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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 2301-2400   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremsbied 2301 Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit substitution (deduction version of sbie 2300). (Contributed by NM, 30-Jun-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 4-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Jun-2018.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥𝜒)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜓𝜒)))       (𝜑 → ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜓𝜒))
 
Theoremsbiedv 2302* Conversion of implicit substitution to explicit substitution (deduction version of sbie 2300). (Contributed by NM, 7-Jan-2017.)
((𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜓𝜒))
 
Theoremsbcom3 2303 Substituting 𝑦 for 𝑥 and then 𝑧 for 𝑦 is equivalent to substituting 𝑧 for both 𝑥 and 𝑦. (Contributed by Giovanni Mascellani, 8-Apr-2018.) Remove dependency on ax-11 1971. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 16-Sep-2018.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 16-Sep-2018.)
([𝑧 / 𝑦][𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑧 / 𝑦][𝑧 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbco 2304 A composition law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 21-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbid2 2305 An identity law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 14-May-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝜑       ([𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑𝜑)
 
Theoremsbidm 2306 An idempotent law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jun-1994.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-May-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 13-Jul-2019.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbco2 2307 A composition law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jun-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 17-Sep-2018.)
𝑧𝜑       ([𝑦 / 𝑧][𝑧 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbco2d 2308 A composition law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jun-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝑧𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑧𝜓)       (𝜑 → ([𝑦 / 𝑧][𝑧 / 𝑥]𝜓 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜓))
 
Theoremsbco3 2309 A composition law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jun-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 18-Sep-2018.)
([𝑧 / 𝑦][𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbcom 2310 A commutativity law for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 27-May-1997.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 20-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑧][𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑦 / 𝑧]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbt 2311 A substitution into a theorem yields a theorem. (See chvar 2153 and chvarv 2154 for versions using implicit substitution.) (Contributed by NM, 21-Jan-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-May-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 20-Jul-2018.)
𝜑       [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑
 
Theoremsbtrt 2312 Partially closed form of sbtr 2313. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Jun-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∀𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑𝜑)
 
Theoremsbtr 2313 A partial converse to sbt 2311. If the substitution of a variable for a non-free one in a wff gives a theorem, then the original wff is a theorem. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Sep-2018.)
𝑦𝜑    &   [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑       𝜑
 
Theoremsb5rf 2314 Reversed substitution. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 20-Sep-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦(𝑦 = 𝑥 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑))
 
Theoremsb6rf 2315 Reversed substitution. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 21-Sep-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑦(𝑦 = 𝑥 → [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑))
 
Theoremsb8 2316 Substitution of variable in universal quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 16-May-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jan-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∀𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsb8e 2317 Substitution of variable in existential quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jan-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsb9 2318 Commutation of quantification and substitution variables. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) Allow a shortening of sb9i 2319. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 15-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑥[𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsb9i 2319 Commutation of quantification and substitution variables. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 15-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑥[𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑 → ∀𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremax12vALT 2320* Alternate proof of ax12v2 1985, shorter, but depending on more axioms. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑)))
 
Theoremsb6 2321* Equivalence for substitution. Compare Theorem 6.2 of [Quine] p. 40. Also proved as Lemmas 16 and 17 of [Tarski] p. 70. The implication "to the left" is sb2 2244 and does not require any dv condition. Theorem sb6f 2277 replaces the dv condition with a non-freeness hypothesis. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 21-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
 
Theoremsb5 2322* Equivalence for substitution. Similar to Theorem 6.1 of [Quine] p. 40. The implication "to the right" is sb1 1833 and does not require any dv condition. Theorem sb5f 2278 replaces the dv condition with a non-freeness hypothesis. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1993.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
 
Theoremequsb3lem 2323* Lemma for equsb3 2324. (Contributed by Raph Levien and FL, 4-Dec-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 14-Jun-2011.)
([𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑦 = 𝑧𝑥 = 𝑧)
 
Theoremequsb3 2324* Substitution applied to an atomic wff. (Contributed by Raph Levien and FL, 4-Dec-2005.) Remove dependency on ax-11 1971. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 21-Sep-2018.)
([𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑦 = 𝑧𝑥 = 𝑧)
 
