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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 23401-23500   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremdvmptid 23401* Function-builder for derivative: derivative of the identity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑆𝑥)) = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ 1))

Theoremdvmptc 23402* Function-builder for derivative: derivative of a constant. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ 0))

Theoremdvmptcl 23403* Closure lemma for dvmptcmul 23408 and other related theorems. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)

Theoremdvmptadd 23404* Function-builder for derivative, addition rule. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐶)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 + 𝐶))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐵 + 𝐷)))

Theoremdvmptmul 23405* Function-builder for derivative, product rule. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐶)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 · 𝐶))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ ((𝐵 · 𝐶) + (𝐷 · 𝐴))))

Theoremdvmptres2 23406* Function-builder for derivative: restrict a derivative to a subset. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑋)    &   𝐽 = (𝐾t 𝑆)    &   𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑 → ((int‘𝐽)‘𝑍) = 𝑌)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑍𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑌𝐵))

Theoremdvmptres 23407* Function-builder for derivative: restrict a derivative to an open subset. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑋)    &   𝐽 = (𝐾t 𝑆)    &   𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐽)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑌𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑌𝐵))

Theoremdvmptcmul 23408* Function-builder for derivative, product rule for constant multiplier. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐶 · 𝐴))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐶 · 𝐵)))

Theoremdvmptdivc 23409* Function-builder for derivative, division rule for constant divisor. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 / 𝐶))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐵 / 𝐶)))

Theoremdvmptneg 23410* Function-builder for derivative, product rule for negatives. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ -𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ -𝐵))

Theoremdvmptsub 23411* Function-builder for derivative, subtraction rule. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐶)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴𝐶))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐵𝐷)))

Theoremdvmptcj 23412* Function-builder for derivative, conjugate rule. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (∗‘𝐴))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (∗‘𝐵)))

Theoremdvmptre 23413* Function-builder for derivative, real part. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (ℜ‘𝐴))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (ℜ‘𝐵)))

Theoremdvmptim 23414* Function-builder for derivative, imaginary part. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (ℑ‘𝐴))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (ℑ‘𝐵)))

Theoremdvmptntr 23415* Function-builder for derivative: expand the function from an open set to its closure. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐽 = (𝐾t 𝑆)    &   𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑 → ((int‘𝐽)‘𝑋) = 𝑌)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑌𝐴)))

Theoremdvmptco 23416* Function-builder for derivative, chain rule. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴𝑌)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑦𝑌) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑦𝑌) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇 D (𝑦𝑌𝐶)) = (𝑦𝑌𝐷))    &   (𝑦 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑦 = 𝐴𝐷 = 𝐹)       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐸)) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐹 · 𝐵)))

Theoremdvmptfsum 23417* Function-builder for derivative, finite sums rule. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 12-Nov-2014.)
𝐽 = (𝐾t 𝑆)    &   𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑖𝐼𝑥𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖𝐼𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖𝐼) → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ Σ𝑖𝐼 𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ Σ𝑖𝐼 𝐵))

Theoremdvcnvlem 23418 Lemma for dvcnvre 23461. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-Feb-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2015.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋1-1-onto𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑌cn𝑋))    &   (𝜑 → dom (𝑆 D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (𝑆 D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶)(𝑆 D 𝐹)(1 / ((𝑆 D 𝐹)‘𝐶)))

Theoremdvcnv 23419* A weak version of dvcnvre 23461, valid for both real and complex domains but under the hypothesis that the inverse function is already known to be continuous, and the image set is known to be open. A more advanced proof can show that these conditions are unnecessary. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-Feb-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2015.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋1-1-onto𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑌cn𝑋))    &   (𝜑 → dom (𝑆 D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (𝑆 D 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D 𝐹) = (𝑥𝑌 ↦ (1 / ((𝑆 D 𝐹)‘(𝐹𝑥)))))

Theoremdvexp3 23420* Derivative of an exponential of integer exponent. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Feb-2015.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℤ → (ℂ D (𝑥 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}) ↦ (𝑥𝑁))) = (𝑥 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}) ↦ (𝑁 · (𝑥↑(𝑁 − 1)))))

Theoremdveflem 23421 Derivative of the exponential function at 0. The key step in the proof is eftlub 14547, to show that abs(exp(𝑥) − 1 − 𝑥) ≤ abs(𝑥)↑2 · (3 / 4). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Aug-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Dec-2016.)
0(ℂ D exp)1

