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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 26101-26200   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremusgriedgleord 26101* Alternate version of usgredgleord 26106, not using the notation (Edg‘𝐺). In a simple graph the number of edges which contain a given vertex is not greater than the number of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (#‘{𝑥 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∈ (𝐸𝑥)}) ≤ (#‘𝑉))
 
Theoremushgredgedg 26102* In a simple hypergraph there is a 1-1 onto mapping between the indexed edges containing a fixed vertex and the set of edges containing this vertex. (Contributed by AV, 11-Dec-2020.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∈ (𝐼𝑖)}    &   𝐵 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐼𝑥))       ((𝐺 ∈ USHGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝐹:𝐴1-1-onto𝐵)
 
Theoremusgredgedg 26103* In a simple graph there is a 1-1 onto mapping between the indexed edges containing a fixed vertex and the set of edges containing this vertex. (Contributed by by AV, 18-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 11-Dec-2020.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∈ (𝐼𝑖)}    &   𝐵 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐼𝑥))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝐹:𝐴1-1-onto𝐵)
 
Theoremushgredgedgloop 26104* In a simple hypergraph there is a 1-1 onto mapping between the indexed edges being loops at a fixed vertex and the set of loops at this vertex. (Contributed by AV, 11-Dec-2020.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼 ∣ (𝐼𝑖) = {𝑁}}    &   𝐵 = {𝑒𝐸𝑒 = {𝑁}}    &   𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐼𝑥))       ((𝐺 ∈ USHGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝐹:𝐴1-1-onto𝐵)
 
Theoremuspgredgleord 26105* In a simple pseudograph the number of edges which contain a given vertex is not greater than the number of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 6-Dec-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (#‘{𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}) ≤ (#‘𝑉))
 
Theoremusgredgleord 26106* In a simple graph the number of edges which contain a given vertex is not greater than the number of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 6-Dec-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (#‘{𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}) ≤ (#‘𝑉))
 
TheoremusgredgleordALT 26107* Alternate proof for usgredgleord 26106 based on usgriedgleord 26101. In a simple graph the number of edges which contain a given vertex is not greater than the number of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 5-May-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (#‘{𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}) ≤ (#‘𝑉))
 
Theoremusgrstrrepe 26108* Replacing (or adding) the edges (between elements of the base set) of an extensible structure results in a simple graph. Instead of requiring (𝜑𝐺 Struct 𝑋), it would be sufficient to require (𝜑 → Fun (𝐺 ∖ {∅})) and (𝜑𝐺 ∈ V). (Contributed by AV, 13-Nov-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Nov-2021.)
𝑉 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (.ef‘ndx)    &   (𝜑𝐺 Struct 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → (Base‘ndx) ∈ dom 𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1→{𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (#‘𝑥) = 2})       (𝜑 → (𝐺 sSet ⟨𝐼, 𝐸⟩) ∈ USGraph )
 
16.2.6  Examples for graphs
 
Theoremusgr0e 26109 The empty graph, with vertices but no edges, is a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 25-Nov-2020.)
(𝜑𝐺𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅)       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremusgr0vb 26110 The null graph, with no vertices, is a simple graph iff the edge function is empty. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅) → (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ↔ (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅))
 
Theoremuhgr0v0e 26111 The null graph, with no vertices, has no edges. (Contributed by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ 𝑉 = ∅) → 𝐸 = ∅)
 
Theoremuhgr0vsize0 26112 The size of a hypergraph with no vertices (the null graph) is 0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 7-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (#‘𝑉) = 0) → (#‘𝐸) = 0)
 
Theoremuhgr0edgfi 26113 A graph of order 0 (i.e. with 0 vertices) has a finite set of edges. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 8-Jun-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (#‘(Vtx‘𝐺)) = 0) → (Edg‘𝐺) ∈ Fin)
 
Theoremusgr0v 26114 The null graph, with no vertices, is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 1-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅ ∧ (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅) → 𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremuhgr0vusgr 26115 The null graph, with no vertices, represented by a hypergraph, is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 5-Dec-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅) → 𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremusgr0 26116 The null graph represented by an empty set is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 16-Oct-2020.)
∅ ∈ USGraph
 
Theoremuspgr1e 26117 A simple pseudograph with one edge. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 17-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝐺) = {⟨𝐴, {𝐵, 𝐶}⟩})       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ USPGraph )
 