Theoremequsb3ALT 2325* Alternate proof of equsb3 2324, shorter but requiring ax-11 1971. (Contributed by Raph Levien and FL, 4-Dec-2005.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
([𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑦 = 𝑧𝑥 = 𝑧)
 
Theoremelsb3 2326* Substitution applied to an atomic membership wff. (Contributed by NM, 7-Nov-2006.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 14-Jun-2011.)
([𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑦𝑧𝑥𝑧)
 
Theoremelsb4 2327* Substitution applied to an atomic membership wff. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 3-Apr-2010.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 14-Jun-2011.)
([𝑥 / 𝑦]𝑧𝑦𝑧𝑥)
 
Theoremhbs1 2328* The setvar 𝑥 is not free in [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 when 𝑥 and 𝑦 are distinct. (Contributed by NM, 26-May-1993.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 → ∀𝑥[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremnfs1v 2329* The setvar 𝑥 is not free in [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 when 𝑥 and 𝑦 are distinct. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
𝑥[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑
 
Theoremsbhb 2330* Two ways of expressing "𝑥 is (effectively) not free in 𝜑." (Contributed by NM, 29-May-2009.)
((𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝜑) ↔ ∀𝑦(𝜑 → [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbnf2 2331* Two ways of expressing "𝑥 is (effectively) not free in 𝜑." (Contributed by Gérard Lang, 14-Nov-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 22-Sep-2018.)
(Ⅎ𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑦𝑧([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑧 / 𝑥]𝜑))
 
Theoremnfsb 2332* If 𝑧 is not free in 𝜑, it is not free in [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 when 𝑦 and 𝑧 are distinct. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.)
𝑧𝜑       𝑧[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑
 
Theoremhbsb 2333* If 𝑧 is not free in 𝜑, it is not free in [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 when 𝑦 and 𝑧 are distinct. (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝜑)       ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 → ∀𝑧[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremnfsbd 2334* Deduction version of nfsb 2332. (Contributed by NM, 15-Feb-2013.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑧𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑧[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜓)
 
Theorem2sb5 2335* Equivalence for double substitution. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.)
([𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥𝑦((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) ∧ 𝜑))
 
Theorem2sb6 2336* Equivalence for double substitution. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.)
([𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → 𝜑))
 
Theoremsbcom2 2337* Commutativity law for substitution. Used in proof of Theorem 9.7 of [Megill] p. 449 (p. 16 of the preprint). (Contributed by NM, 27-May-1997.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Sep-2018.)
([𝑤 / 𝑧][𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑧]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbcom4 2338* Commutativity law for substitution. This theorem was incorrectly used as our previous version of pm11.07 2339 but may still be useful. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 17-Jun-2011.) (Proof shortened by Jim Kingdon, 22-Jan-2018.)
([𝑤 / 𝑥][𝑦 / 𝑧]𝜑 ↔ [𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑧]𝜑)
 
Theorempm11.07 2339 Axiom *11.07 in [WhiteheadRussell] p. 159. The original reads: *11.07 "Whatever possible argument 𝑥 may be, 𝜑(𝑥, 𝑦) is true whatever possible argument 𝑦 may be" implies the corresponding statement with 𝑥 and 𝑦 interchanged except in "𝜑(𝑥, 𝑦)". Under our formalism this appears to correspond to idi 2 and not to sbcom4 2338 as earlier thought. See https://groups.google.com/d/msg/metamath/iS0fOvSemC8/M1zTH8wxCAAJ. (Contributed by BJ, 16-Sep-2018.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝜑       𝜑
 
Theoremsb6a 2340* Equivalence for substitution. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jun-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 23-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦 → [𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theorem2ax6elem 2341 We can always find values matching 𝑥 and 𝑦, as long as they are represented by distinct variables. This theorem merges two ax6e 2141 instances 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑥 and 𝑤𝑤 = 𝑦 into a common expression. Alan Sare contributed a variant of this theorem with distinct variable conditions before, see ax6e2nd 37692. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 27-Sep-2018.)
(¬ ∀𝑤 𝑤 = 𝑧 → ∃𝑧𝑤(𝑧 = 𝑥𝑤 = 𝑦))
 