Theoremdvef 23422 Derivative of the exponential function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Aug-2014.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 10-Feb-2015.)
(ℂ D exp) = exp

Theoremdvsincos 23423 Derivative of the sine and cosine functions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2016.)
((ℂ D sin) = cos ∧ (ℂ D cos) = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ -(sin‘𝑥)))

Theoremdvsin 23424 Derivative of the sine function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2016.)
(ℂ D sin) = cos

Theoremdvcos 23425 Derivative of the cosine function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2016.)
(ℂ D cos) = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ -(sin‘𝑥))

13.3.1.2  Results on real differentiation

Theoremdvferm1lem 23426* Lemma for dvferm 23430. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝑈(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))    &   (𝜑 → 0 < ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝑈})((𝑧𝑈 ∧ (abs‘(𝑧𝑈)) < 𝑇) → (abs‘((((𝐹𝑧) − (𝐹𝑈)) / (𝑧𝑈)) − ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈))) < ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈)))    &   𝑆 = ((𝑈 + if(𝐵 ≤ (𝑈 + 𝑇), 𝐵, (𝑈 + 𝑇))) / 2)        ¬ 𝜑

Theoremdvferm1 23427* One-sided version of dvferm 23430. A point 𝑈 which is the local maximum of its right neighborhood has derivative at most zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 28-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝑈(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))       (𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈) ≤ 0)

Theoremdvferm2lem 23428* Lemma for dvferm 23430. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝑈)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))    &   (𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈) < 0)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝑈})((𝑧𝑈 ∧ (abs‘(𝑧𝑈)) < 𝑇) → (abs‘((((𝐹𝑧) − (𝐹𝑈)) / (𝑧𝑈)) − ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈))) < -((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈)))    &   𝑆 = ((if(𝐴 ≤ (𝑈𝑇), (𝑈𝑇), 𝐴) + 𝑈) / 2)        ¬ 𝜑

Theoremdvferm2 23429* One-sided version of dvferm 23430. A point 𝑈 which is the local maximum of its left neighborhood has derivative at least zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 28-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝑈)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈))

Theoremdvferm 23430* Fermat's theorem on stationary points. A point 𝑈 which is a local maximum has derivative equal to zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))       (𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑈) = 0)

Theoremrollelem 23431* Lemma for rolle 23432. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝐹𝑦) ≤ (𝐹𝑈))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝑈 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵})       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥) = 0)

Theoremrolle 23432* Rolle's theorem. If 𝐹 is a real continuous function on [𝐴, 𝐵] which is differentiable on (𝐴, 𝐵), and 𝐹(𝐴) = 𝐹(𝐵), then there is some 𝑥 ∈ (𝐴, 𝐵) such that (ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥 = 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴) = (𝐹𝐵))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥) = 0)

Theoremcmvth 23433* Cauchy's Mean Value Theorem. If 𝐹, 𝐺 are real continuous functions on [𝐴, 𝐵] differentiable on (𝐴, 𝐵), then there is some 𝑥 ∈ (𝐴, 𝐵) such that 𝐹' (𝑥) / 𝐺' (𝑥) = (𝐹(𝐴) − 𝐹(𝐵)) / (𝐺(𝐴) − 𝐺(𝐵)). (We express the condition without division, so that we need no nonzero constraints.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐺) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)(((𝐹𝐵) − (𝐹𝐴)) · ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑥)) = (((𝐺𝐵) − (𝐺𝐴)) · ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥)))

Theoremmvth 23434* The Mean Value Theorem. If 𝐹 is a real continuous function on [𝐴, 𝐵] which is differentiable on (𝐴, 𝐵), then there is some 𝑥 ∈ (𝐴, 𝐵) such that (ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥 is equal to the average slope over [𝐴, 𝐵]. This is Metamath 100 proof #75. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 29-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥) = (((𝐹𝐵) − (𝐹𝐴)) / (𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremdvlip 23435* A function with derivative bounded by 𝑀 is Lipschitz continuous with Lipschitz constant equal to 𝑀. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Mar-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) → (abs‘((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥)) ≤ 𝑀)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ∧ 𝑌 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))) → (abs‘((𝐹𝑋) − (𝐹𝑌))) ≤ (𝑀 · (abs‘(𝑋𝑌))))

