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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 24501-24600   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theorembasellem6 24501 Lemma for basel 24505. The function 𝐺 goes to zero because it is bounded by 1 / 𝑛. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Jul-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))       𝐺 ⇝ 0
 
Theorembasellem7 24502 Lemma for basel 24505. The function 1 + 𝐴 · 𝐺 for any fixed 𝐴 goes to 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Jul-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐴 ∈ ℂ       ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓 + ((ℕ × {𝐴}) ∘𝑓 · 𝐺)) ⇝ 1
 
Theorembasellem8 24503* Lemma for basel 24505. The function 𝐹 of partial sums of the inverse squares is bounded below by 𝐽 and above by 𝐾, obtained by summing the inequality cot↑2𝑥 ≤ 1 / 𝑥↑2 ≤ csc↑2𝑥 = cot↑2𝑥 + 1 over the 𝑀 roots of the polynomial 𝑃, and applying the identity basellem5 24500. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Jul-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐹 = seq1( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑛↑-2)))    &   𝐻 = ((ℕ × {((π↑2) / 6)}) ∘𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓𝐺))    &   𝐽 = (𝐻𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓 + ((ℕ × {-2}) ∘𝑓 · 𝐺)))    &   𝐾 = (𝐻𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓 + 𝐺))    &   𝑁 = ((2 · 𝑀) + 1)       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐽𝑀) ≤ (𝐹𝑀) ∧ (𝐹𝑀) ≤ (𝐾𝑀)))
 
Theorembasellem9 24504* Lemma for basel 24505. Since by basellem8 24503 𝐹 is bounded by two expressions that tend to π↑2 / 6, 𝐹 must also go to π↑2 / 6 by the squeeze theorem climsqz 14085. But the series 𝐹 is exactly the partial sums of 𝑘↑-2, so it follows that this is also the value of the infinite sum Σ𝑘 ∈ ℕ(𝑘↑-2). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Jul-2014.)
𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐹 = seq1( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑛↑-2)))    &   𝐻 = ((ℕ × {((π↑2) / 6)}) ∘𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓𝐺))    &   𝐽 = (𝐻𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓 + ((ℕ × {-2}) ∘𝑓 · 𝐺)))    &   𝐾 = (𝐻𝑓 · ((ℕ × {1}) ∘𝑓 + 𝐺))       Σ𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑘↑-2) = ((π↑2) / 6)
 
Theorembasel 24505 The sum of the inverse squares is π↑2 / 6. This is commonly known as the Basel problem, with the first known proof attributed to Euler. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_problem. This particular proof approach is due to Cauchy (1821). This is Metamath 100 proof #14. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Jul-2014.)
Σ𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑘↑-2) = ((π↑2) / 6)
 
14.4.4  Number-theoretical functions
 
Syntaxccht 24506 Extend class notation with the first Chebyshev function.
class θ
 
Syntaxcvma 24507 Extend class notation with the von Mangoldt function.
class Λ
 
Syntaxcchp 24508 Extend class notation with the second Chebyshev function.
class ψ
 
Syntaxcppi 24509 Extend class notation with the prime-counting function pi.
class π
 
Syntaxcmu 24510 Extend class notation with the Möbius function.
class μ
 
Syntaxcsgm 24511 Extend class notation with the divisor function.
class σ
 
Definitiondf-cht 24512* Define the first Chebyshev function, which adds up the logarithms of all primes less than 𝑥, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 75. The symbol used to represent this function is sometimes the variant greek letter theta shown here and sometimes the greek letter psi, ψ; however, this notation can also refer to the second Chebyshev function, which adds up the logarithms of prime powers instead, see df-chp 24514. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chebyshev_function for a discussion of the two functions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
θ = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑝 ∈ ((0[,]𝑥) ∩ ℙ)(log‘𝑝))
 