Theorem2ax6e 2342* We can always find values matching 𝑥 and 𝑦, as long as they are represented by distinct variables. Version of 2ax6elem 2341 with a distinct variable constraint. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 28-Sep-2018.)
𝑧𝑤(𝑧 = 𝑥𝑤 = 𝑦)
 
Theorem2sb5rf 2343* Reversed double substitution. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) Remove distinct variable constraints. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 28-Sep-2018.)
𝑧𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑       (𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤((𝑧 = 𝑥𝑤 = 𝑦) ∧ [𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theorem2sb6rf 2344* Reversed double substitution. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) Remove variable constraints. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 28-Sep-2018.)
𝑧𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑       (𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑧𝑤((𝑧 = 𝑥𝑤 = 𝑦) → [𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theoremsb7f 2345* This version of dfsb7 2347 does not require that 𝜑 and 𝑧 be distinct. This permits it to be used as a definition for substitution in a formalization that omits the logically redundant axiom ax-5 1793 i.e. that doesn't have the concept of a variable not occurring in a wff. (df-sb 1831 is also suitable, but its mixing of free and bound variables is distasteful to some logicians.) (Contributed by NM, 26-Jul-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
𝑧𝜑       ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧(𝑧 = 𝑦 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑧𝜑)))
 
Theoremsb7h 2346* This version of dfsb7 2347 does not require that 𝜑 and 𝑧 be distinct. This permits it to be used as a definition for substitution in a formalization that omits the logically redundant axiom ax-5 1793 i.e. that doesn't have the concept of a variable not occurring in a wff. (df-sb 1831 is also suitable, but its mixing of free and bound variables is distasteful to some logicians.) (Contributed by NM, 26-Jul-2006.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-May-2011.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝜑)       ([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧(𝑧 = 𝑦 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑧𝜑)))
 
Theoremdfsb7 2347* An alternate definition of proper substitution df-sb 1831. By introducing a dummy variable 𝑧 in the definiens, we are able to eliminate any distinct variable restrictions among the variables 𝑥, 𝑦, and 𝜑 of the definiendum. No distinct variable conflicts arise because 𝑧 effectively insulates 𝑥 from 𝑦. To achieve this, we use a chain of two substitutions in the form of sb5 2322, first 𝑧 for 𝑥 then 𝑦 for 𝑧. Compare Definition 2.1'' of [Quine] p. 17, which is obtained from this theorem by applying df-clab 2501. Theorem sb7h 2346 provides a version where 𝜑 and 𝑧 don't have to be distinct. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jan-2004.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧(𝑧 = 𝑦 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑧𝜑)))
 
Theoremsb10f 2348* Hao Wang's identity axiom P6 in Irving Copi, Symbolic Logic (5th ed., 1979), p. 328. In traditional predicate calculus, this is a sole axiom for identity from which the usual ones can be derived. (Contributed by NM, 9-May-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝜑       ([𝑦 / 𝑧]𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦 ∧ [𝑥 / 𝑧]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbid2v 2349* An identity law for substitution. Used in proof of Theorem 9.7 of [Megill] p. 449 (p. 16 of the preprint). (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑𝜑)
 
Theoremsbelx 2350* Elimination of substitution. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.)
(𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦 ∧ [𝑥 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbel2x 2351* Elimination of double substitution. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 29-Sep-2018.)
(𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥𝑦((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑤][𝑥 / 𝑧]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbal1 2352* A theorem used in elimination of disjoint variable restriction on 𝑥 and 𝑦 by replacing it with a distinctor ¬ ∀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑧. (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 3-Oct-2018.)
(¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑧 → ([𝑧 / 𝑦]∀𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥[𝑧 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbal2 2353* Move quantifier in and out of substitution. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2002.) Remove a distinct variable constraint. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 3-Oct-2018.)
(¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦 → ([𝑧 / 𝑦]∀𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥[𝑧 / 𝑦]𝜑))
 