Theoremdvlipcn 23436* A complex function with derivative bounded by 𝑀 on an open ball is Lipschitz continuous with Lipschitz constant equal to 𝑀. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Mar-2015.)
(𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ*)    &   𝐵 = (𝐴(ball‘(abs ∘ − ))𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ dom (ℂ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐵) → (abs‘((ℂ D 𝐹)‘𝑥)) ≤ 𝑀)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑌𝐵𝑍𝐵)) → (abs‘((𝐹𝑌) − (𝐹𝑍))) ≤ (𝑀 · (abs‘(𝑌𝑍))))

Theoremdvlip2 23437* Combine the results of dvlip 23435 and dvlipcn 23436 into one. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2015.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   𝐽 = ((abs ∘ − ) ↾ (𝑆 × 𝑆))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ*)    &   𝐵 = (𝐴(ball‘𝐽)𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ dom (𝑆 D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐵) → (abs‘((𝑆 D 𝐹)‘𝑥)) ≤ 𝑀)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑌𝐵𝑍𝐵)) → (abs‘((𝐹𝑌) − (𝐹𝑍))) ≤ (𝑀 · (abs‘(𝑌𝑍))))

Theoremc1liplem1 23438* Lemma for c1lip1 23439. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 15-Nov-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝐹) ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   𝐾 = sup((abs “ ((ℝ D 𝐹) “ (𝐴[,]𝐵))), ℝ, < )       (𝜑 → (𝐾 ∈ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)(𝑥 < 𝑦 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥))) ≤ (𝐾 · (abs‘(𝑦𝑥))))))

Theoremc1lip1 23439* C1 functions are Lipschitz continuous on closed intervals. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝐹) ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)(abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥))) ≤ (𝑘 · (abs‘(𝑦𝑥))))

Theoremc1lip2 23440* C1 functions are Lipschitz continuous on closed intervals. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 16-Nov-2014.) (Revised by Stefan O'Rear, 6-May-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((Cn‘ℝ)‘1))    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝐹 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴[,]𝐵) ⊆ dom 𝐹)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)(abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥))) ≤ (𝑘 · (abs‘(𝑦𝑥))))

Theoremc1lip3 23441* C1 functions are Lipschitz continuous on closed intervals. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 16-Nov-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ ℝ) ∈ ((Cn‘ℝ)‘1))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 “ ℝ) ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴[,]𝐵) ⊆ dom 𝐹)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)(abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥))) ≤ (𝑘 · (abs‘(𝑦𝑥))))

Theoremdveq0 23442 If a continuous function has zero derivative at all points on the interior of a closed interval, then it must be a constant function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Sep-2014.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 3-Mar-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) = ((𝐴(,)𝐵) × {0}))       (𝜑𝐹 = ((𝐴[,]𝐵) × {(𝐹𝐴)}))

Theoremdv11cn 23443 Two functions defined on a ball whose derivatives are the same and which are equal at any given point 𝐶 in the ball must be equal everywhere. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Mar-2015.)
𝑋 = (𝐴(ball‘(abs ∘ − ))𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℂ D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → (ℂ D 𝐹) = (ℂ D 𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) = (𝐺𝐶))       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐺)

Theoremdvgt0lem1 23444 Lemma for dvgt0 23446 and dvlt0 23447. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶𝑆)       (((𝜑 ∧ (𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ∧ 𝑌 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))) ∧ 𝑋 < 𝑌) → (((𝐹𝑌) − (𝐹𝑋)) / (𝑌𝑋)) ∈ 𝑆)

Theoremdvgt0lem2 23445* Lemma for dvgt0 23446 and dvlt0 23447. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶𝑆)    &   𝑂 Or ℝ    &   (((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ∧ 𝑦 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))) ∧ 𝑥 < 𝑦) → (𝐹𝑥)𝑂(𝐹𝑦))       (𝜑𝐹 Isom < , 𝑂 ((𝐴[,]𝐵), ran 𝐹))

Theoremdvgt0 23446 A function on a closed interval with positive derivative is increasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ+)       (𝜑𝐹 Isom < , < ((𝐴[,]𝐵), ran 𝐹))

Theoremdvlt0 23447 A function on a closed interval with negative derivative is decreasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶(-∞(,)0))       (𝜑𝐹 Isom < , < ((𝐴[,]𝐵), ran 𝐹))

Theoremdvge0 23448 A function on a closed interval with nonnegative derivative is weakly increasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶(0[,)+∞))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑋) ≤ (𝐹𝑌))