Definitiondf-vma 24513* Define the von Mangoldt function, which gives the logarithm of the prime at a prime power, and is zero elsewhere, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 32. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
Λ = (𝑥 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝑥} / 𝑠if((#‘𝑠) = 1, (log‘ 𝑠), 0))
 
Definitiondf-chp 24514* Define the second Chebyshev function, which adds up the logarithms of the primes corresponding to the prime powers less than 𝑥, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 75. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
ψ = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝑥))(Λ‘𝑛))
 
Definitiondf-ppi 24515 Define the prime π function, which counts the number of primes less than or equal to 𝑥, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 8. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
π = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (#‘((0[,]𝑥) ∩ ℙ)))
 
Definitiondf-mu 24516* Define the Möbius function, which is zero for non-squarefree numbers and is -1 or 1 for squarefree numbers according as to the number of prime divisors of the number is even or odd, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 24. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
μ = (𝑥 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(∃𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝↑2) ∥ 𝑥, 0, (-1↑(#‘{𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝑥}))))
 
Definitiondf-sgm 24517* Define the sum of positive divisors function (𝑥 σ 𝑛), which is the sum of the xth powers of the positive integer divisors of n, see definition in [ApostolNT] p. 38. For 𝑥 = 0, (𝑥 σ 𝑛) counts the number of divisors of 𝑛, i.e. (0 σ 𝑛) is the divisor function, see remark in [ApostolNT] p. 38. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
σ = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑝 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑝𝑛} (𝑘𝑐𝑥))
 
Theoremefnnfsumcl 24518* Finite sum closure in the log-integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → (exp‘𝐵) ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (exp‘Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremppisval 24519 The set of primes less than 𝐴 expressed using a finite set of integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → ((0[,]𝐴) ∩ ℙ) = ((2...(⌊‘𝐴)) ∩ ℙ))
 
Theoremppisval2 24520 The set of primes less than 𝐴 expressed using a finite set of integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 2 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → ((0[,]𝐴) ∩ ℙ) = ((𝑀...(⌊‘𝐴)) ∩ ℙ))
 
Theoremppifi 24521 The set of primes less than 𝐴 is a finite set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → ((0[,]𝐴) ∩ ℙ) ∈ Fin)
 
Theoremprmdvdsfi 24522* The set of prime divisors of a number is a finite set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝐴} ∈ Fin)
 
Theoremchtf 24523 Domain and range of the Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
θ:ℝ⟶ℝ
 
Theoremchtcl 24524 Real closure of the Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (θ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremchtval 24525* Value of the Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (θ‘𝐴) = Σ𝑝 ∈ ((0[,]𝐴) ∩ ℙ)(log‘𝑝))
 
Theoremefchtcl 24526 The Chebyshev function is closed in the log-integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (exp‘(θ‘𝐴)) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremchtge0 24527 The Chebyshev function is always positive. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 0 ≤ (θ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremvmaval 24528* Value of the von Mangoldt function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
𝑆 = {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝐴}       (𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (Λ‘𝐴) = if((#‘𝑆) = 1, (log‘ 𝑆), 0))
 
Theoremisppw 24529* Two ways to say that 𝐴 is a prime power. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → ((Λ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 ↔ ∃!𝑝 ∈ ℙ 𝑝𝐴))
 
Theoremisppw2 24530* Two ways to say that 𝐴 is a prime power. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → ((Λ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 ↔ ∃𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℕ 𝐴 = (𝑝𝑘)))
 
Theoremvmappw 24531 Value of the von Mangoldt function at a prime power. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
((𝑃 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝐾 ∈ ℕ) → (Λ‘(𝑃𝐾)) = (log‘𝑃))
 
Theoremvmaprm 24532 Value of the von Mangoldt function at a prime. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝑃 ∈ ℙ → (Λ‘𝑃) = (log‘𝑃))
 
Theoremvmacl 24533 Closure for the von Mangoldt function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (Λ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremvmaf 24534 Functionality of the von Mangoldt function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
Λ:ℕ⟶ℝ
 