Theoremsbal 2354* Move universal quantifier in and out of substitution. (Contributed by NM, 16-May-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 29-Sep-2018.)
([𝑧 / 𝑦]∀𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥[𝑧 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbex 2355* Move existential quantifier in and out of substitution. (Contributed by NM, 27-Sep-2003.)
([𝑧 / 𝑦]∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑥[𝑧 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbalv 2356* Quantify with new variable inside substitution. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1993.)
([𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑𝜓)       ([𝑦 / 𝑥]∀𝑧𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑧𝜓)
 
Theoremsbco4lem 2357* Lemma for sbco4 2358. It replaces the temporary variable 𝑣 with another temporary variable 𝑤. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Sep-2018.)
([𝑥 / 𝑣][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑣 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ [𝑥 / 𝑤][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremsbco4 2358* Two ways of exchanging two variables. Both sides of the biconditional exchange 𝑥 and 𝑦, either via two temporary variables 𝑢 and 𝑣, or a single temporary 𝑤. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-Sep-2018.)
([𝑦 / 𝑢][𝑥 / 𝑣][𝑢 / 𝑥][𝑣 / 𝑦]𝜑 ↔ [𝑥 / 𝑤][𝑦 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theorem2sb8e 2359* An equivalent expression for double existence. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 2-Nov-2019.)
(∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤[𝑧 / 𝑥][𝑤 / 𝑦]𝜑)
 
Theoremexsb 2360* An equivalent expression for existence. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝑥 = 𝑦𝜑))
 
Theorem2exsb 2361* An equivalent expression for double existence. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Sep-2018.)
(∃𝑥𝑦𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑧𝑤𝑥𝑦((𝑥 = 𝑧𝑦 = 𝑤) → 𝜑))
 
1.6  Existential uniqueness
 
Syntaxweu 2362 Extend wff definition to include existential uniqueness ("there exists a unique 𝑥 such that 𝜑").
wff ∃!𝑥𝜑
 
Syntaxwmo 2363 Extend wff definition to include uniqueness ("there exists at most one 𝑥 such that 𝜑").
wff ∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremeujust 2364* A soundness justification theorem for df-eu 2366, showing that the definition is equivalent to itself with its dummy variable renamed. Note that 𝑦 and 𝑧 needn't be distinct variables. See eujustALT 2365 for a proof that provides an example of how it can be achieved through the use of dvelim 2229. (Contributed by NM, 11-Mar-2010.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
(∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑧))
 
TheoremeujustALT 2365* Alternate proof of eujust 2364 illustrating the use of dvelim 2229. (Contributed by NM, 11-Mar-2010.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∃𝑧𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑧))
 
Definitiondf-eu 2366* Define existential uniqueness, i.e. "there exists exactly one 𝑥 such that 𝜑." Definition 10.1 of [BellMachover] p. 97; also Definition *14.02 of [WhiteheadRussell] p. 175. Other possible definitions are given by eu1 2402, eu2 2401, eu3v 2390, and eu5 2388 (which in some cases we show with a hypothesis 𝜑 → ∀𝑦𝜑 in place of a distinct variable condition on 𝑦 and 𝜑). Double uniqueness is tricky: ∃!𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑 does not mean "exactly one 𝑥 and one 𝑦 " (see 2eu4 2448). (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Definitiondf-mo 2367 Define "there exists at most one 𝑥 such that 𝜑." Here we define it in terms of existential uniqueness. Notation of [BellMachover] p. 460, whose definition we show as mo3 2399. For other possible definitions see mo2 2371 and mo4 2409. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 → ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeuequ1 2368* Equality has existential uniqueness. Special case of eueq1 3250 proved using only predicate calculus. The proof needs 𝑦 = 𝑧 be free of 𝑥. This is ensured by having 𝑥 and 𝑦 be distinct. Alternatively, a distinctor ¬ ∀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑦 could have been used instead. (Contributed by Stefan Allan, 4-Dec-2008.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 8-Sep-2019.)
∃!𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
Theoremmo2v 2369* Alternate definition of "at most one." Unlike mo2 2371, which is slightly more general, it does not depend on ax-11 1971 and ax-13 2137, whence it is preferable within predicate logic. Elsewhere, most theorems depend on these axioms anyway, so this advantage is no longer important. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 27-May-2019.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 10-Nov-2019.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremeuf 2370* A version of the existential uniqueness definition with a hypothesis instead of a distinct variable condition. (Contributed by NM, 12-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 30-Oct-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremmo2 2371* Alternate definition of "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) Restrict dummy variable z. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 28-May-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremnfeu1 2372 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥∃!𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremnfmo1 2373 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremnfeud2 2374 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 4-Oct-2018.)
𝑦𝜑    &   ((𝜑 ∧ ¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦) → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfmod2 2375 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   ((𝜑 ∧ ¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦) → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfeud 2376 Deduction version of nfeu 2378. (Contributed by NM, 15-Feb-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfmod 2377 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥𝜓)       (𝜑 → Ⅎ𝑥∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremnfeu 2378 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for uniqueness. Note that 𝑥 and 𝑦 needn't be distinct. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑥𝜑       𝑥∃!𝑦𝜑
 