Theoremdvle 23449* If 𝐴(𝑥), 𝐶(𝑥) are differentiable functions and 𝐴‘ ≤ 𝐶, then for 𝑥𝑦, 𝐴(𝑦) − 𝐴(𝑥) ≤ 𝐶(𝑦) − 𝐶(𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑀[,]𝑁)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ ((𝑀[,]𝑁)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐶)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐷))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁)) → 𝐵𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝑃)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐶 = 𝑄)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐴 = 𝑅)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐶 = 𝑆)       (𝜑 → (𝑅𝑃) ≤ (𝑆𝑄))

Theoremdvivthlem1 23450* Lemma for dvivth 23452. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑀 < 𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑁)[,]((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑀)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐶 · 𝑦)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁)((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑥) = 𝐶)

Theoremdvivthlem2 23451* Lemma for dvivth 23452. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑀 < 𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑁)[,]((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑀)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐶 · 𝑦)))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))

Theoremdvivth 23452 Darboux' theorem, or the intermediate value theorem for derivatives. A differentiable function's derivative satisfies the intermediate value property, even though it may not be continuous (so that ivthicc 22909 does not directly apply). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑀)[,]((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑁)) ⊆ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))

Theoremdvne0 23453 A function on a closed interval with nonzero derivative is either monotone increasing or monotone decreasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝐹 Isom < , < ((𝐴[,]𝐵), ran 𝐹) ∨ 𝐹 Isom < , < ((𝐴[,]𝐵), ran 𝐹)))

Theoremdvne0f1 23454 A function on a closed interval with nonzero derivative is one-to-one. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))       (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴[,]𝐵)–1-1→ℝ)

Theoremlhop1lem 23455* Lemma for lhop1 23456. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐺) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑧) / ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑧))) lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐷))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐷)(abs‘((((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑡) / ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑡)) − 𝐶)) < 𝐸)    &   𝑅 = (𝐴 + (𝑟 / 2))       (𝜑 → (abs‘(((𝐹𝑋) / (𝐺𝑋)) − 𝐶)) < (2 · 𝐸))

Theoremlhop1 23456* L'Hôpital's Rule for limits from the right. If 𝐹 and 𝐺 are differentiable real functions on (𝐴, 𝐵), and 𝐹 and 𝐺 both approach 0 at 𝐴, and 𝐺(𝑥) and 𝐺' (𝑥) are not zero on (𝐴, 𝐵), and the limit of 𝐹' (𝑥) / 𝐺' (𝑥) at 𝐴 is 𝐶, then the limit 𝐹(𝑥) / 𝐺(𝑥) at 𝐴 also exists and equals 𝐶. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐺) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑧) / ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑧))) lim 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((𝐹𝑧) / (𝐺𝑧))) lim 𝐴))

Theoremlhop2 23457* L'Hôpital's Rule for limits from the left. If 𝐹 and 𝐺 are differentiable real functions on (𝐴, 𝐵), and 𝐹 and 𝐺 both approach 0 at 𝐵, and 𝐺(𝑥) and 𝐺' (𝑥) are not zero on (𝐴, 𝐵), and the limit of 𝐹' (𝑥) / 𝐺' (𝑥) at 𝐵 is 𝐶, then the limit 𝐹(𝑥) / 𝐺(𝑥) at 𝐵 also exists and equals 𝐶. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐺) = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑧) / ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑧))) lim 𝐵))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((𝐹𝑧) / (𝐺𝑧))) lim 𝐵))

Theoremlhop 23458* L'Hôpital's Rule. If 𝐼 is an open set of the reals, 𝐹 and 𝐺 are real functions on 𝐴 containing all of 𝐼 except possibly 𝐵, which are differentiable everywhere on 𝐼 ∖ {𝐵}, 𝐹 and 𝐺 both approach 0, and the limit of 𝐹' (𝑥) / 𝐺' (𝑥) at 𝐵 is 𝐶, then the limit 𝐹(𝑥) / 𝐺(𝑥) at 𝐵 also exists and equals 𝐶. This is Metamath 100 proof #64. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Dec-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (topGen‘ran (,)))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐼)    &   𝐷 = (𝐼 ∖ {𝐵})    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ dom (ℝ D 𝐺))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ (𝐺𝐷))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ((ℝ D 𝐺) “ 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧𝐷 ↦ (((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑧) / ((ℝ D 𝐺)‘𝑧))) lim 𝐵))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑧𝐷 ↦ ((𝐹𝑧) / (𝐺𝑧))) lim 𝐵))