Theoremefvmacl 24535 The von Mangoldt is closed in the log-integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (exp‘(Λ‘𝐴)) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremvmage0 24536 The von Mangoldt function is nonnegative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → 0 ≤ (Λ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremchpval 24537* Value of the second Chebyshev function, or summary von Mangoldt function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ψ‘𝐴) = Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(⌊‘𝐴))(Λ‘𝑛))
 
Theoremchpf 24538 Functionality of the second Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
ψ:ℝ⟶ℝ
 
Theoremchpcl 24539 Closure for the second Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ψ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremefchpcl 24540 The second Chebyshev function is closed in the log-integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (exp‘(ψ‘𝐴)) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremchpge0 24541 The second Chebyshev function is nonnegative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 0 ≤ (ψ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremppival 24542 Value of the prime-counting function pi. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (π𝐴) = (#‘((0[,]𝐴) ∩ ℙ)))
 
Theoremppival2 24543 Value of the prime-counting function pi. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℤ → (π𝐴) = (#‘((2...𝐴) ∩ ℙ)))
 
Theoremppival2g 24544 Value of the prime-counting function pi. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 2 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (π𝐴) = (#‘((𝑀...𝐴) ∩ ℙ)))
 
Theoremppif 24545 Domain and range of the prime-counting function pi. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
π:ℝ⟶ℕ0
 
Theoremppicl 24546 Real closure of the prime-counting function pi. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (π𝐴) ∈ ℕ0)
 
Theoremmuval 24547* The value of the Möbius function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (μ‘𝐴) = if(∃𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝↑2) ∥ 𝐴, 0, (-1↑(#‘{𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝐴}))))
 
Theoremmuval1 24548 The value of the Möbius function at a non-squarefree number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ∧ (𝑃↑2) ∥ 𝐴) → (μ‘𝐴) = 0)
 
Theoremmuval2 24549* The value of the Möbius function at a squarefree number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ (μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0) → (μ‘𝐴) = (-1↑(#‘{𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝐴})))
 
Theoremisnsqf 24550* Two ways to say that a number is not squarefree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → ((μ‘𝐴) = 0 ↔ ∃𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝↑2) ∥ 𝐴))
 
Theoremissqf 24551* Two ways to say that a number is squarefree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → ((μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 ↔ ∀𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝 pCnt 𝐴) ≤ 1))
 
Theoremsqfpc 24552 The prime count of a squarefree number is at most 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ (μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 ∧ 𝑃 ∈ ℙ) → (𝑃 pCnt 𝐴) ≤ 1)
 
Theoremdvdssqf 24553 A divisor of a squarefree number is squarefree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Jul-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵𝐴) → ((μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 → (μ‘𝐵) ≠ 0))
 
Theoremsqf11 24554* A squarefree number is completely determined by the set of its prime divisors. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Jul-2015.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ (μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ ℕ ∧ (μ‘𝐵) ≠ 0)) → (𝐴 = 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑝 ∈ ℙ (𝑝𝐴𝑝𝐵)))
 
Theoremmuf 24555 The Möbius function is a function into the integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
μ:ℕ⟶ℤ
 
Theoremmucl 24556 Closure of the Möbius function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (μ‘𝐴) ∈ ℤ)
 
Theoremsgmval 24557* The value of the divisor function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 σ 𝐵) = Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑝 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑝𝐵} (𝑘𝑐𝐴))
 
Theoremsgmval2 24558* The value of the divisor function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 σ 𝐵) = Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑝 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑝𝐵} (𝑘𝐴))
 
Theorem0sgm 24559* The value of the sum-of-divisors function, usually denoted σ<SUB>0</SUB>(<i>n</i>). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (0 σ 𝐴) = (#‘{𝑝 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑝𝐴}))
 
Theoremsgmf 24560 The divisor function is a function into the complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
σ :(ℂ × ℕ)⟶ℂ
 