Theoremusgr1e 26118 A simple graph with one edge (with additional assumption that 𝐵𝐶 since otherwise the edge is a loop!). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝐺) = {⟨𝐴, {𝐵, 𝐶}⟩})    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremusgr0eop 26119 The empty graph, with vertices but no edges, is a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.)
(𝑉𝑊 → ⟨𝑉, ∅⟩ ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremuspgr1eop 26120 A simple pseudograph with (at least) two vertices and one edge. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.)
(((𝑉𝑊𝐴𝑋) ∧ (𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → ⟨𝑉, {⟨𝐴, {𝐵, 𝐶}⟩}⟩ ∈ USPGraph )
 
Theoremuspgr1ewop 26121 A simple pseudograph with (at least) two vertices and one edge represented by a singleton word. (Contributed by AV, 9-Jan-2021.)
((𝑉𝑊𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) → ⟨𝑉, ⟨“{𝐴, 𝐵}”⟩⟩ ∈ USPGraph )
 
Theoremuspgr1v1eop 26122 A simple pseudograph with (at least) one vertex and one edge (a loop). (Contributed by AV, 5-Dec-2020.)
((𝑉𝑊𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑉) → ⟨𝑉, {⟨𝐴, {𝐵}⟩}⟩ ∈ USPGraph )
 
Theoremusgr1eop 26123 A simple graph with (at least) two different vertices and one edge. If the two vertices were not different, the edge would be a loop. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
(((𝑉𝑊𝐴𝑋) ∧ (𝐵𝑉𝐶𝑉)) → (𝐵𝐶 → ⟨𝑉, {⟨𝐴, {𝐵, 𝐶}⟩}⟩ ∈ USGraph ))
 
Theoremuspgr2v1e2w 26124 A simple pseudograph with two vertices and one edge represented by a singleton word. (Contributed by AV, 9-Jan-2021.)
((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌) → ⟨{𝐴, 𝐵}, ⟨“{𝐴, 𝐵}”⟩⟩ ∈ USPGraph )
 
Theoremusgr2v1e2w 26125 A simple graph with two vertices and one edge represented by a singleton word. (Contributed by AV, 9-Jan-2021.)
((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐴𝐵) → ⟨{𝐴, 𝐵}, ⟨“{𝐴, 𝐵}”⟩⟩ ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremedg0usgr 26126 A class without edges is a simple graph. Since ran 𝐹 = ∅ does not generally imply Fun 𝐹, but Fun (iEdg‘𝐺) is required for 𝐺 to be a simple graph, however, this must be provided as assertion. (Contributed by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Edg‘𝐺) = ∅ ∧ Fun (iEdg‘𝐺)) → 𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremlfuhgr1v0e 26127* A loop-free hypergraph with one vertex has no edges. (Contributed by AV, 18-Oct-2020.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑥)}       ((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (#‘𝑉) = 1 ∧ 𝐼:dom 𝐼𝐸) → (Edg‘𝐺) = ∅)
 
Theoremusgr1vr 26128 A simple graph with one vertex has no edges. (Contributed by AV, 18-Oct-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
((𝐴𝑋 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = {𝐴}) → (𝐺 ∈ USGraph → (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅))
 
Theoremusgr1v 26129 A class with one (or no) vertex is a simple graph if and only if it has no edges. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 13-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = {𝐴}) → (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ↔ (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅))
 
Theoremusgr1v0edg 26130 A class with one (or no) vertex is a simple graph if and only if it has no edges. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 13-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 18-Oct-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = {𝐴} ∧ Fun (iEdg‘𝐺)) → (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ↔ (Edg‘𝐺) = ∅))
 
Theoremusgrexmpldifpr 26131 Lemma for usgrexmpledg 26135: all "edges" are different. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Aug-2017.)
(({0, 1} ≠ {1, 2} ∧ {0, 1} ≠ {2, 0} ∧ {0, 1} ≠ {0, 3}) ∧ ({1, 2} ≠ {2, 0} ∧ {1, 2} ≠ {0, 3} ∧ {2, 0} ≠ {0, 3}))
 
Theoremusgrexmplef 26132* Lemma for usgrexmpl 26136. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Aug-2017.)
𝑉 = (0...4)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {1, 2} {2, 0} {0, 3}”⟩       𝐸:dom 𝐸1-1→{𝑒 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (#‘𝑒) = 2}
 