Theoremdvcnvrelem1 23459 Lemma for dvcnvre 23461. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋1-1-onto𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝐶𝑅)[,](𝐶 + 𝑅)) ⊆ 𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ ((int‘(topGen‘ran (,)))‘(𝐹 “ ((𝐶𝑅)[,](𝐶 + 𝑅)))))

Theoremdvcnvrelem2 23460 Lemma for dvcnvre 23461. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Feb-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2015.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋1-1-onto𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝐶𝑅)[,](𝐶 + 𝑅)) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝑇 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝑀 = (𝐽t 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐽t 𝑌)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐶) ∈ ((int‘𝑇)‘𝑌) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ ((𝑁 CnP 𝑀)‘(𝐹𝐶))))

Theoremdvcnvre 23461* The derivative rule for inverse functions. If 𝐹 is a continuous and differentiable bijective function from 𝑋 to 𝑌 which never has derivative 0, then 𝐹 is also differentiable, and its derivative is the reciprocal of the derivative of 𝐹. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Feb-2015.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝐹) = 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ ran (ℝ D 𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋1-1-onto𝑌)       (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) = (𝑥𝑌 ↦ (1 / ((ℝ D 𝐹)‘(𝐹𝑥)))))

Theoremdvcvx 23462 A real function with strictly increasing derivative is strictly convex. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) Isom < , < ((𝐴(,)𝐵), 𝑊))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ (0(,)1))    &   𝐶 = ((𝑇 · 𝐴) + ((1 − 𝑇) · 𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) < ((𝑇 · (𝐹𝐴)) + ((1 − 𝑇) · (𝐹𝐵))))

Theoremdvfsumle 23463* Compare a finite sum to an integral (the integral here is given as a function with a known derivative). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑀[,]𝑁)–cn→ℝ))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁)) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → 𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁) ∧ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑘(,)(𝑘 + 1)))) → 𝑋𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝑋 ≤ (𝐷𝐶))

Theoremdvfsumge 23464* Compare a finite sum to an integral (the integral here is given as a function with a known derivative). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑀[,]𝑁)–cn→ℝ))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁)) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → 𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁) ∧ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑘(,)(𝑘 + 1)))) → 𝐵𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐷𝐶) ≤ Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝑋)

Theoremdvfsumabs 23465* Compare a finite sum to an integral (the integral here is given as a function with a known derivative). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑁) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑀[,]𝑁)–cn→ℂ))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁)) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐶)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → 𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)) → 𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁) ∧ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑘(,)(𝑘 + 1)))) → (abs‘(𝑋𝐵)) ≤ 𝑌)       (𝜑 → (abs‘(Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝑋 − (𝐷𝐶))) ≤ Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝑌)

Theoremdvmptrecl 23466* Real closure of a derivative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))       ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremdvfsumrlimf 23467* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))       (𝜑𝐺:𝑆⟶ℝ)

Theoremdvfsumlem1 23468* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘𝑘𝑈)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (((𝑥 − (⌊‘𝑥)) · 𝐵) + (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ≤ ((⌊‘𝑋) + 1))       (𝜑 → (𝐻𝑌) = ((((𝑌 − (⌊‘𝑋)) · 𝑌 / 𝑥𝐵) − 𝑌 / 𝑥𝐴) + Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑋))𝐶))

Theoremdvfsumlem2 23469* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘𝑘𝑈)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (((𝑥 − (⌊‘𝑥)) · 𝐵) + (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ≤ ((⌊‘𝑋) + 1))       (𝜑 → ((𝐻𝑌) ≤ (𝐻𝑋) ∧ ((𝐻𝑋) − 𝑋 / 𝑥𝐵) ≤ ((𝐻𝑌) − 𝑌 / 𝑥𝐵)))

Theoremdvfsumlem3 23470* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘𝑘𝑈)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (((𝑥 − (⌊‘𝑥)) · 𝐵) + (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴)))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑈)       (𝜑 → ((𝐻𝑌) ≤ (𝐻𝑋) ∧ ((𝐻𝑋) − 𝑋 / 𝑥𝐵) ≤ ((𝐻𝑌) − 𝑌 / 𝑥𝐵)))

Theoremdvfsumlem4 23471* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘𝑘𝑈)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑈)) → 0 ≤ 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑈)       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝐺𝑌) − (𝐺𝑋))) ≤ 𝑋 / 𝑥𝐵)

Theoremdvfsumrlimge0 23472* Lemma for dvfsumrlim 23473. Satisfy the assumption of dvfsumlem4 23471. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑆𝐵) ⇝𝑟 0)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝐷𝑥)) → 0 ≤ 𝐵)