Theoremnfmo 2379 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.)
𝑥𝜑       𝑥∃*𝑦𝜑
 
Theoremeubid 2380 Formula-building rule for uniqueness quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremmobid 2381 Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremeubidv 2382* Formula-building rule for uniqueness quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremmobidv 2383* Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒))
 
Theoremeubii 2384 Introduce uniqueness quantifier to both sides of an equivalence. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.)
(𝜑𝜓)       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜓)
 
Theoremmobii 2385 Formula-building rule for "at most one" quantifier (inference rule). (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Oct-2016.)
(𝜓𝜒)       (∃*𝑥𝜓 ↔ ∃*𝑥𝜒)
 
Theoremeuex 2386 Existential uniqueness implies existence. For a shorter proof using more axioms, see euexALT 2403. (Contributed by NM, 15-Sep-1993.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 4-Dec-2018.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremexmo 2387 Something exists or at most one exists. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ∨ ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeu5 2388 Uniqueness in terms of "at most one." Revised to reduce dependencies on axioms. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 25-May-2019.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremexmoeu2 2389 Existence implies "at most one" is equivalent to uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 → (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeu3v 2390* An alternate way to express existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 8-Jul-1994.) Add a distinct variable condition on 𝜑. (Revised by Wolf Lammen, 29-May-2019.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦)))
 
Theoremeumo 2391 Existential uniqueness implies "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremeumoi 2392 "At most one" inferred from existential uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-1995.)
∃!𝑥𝜑       ∃*𝑥𝜑
 
Theoremmoabs 2393 Absorption of existence condition by "at most one." (Contributed by NM, 4-Nov-2002.)
(∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃𝑥𝜑 → ∃*𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremexmoeu 2394 Existence in terms of "at most one" and uniqueness. (Contributed by NM, 5-Apr-2004.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 5-Dec-2018.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 ↔ (∃*𝑥𝜑 → ∃!𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremsb8eu 2395 Variable substitution in uniqueness quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 24-Aug-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremsb8mo 2396 Variable substitution for "at most one." (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2017.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃*𝑦[𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑)
 
Theoremcbveu 2397 Rule used to change bound variables, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 25-Nov-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.)
𝑦𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃!𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃!𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremcbvmo 2398 Rule used to change bound variables, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Andrew Salmon, 8-Jun-2011.)
𝑦𝜑    &   𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∃*𝑦𝜓)
 
Theoremmo3 2399* Alternate definition of "at most one." Definition of [BellMachover] p. 460, except that definition has the side condition that 𝑦 not occur in 𝜑 in place of our hypothesis. (Contributed by NM, 8-Mar-1995.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 18-Aug-2019.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃*𝑥𝜑 ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
 
Theoremmo 2400* Equivalent definitions of "there exists at most one." (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Oct-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 2-Dec-2018.)
𝑦𝜑       (∃𝑦𝑥(𝜑𝑥 = 𝑦) ↔ ∀𝑥𝑦((𝜑 ∧ [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))
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