Theoremsgmcl 24561 Closure of the divisor function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 σ 𝐵) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremsgmnncl 24562 Closure of the divisor function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Jun-2015.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ0𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐴 σ 𝐵) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremmule1 24563 The Möbius function takes on values in magnitude at most 1. (Together with mucl 24556, this implies that it takes a value in {-1, 0, 1} for every positive integer.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (abs‘(μ‘𝐴)) ≤ 1)
 
Theoremchtfl 24564 The Chebyshev function does not change off the integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (θ‘(⌊‘𝐴)) = (θ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremchpfl 24565 The second Chebyshev function does not change off the integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (ψ‘(⌊‘𝐴)) = (ψ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremppiprm 24566 The prime-counting function π at a prime. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ (𝐴 + 1) ∈ ℙ) → (π‘(𝐴 + 1)) = ((π𝐴) + 1))
 
Theoremppinprm 24567 The prime-counting function π at a non-prime. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ ¬ (𝐴 + 1) ∈ ℙ) → (π‘(𝐴 + 1)) = (π𝐴))
 
Theoremchtprm 24568 The Chebyshev function at a prime. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ (𝐴 + 1) ∈ ℙ) → (θ‘(𝐴 + 1)) = ((θ‘𝐴) + (log‘(𝐴 + 1))))
 
Theoremchtnprm 24569 The Chebyshev function at a non-prime. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ ¬ (𝐴 + 1) ∈ ℙ) → (θ‘(𝐴 + 1)) = (θ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremchpp1 24570 The second Chebyshev function at a successor. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Apr-2016.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ0 → (ψ‘(𝐴 + 1)) = ((ψ‘𝐴) + (Λ‘(𝐴 + 1))))
 
Theoremchtwordi 24571 The Chebyshev function is weakly increasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (θ‘𝐴) ≤ (θ‘𝐵))
 
Theoremchpwordi 24572 The second Chebyshev function is weakly increasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2016.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (ψ‘𝐴) ≤ (ψ‘𝐵))
 
Theoremchtdif 24573* The difference of the Chebyshev function at two points sums the logarithms of the primes in an interval. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀) → ((θ‘𝑁) − (θ‘𝑀)) = Σ𝑝 ∈ (((𝑀 + 1)...𝑁) ∩ ℙ)(log‘𝑝))
 
Theoremefchtdvds 24574 The exponentiated Chebyshev function forms a divisibility chain between any two points. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (exp‘(θ‘𝐴)) ∥ (exp‘(θ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremppifl 24575 The prime-counting function π does not change off the integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (π‘(⌊‘𝐴)) = (π𝐴))
 
Theoremppip1le 24576 The prime-counting function π cannot locally increase faster than the identity function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (π‘(𝐴 + 1)) ≤ ((π𝐴) + 1))
 
Theoremppiwordi 24577 The prime-counting function π is weakly increasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 19-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (π𝐴) ≤ (π𝐵))
 
Theoremppidif 24578 The difference of the prime-counting function π at two points counts the number of primes in an interval. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀) → ((π𝑁) − (π𝑀)) = (#‘(((𝑀 + 1)...𝑁) ∩ ℙ)))
 
Theoremppi1 24579 The prime-counting function π at 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
(π‘1) = 0
 
Theoremcht1 24580 The Chebyshev function at 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(θ‘1) = 0
 
Theoremvma1 24581 The von Mangoldt function at 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2016.)
(Λ‘1) = 0
 
Theoremchp1 24582 The second Chebyshev function at 1. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2016.)
(ψ‘1) = 0
 
Theoremppi1i 24583 Inference form of ppiprm 24566. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
𝑀 ∈ ℕ0    &   𝑁 = (𝑀 + 1)    &   (π𝑀) = 𝐾    &   𝑁 ∈ ℙ       (π𝑁) = (𝐾 + 1)
 