Theoremdvfsumrlim 23473* Compare a finite sum to an integral (the integral here is given as a function with a known derivative). The statement here says that if 𝑥𝑆𝐵 is a decreasing function with antiderivative 𝐴 converging to zero, then the difference between Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐵(𝑘) and 𝐴(𝑥) = ∫𝑢 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑥)𝐵(𝑢) d𝑢 converges to a constant limit value, with the remainder term bounded by 𝐵(𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑆𝐵) ⇝𝑟 0)       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ dom ⇝𝑟 )

Theoremdvfsumrlim2 23474* Compare a finite sum to an integral (the integral here is given as a function with a known derivative). The statement here says that if 𝑥𝑆𝐵 is a decreasing function with antiderivative 𝐴 converging to zero, then the difference between Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐵(𝑘) and 𝑢 ∈ (𝑀[,]𝑥)𝐵(𝑢) d𝑢 = 𝐴(𝑥) converges to a constant limit value, with the remainder term bounded by 𝐵(𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑆𝐵) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)       ((𝜑𝐺𝑟 𝐿) → (abs‘((𝐺𝑋) − 𝐿)) ≤ 𝑋 / 𝑥𝐵)

Theoremdvfsumrlim3 23475* Conjoin the statements of dvfsumrlim 23473 and dvfsumrlim2 23474. (This is useful as a target for lemmas, because the hypotheses to this theorem are complex, and we don't want to repeat ourselves.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘)) → 𝐶𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑆𝐵) ⇝𝑟 0)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐵 = 𝐸)       (𝜑 → (𝐺:𝑆⟶ℝ ∧ 𝐺 ∈ dom ⇝𝑟 ∧ ((𝐺𝑟 𝐿𝑋𝑆𝐷𝑋) → (abs‘((𝐺𝑋) − 𝐿)) ≤ 𝐸)))

Theoremdvfsum2 23476* The reverse of dvfsumrlim 23473, when comparing a finite sum of increasing terms to an integral. In this case there is no point in stating the limit properties, because the terms of the sum aren't approaching zero, but there is nevertheless still a natural asymptotic statement that can be made. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-May-2016.)
𝑆 = (𝑇(,)+∞)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ≤ (𝐷 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑆) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥𝑆𝐴)) = (𝑥𝑆𝐵))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑘𝑆) ∧ (𝐷𝑥𝑥𝑘𝑘𝑈)) → 𝐵𝐶)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝑆 ↦ (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(⌊‘𝑥))𝐶𝐴))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝐷𝑥)) → 0 ≤ 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑈)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐵 = 𝐸)       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝐺𝑌) − (𝐺𝑋))) ≤ 𝐸)

Theoremftc1lem1 23477* Lemma for ftc1a 23479 and ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Aug-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))       ((𝜑𝑋𝑌) → ((𝐺𝑌) − (𝐺𝑋)) = ∫(𝑋(,)𝑌)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)

Theoremftc1lem2 23478* Lemma for ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℂ)       (𝜑𝐺:(𝐴[,]𝐵)⟶ℂ)

Theoremftc1a 23479* The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, part one. The function 𝐺 formed by varying the right endpoint of an integral of 𝐹 is continuous if 𝐹 is integrable. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℂ)       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))

Theoremftc1lem3 23480* Lemma for ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2015.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾 CnP 𝐿)‘𝐶))    &   𝐽 = (𝐿t ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝐿t 𝐷)    &   𝐿 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)       (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℂ)

Theoremftc1lem4 23481* Lemma for ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Aug-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾 CnP 𝐿)‘𝐶))    &   𝐽 = (𝐿t ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝐿t 𝐷)    &   𝐿 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐻 = (𝑧 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵) ∖ {𝐶}) ↦ (((𝐺𝑧) − (𝐺𝐶)) / (𝑧𝐶)))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑦𝐷) → ((abs‘(𝑦𝐶)) < 𝑅 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝐶))) < 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘(𝑋𝐶)) < 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘(𝑌𝐶)) < 𝑅)       ((𝜑𝑋 < 𝑌) → (abs‘((((𝐺𝑌) − (𝐺𝑋)) / (𝑌𝑋)) − (𝐹𝐶))) < 𝐸)

