑆 MndHom 𝑇)) → dom (𝐹𝐺) ∈ (SubMnd‘𝑆))

Theoremsubmacs 17080 Submonoids are an algebraic closure system. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 22-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → (SubMnd‘𝐺) ∈ (ACS‘𝐵))

Theoremmrcmndind 17081* (( From SO's determinants branch )). TODO: Appropriate description to be added! (Contributed by SO, 14-Jul-2018.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜓𝜒))    &   (𝑥 = (𝑦 + 𝑧) → (𝜓𝜃))    &   (𝑥 = 0 → (𝜓𝜏))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜓𝜂))    &    0 = (0g𝑀)    &    + = (+g𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 = ((mrCls‘(SubMnd‘𝑀))‘𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝜏)    &   (((𝜑𝑦𝐵𝑧𝐺) ∧ 𝜒) → 𝜃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑𝜂)

Theoremprdspjmhm 17082* A projection from a product of monoids to one of the factors is a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-May-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑆Xs𝑅)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑅:𝐼⟶Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐼)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐵 ↦ (𝑥𝐴)) ∈ (𝑌 MndHom (𝑅𝐴)))

Theorempwspjmhm 17083* A projection from a product of monoids to one of the factors is a monoid homomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jun-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑌)       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐼𝑉𝐴𝐼) → (𝑥𝐵 ↦ (𝑥𝐴)) ∈ (𝑌 MndHom 𝑅))

Theorempwsdiagmhm 17084* Diagonal monoid homomorphism into a structure power. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 12-Mar-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐼)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑅)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥𝐵 ↦ (𝐼 × {𝑥}))       ((𝑅 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐼𝑊) → 𝐹 ∈ (𝑅 MndHom 𝑌))

Theorempwsco1mhm 17085* Right composition with a function on the index sets yields a monoid homomorphism of structure powers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Jun-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐴)    &   𝑍 = (𝑅s 𝐵)    &   𝐶 = (Base‘𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝑔𝐶 ↦ (𝑔𝐹)) ∈ (𝑍 MndHom 𝑌))

Theorempwsco2mhm 17086* Left composition with a monoid homomorphism yields a monoid homomorphism of structure powers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Jun-2015.)
𝑌 = (𝑅s 𝐴)    &   𝑍 = (𝑆s 𝐴)    &   𝐵 = (Base‘𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑅 MndHom 𝑆))       (𝜑 → (𝑔𝐵 ↦ (𝐹𝑔)) ∈ (𝑌 MndHom 𝑍))

10.1.7  Ordered sums in a monoid

One important use of words is as formal composites in cases where order is significant, using the general sum operator df-gsum 15810. If order is not significant, it is simpler to use families instead.

Theoremgsumvallem2 17087* Lemma for properties of the set of identities of 𝐺. The set of identities of a monoid is exactly the unique identity element. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Dec-2014.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    0 = (0g𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)    &   𝑂 = {𝑥𝐵 ∣ ∀𝑦𝐵 ((𝑥 + 𝑦) = 𝑦 ∧ (𝑦 + 𝑥) = 𝑦)}       (𝐺 ∈ Mnd → 𝑂 = { 0 })

Theoremgsumsubm 17088 Evaluate a group sum in a submonoid. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Dec-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴𝑆)    &   𝐻 = (𝐺s 𝑆)       (𝜑 → (𝐺 Σg 𝐹) = (𝐻 Σg 𝐹))

Theoremgsumz 17089* Value of a group sum over the zero element. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Dec-2014.)
0 = (0g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → (𝐺 Σg (𝑘𝐴0 )) = 0 )

Theoremgsumwsubmcl 17090 Closure of the composite in any submonoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 15-Aug-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Oct-2015.)
((𝑆 ∈ (SubMnd‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑆) → (𝐺 Σg 𝑊) ∈ 𝑆)

Theoremgsumws1 17091 A singleton composite recovers the initial symbol. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 16-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)       (𝑆𝐵 → (𝐺 Σg ⟨“𝑆”⟩) = 𝑆)

Theoremgsumwcl 17092 Closure of the composite of a word in a structure 𝐺. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 15-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝐵) → (𝐺 Σg 𝑊) ∈ 𝐵)

Theoremgsumccat 17093 Homomorphic property of composites. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 16-Aug-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Oct-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝐵𝑋 ∈ Word 𝐵) → (𝐺 Σg (𝑊 ++ 𝑋)) = ((𝐺 Σg 𝑊) + (𝐺 Σg 𝑋)))

Theoremgsumws2 17094 Valuation of a pair in a monoid. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 23-Aug-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 27-Feb-2016.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑆𝐵𝑇𝐵) → (𝐺 Σg ⟨“𝑆𝑇”⟩) = (𝑆 + 𝑇))

Theoremgsumccatsn 17095 Homomorphic property of composites with a singleton. (Contributed by AV, 20-Jan-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    + = (+g𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝐵𝑍𝐵) → (𝐺 Σg (𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑍”⟩)) = ((𝐺 Σg 𝑊) + 𝑍))

Theoremgsumspl 17096 The primary purpose of the splice construction is to enable local rewrites. Thus, in any monoidal valuation, if a splice does not cause a local change it does not cause a global change. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 23-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ Mnd)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ Word 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (0...𝑇))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ (0...(#‘𝑆)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ Word 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ Word 𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀 Σg 𝑋) = (𝑀 Σg 𝑌))       (𝜑 → (𝑀 Σg (𝑆 splice ⟨𝐹, 𝑇, 𝑋⟩)) = (𝑀 Σg (𝑆 splice ⟨𝐹, 𝑇, 𝑌⟩)))

Theoremgsumwmhm 17097 Behavior of homomorphisms on finite monoidal sums. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 27-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)       ((𝐻 ∈ (𝑀 MndHom 𝑁) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝐵) → (𝐻‘(𝑀 Σg 𝑊)) = (𝑁 Σg (𝐻𝑊)))

Theoremgsumwspan 17098* The submonoid generated by a set of elements is precisely the set of elements which can be expressed as finite products of the generator. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 22-Aug-2015.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝑀)    &   𝐾 = (mrCls‘(SubMnd‘𝑀))       ((𝑀 ∈ Mnd ∧ 𝐺𝐵) → (𝐾𝐺) = ran (𝑤 ∈ Word 𝐺 ↦ (𝑀 Σg 𝑤)))

10.1.8  Free monoids

Syntaxcfrmd 17099 Extend class definition with the free monoid construction.
class freeMnd

Syntaxcvrmd 17100 Extend class notation with free monoid injection.
class varFMnd

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268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 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