Theoremppi2i 24584 Inference form of ppinprm 24567. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
𝑀 ∈ ℕ0    &   𝑁 = (𝑀 + 1)    &   (π𝑀) = 𝐾    &    ¬ 𝑁 ∈ ℙ       (π𝑁) = 𝐾
 
Theoremppi2 24585 The prime-counting function π at 2. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
(π‘2) = 1
 
Theoremppi3 24586 The prime-counting function π at 3. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
(π‘3) = 2
 
Theoremcht2 24587 The Chebyshev function at 2. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(θ‘2) = (log‘2)
 
Theoremcht3 24588 The Chebyshev function at 3. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(θ‘3) = (log‘6)
 
Theoremppinncl 24589 Closure of the prime-counting function π in the positive integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 2 ≤ 𝐴) → (π𝐴) ∈ ℕ)
 
Theoremchtrpcl 24590 Closure of the Chebyshev function in the positive reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 2 ≤ 𝐴) → (θ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ+)
 
Theoremppieq0 24591 The prime-counting function π is zero iff its argument is less than 2. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → ((π𝐴) = 0 ↔ 𝐴 < 2))
 
Theoremppiltx 24592 The prime-counting function π is strictly less than the identity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ+ → (π𝐴) < 𝐴)
 
Theoremprmorcht 24593 Relate the primorial (product of the first 𝑛 primes) to the Chebyshev function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Sep-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(𝑛 ∈ ℙ, 𝑛, 1))       (𝐴 ∈ ℕ → (exp‘(θ‘𝐴)) = (seq1( · , 𝐹)‘𝐴))
 
Theoremmumullem1 24594 Lemma for mumul 24596. A multiple of a non-squarefree number is non-squarefree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ) ∧ (μ‘𝐴) = 0) → (μ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = 0)
 
Theoremmumullem2 24595 Lemma for mumul 24596. The product of two coprime squarefree numbers is squarefree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 gcd 𝐵) = 1) ∧ ((μ‘𝐴) ≠ 0 ∧ (μ‘𝐵) ≠ 0)) → (μ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) ≠ 0)
 
Theoremmumul 24596 The Möbius function is a multiplicative function. This is one of the primary interests of the Möbius function as an arithmetic function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 gcd 𝐵) = 1) → (μ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((μ‘𝐴) · (μ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremsqff1o 24597* There is a bijection from the squarefree divisors of a number 𝑁 to the powerset of the prime divisors of 𝑁. Among other things, this implies that a number has 2↑𝑘 squarefree divisors where 𝑘 is the number of prime divisors, and a squarefree number has 2↑𝑘 divisors (because all divisors of a squarefree number are squarefree). The inverse function to 𝐹 takes the product of all the primes in some subset of prime divisors of 𝑁. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 1-Jul-2015.)
𝑆 = {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ ((μ‘𝑥) ≠ 0 ∧ 𝑥𝑁)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑛𝑆 ↦ {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝑛})    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑝 pCnt 𝑛)))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝐹:𝑆1-1-onto→𝒫 {𝑝 ∈ ℙ ∣ 𝑝𝑁})
 
Theoremfsumdvdsdiaglem 24598* A "diagonal commutation" of divisor sums analogous to fsum0diag 14220. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Jul-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → ((𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ∧ 𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑗)}) → (𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ∧ 𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑘)})))
 
Theoremfsumdvdsdiag 24599* A "diagonal commutation" of divisor sums analogous to fsum0diag 14220. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Jul-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ∧ 𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑗)})) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑗)}𝐴 = Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑘)}𝐴)
 
Theoremfsumdvdscom 24600* A double commutation of divisor sums based on fsumdvdsdiag 24599. Note that 𝐴 depends on both 𝑗 and 𝑘. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝑗 = (𝑘 · 𝑚) → 𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁} ∧ 𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑗})) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑗}𝐴 = Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥𝑁𝑚 ∈ {𝑥 ∈ ℕ ∣ 𝑥 ∥ (𝑁 / 𝑘)}𝐵)
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