Theoremftc1lem5 23482* Lemma for ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Aug-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Dec-2016.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾 CnP 𝐿)‘𝐶))    &   𝐽 = (𝐿t ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝐿t 𝐷)    &   𝐿 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐻 = (𝑧 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵) ∖ {𝐶}) ↦ (((𝐺𝑧) − (𝐺𝐶)) / (𝑧𝐶)))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑦𝐷) → ((abs‘(𝑦𝐶)) < 𝑅 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝐶))) < 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘(𝑋𝐶)) < 𝑅)       ((𝜑𝑋𝐶) → (abs‘((𝐻𝑋) − (𝐹𝐶))) < 𝐸)

Theoremftc1lem6 23483* Lemma for ftc1 23484. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Aug-2014.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 28-Dec-2016.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾 CnP 𝐿)‘𝐶))    &   𝐽 = (𝐿t ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝐿t 𝐷)    &   𝐿 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   𝐻 = (𝑧 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵) ∖ {𝐶}) ↦ (((𝐺𝑧) − (𝐺𝐶)) / (𝑧𝐶)))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ (𝐻 lim 𝐶))

Theoremftc1 23484* The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, part one. The function formed by varying the right endpoint of an integral is differentiable at 𝐶 with derivative 𝐹(𝐶) if the original function is continuous at 𝐶. This is part of Metamath 100 proof #15. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐾 CnP 𝐿)‘𝐶))    &   𝐽 = (𝐿t ℝ)    &   𝐾 = (𝐿t 𝐷)    &   𝐿 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)       (𝜑𝐶(ℝ D 𝐺)(𝐹𝐶))

Theoremftc1cn 23485* Strengthen the assumptions of ftc1 23484 to when the function 𝐹 is continuous on the entire interval (𝐴, 𝐵); in this case we can calculate D 𝐺 exactly. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Sep-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ ∫(𝐴(,)𝑥)(𝐹𝑡) d𝑡)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ 𝐿1)       (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐺) = 𝐹)

Theoremftc2 23486* The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, part two. If 𝐹 is a function continuous on [𝐴, 𝐵] and continuously differentiable on (𝐴, 𝐵), then the integral of the derivative of 𝐹 is equal to 𝐹(𝐵) − 𝐹(𝐴). This is part of Metamath 100 proof #15. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑡) d𝑡 = ((𝐹𝐵) − (𝐹𝐴)))

Theoremftc2ditglem 23487* Lemma for ftc2ditg 23488. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ ((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→ℂ))       ((𝜑𝐴𝐵) → ⨜[𝐴𝐵]((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑡) d𝑡 = ((𝐹𝐵) − (𝐹𝐴)))

Theoremftc2ditg 23488* Directed integral analogue of ftc2 23486. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ ((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐹) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → ⨜[𝐴𝐵]((ℝ D 𝐹)‘𝑡) d𝑡 = ((𝐹𝐵) − (𝐹𝐴)))

Theoremitgparts 23489* Integration by parts. If 𝐵(𝑥) is the derivative of 𝐴(𝑥) and 𝐷(𝑥) is the derivative of 𝐶(𝑥), and 𝐸 = (𝐴 · 𝐵)(𝑋) and 𝐹 = (𝐴 · 𝐵)(𝑌), then under suitable integrability and differentiability assumptions, the integral of 𝐴 · 𝐷 from 𝑋 to 𝑌 is equal to 𝐹𝐸 minus the integral of 𝐵 · 𝐶. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵) ∈ ((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐷) ∈ ((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ (𝐴 · 𝐷)) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ (𝐵 · 𝐶)) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐶)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐷))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 = 𝑋) → (𝐴 · 𝐶) = 𝐸)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 = 𝑌) → (𝐴 · 𝐶) = 𝐹)       (𝜑 → ∫(𝑋(,)𝑌)(𝐴 · 𝐷) d𝑥 = ((𝐹𝐸) − ∫(𝑋(,)𝑌)(𝐵 · 𝐶) d𝑥))

Theoremitgsubstlem 23490* Lemma for itgsubst 23491. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→(𝑍(,)𝑊)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵) ∈ (((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ) ∩ 𝐿1))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑢 ∈ (𝑍(,)𝑊) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ ((𝑍(,)𝑊)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑢 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝐾)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐴 = 𝐿)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (𝑍(,)𝑊))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (𝑍(,)𝑊))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌)) → 𝐴 ∈ (𝑀(,)𝑁))       (𝜑 → ⨜[𝐾𝐿]𝐶 d𝑢 = ⨜[𝑋𝑌](𝐸 · 𝐵) d𝑥)

Theoremitgsubst 23491* Integration by 𝑢-substitution. If 𝐴(𝑥) is a continuous, differentiable function from [𝑋, 𝑌] to (𝑍, 𝑊), whose derivative is continuous and integrable, and 𝐶(𝑢) is a continuous function on (𝑍, 𝑊), then the integral of 𝐶(𝑢) from 𝐾 = 𝐴(𝑋) to 𝐿 = 𝐴(𝑌) is equal to the integral of 𝐶(𝐴(𝑥)) D 𝐴(𝑥) from 𝑋 to 𝑌. In this part of the proof we discharge the assumptions in itgsubstlem 23490, which use the fact that (𝑍, 𝑊) is open to shrink the interval a little to (𝑀, 𝑁) where 𝑍 < 𝑀 < 𝑁 < 𝑊- this is possible because 𝐴(𝑥) is a continuous function on a closed interval, so its range is in fact a closed interval, and we have some wiggle room on the edges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Sep-2014.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴) ∈ ((𝑋[,]𝑌)–cn→(𝑍(,)𝑊)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵) ∈ (((𝑋(,)𝑌)–cn→ℂ) ∩ 𝐿1))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑢 ∈ (𝑍(,)𝑊) ↦ 𝐶) ∈ ((𝑍(,)𝑊)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ↦ 𝐴)) = (𝑥 ∈ (𝑋(,)𝑌) ↦ 𝐵))    &   (𝑢 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝐴 = 𝐾)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑌𝐴 = 𝐿)       (𝜑 → ⨜[𝐾𝐿]𝐶 d𝑢 = ⨜[𝑋𝑌](𝐸 · 𝐵) d𝑥)

PART 14  BASIC REAL AND COMPLEX FUNCTIONS

14.1  Polynomials

14.1.1  Polynomial degrees

Syntaxcmdg 23492 Multivariate polynomial degree.
class mDeg

Syntaxcdg1 23493 Univariate polynomial degree.
class deg1

Definitiondf-mdeg 23494* Define the degree of a polynomial. Note (SO): as an experiment I am using a definition which makes the degree of the zero polynomial -∞, contrary to the convention used in df-dgr 23635. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 19-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 25-Jun-2019.)
mDeg = (𝑖 ∈ V, 𝑟 ∈ V ↦ (𝑓 ∈ (Base‘(𝑖 mPoly 𝑟)) ↦ sup(ran ( ∈ (𝑓 supp (0g𝑟)) ↦ (ℂfld Σg )), ℝ*, < )))

Definitiondf-deg1 23495 Define the degree of a univariate polynomial. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 23-Mar-2015.)
deg1 = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ (1𝑜 mDeg 𝑟))

Theoremreldmmdeg 23496 Multivariate degree is a binary operation. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 28-Mar-2015.)
Rel dom mDeg

Theoremtdeglem1 23497* Functionality of the total degree helper function. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 19-Mar-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 27-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑚 ∈ (ℕ0𝑚 𝐼) ∣ (𝑚 “ ℕ) ∈ Fin}    &   𝐻 = (𝐴 ↦ (ℂfld Σg ))       (𝐼𝑉𝐻:𝐴⟶ℕ0)

Theoremtdeglem3 23498* Additivity of the total degree helper function. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 26-Mar-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 27-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑚 ∈ (ℕ0𝑚 𝐼) ∣ (𝑚 “ ℕ) ∈ Fin}    &   𝐻 = (𝐴 ↦ (ℂfld Σg ))       ((𝐼𝑉𝑋𝐴𝑌𝐴) → (𝐻‘(𝑋𝑓 + 𝑌)) = ((𝐻𝑋) + (𝐻𝑌)))

Theoremtdeglem4 23499* There is only one multi-index with total degree 0. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 29-Mar-2015.)
𝐴 = {𝑚 ∈ (ℕ0𝑚 𝐼) ∣ (𝑚 “ ℕ) ∈ Fin}    &   𝐻 = (𝐴 ↦ (ℂfld Σg ))       ((𝐼𝑉𝑋𝐴) → ((𝐻𝑋) = 0 ↔ 𝑋 = (𝐼 × {0})))

Theoremtdeglem2 23500 Simplification of total degree for the univariate case. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 23-Mar-2015.)
( ∈ (ℕ0𝑚 1𝑜) ↦ (‘∅)) = ( ∈ (ℕ0𝑚 1𝑜) ↦ (ℂfld Σg ))

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