Theoremusgrexmpllem 26133 Lemma for usgrexmpl 26136. (Contributed by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (0...4)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {1, 2} {2, 0} {0, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((Vtx‘𝐺) = 𝑉 ∧ (iEdg‘𝐺) = 𝐸)
 
Theoremusgrexmplvtx 26134 The vertices 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 of the graph 𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸. (Contributed by AV, 12-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (0...4)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {1, 2} {2, 0} {0, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       (Vtx‘𝐺) = ({0, 1, 2} ∪ {3, 4})
 
Theoremusgrexmpledg 26135 The edges {0, 1}, {1, 2}, {2, 0}, {0, 3} of the graph 𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸. (Contributed by AV, 12-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (0...4)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {1, 2} {2, 0} {0, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       (Edg‘𝐺) = ({{0, 1}, {1, 2}} ∪ {{2, 0}, {0, 3}})
 
Theoremusgrexmpl 26136 𝐺 is a simple graph of five vertices 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, with edges {0, 1}, {1, 2}, {2, 0}, {0, 3}. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (0...4)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {1, 2} {2, 0} {0, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       𝐺 ∈ USGraph
 
Theoremgriedg0prc 26137* The class of empty graphs (represented as ordered pairs) is a proper class. (Contributed by AV, 27-Dec-2020.)
𝑈 = {⟨𝑣, 𝑒⟩ ∣ 𝑒:∅⟶∅}       𝑈 ∉ V
 
Theoremgriedg0ssusgr 26138* The class of all simple graphs is a superclass of the class of empty graphs represented as ordered pairs. (Contributed by AV, 27-Dec-2020.)
𝑈 = {⟨𝑣, 𝑒⟩ ∣ 𝑒:∅⟶∅}       𝑈 ⊆ USGraph
 
Theoremusgrprc 26139 The class of simple graphs is a proper class (and therefore, because of prcssprc 4797, the classes of multigraphs, pseudographs and hypergraphs are proper classes, too). (Contributed by AV, 27-Dec-2020.)
USGraph ∉ V
 
16.2.7  Subgraphs
 
Syntaxcsubgr 26140 Extend class notation with subgraphs.
class SubGraph
 
Definitiondf-subgr 26141* Define the class of the subgraph relation. A class 𝑠 is a subgraph of a class 𝑔 (the supergraph of 𝑠) if its vertices are also vertices of 𝑔, and its edges are also edges of 𝑔, connecting vertices of 𝑠 only (see section I.1 in [Bollobas] p. 2 or section 1.1 in [Diestel] p. 4). The second condition is ensured by the requirement that the edge function of 𝑠 is a restriction of the edge function of 𝑔 having only vertices of 𝑠 in its range. Note that the domains of the edge functions of the subgraph and the supergraph should be compatible. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.)
SubGraph = {⟨𝑠, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ((Vtx‘𝑠) ⊆ (Vtx‘𝑔) ∧ (iEdg‘𝑠) = ((iEdg‘𝑔) ↾ dom (iEdg‘𝑠)) ∧ (Edg‘𝑠) ⊆ 𝒫 (Vtx‘𝑠))}
 
Theoremrelsubgr 26142 The class of the subgraph relation is a relation. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.)
Rel SubGraph
 
Theoremsubgrv 26143 If a class is a subgraph of another class, both classes are sets. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.)
(𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 → (𝑆 ∈ V ∧ 𝐺 ∈ V))
 
Theoremissubgr 26144 The property of a set to be a subgraph of another set. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝑆)       ((𝐺𝑊𝑆𝑈) → (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 ↔ (𝑉𝐴𝐼 = (𝐵 ↾ dom 𝐼) ∧ 𝐸 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑉)))
 
Theoremissubgr2 26145 The property of a set to be a subgraph of a set whose edge function is actually a function. (Contributed by AV, 20-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝑆)       ((𝐺𝑊 ∧ Fun 𝐵𝑆𝑈) → (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 ↔ (𝑉𝐴𝐼𝐵𝐸 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑉)))
 
Theoremsubgrprop 26146 The properties of a subgraph. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝑆)       (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 → (𝑉𝐴𝐼 = (𝐵 ↾ dom 𝐼) ∧ 𝐸 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑉))
 
Theoremsubgrprop2 26147 The properties of a subgraph: If 𝑆 is a subgraph of 𝐺, its vertices are also vertices of 𝐺, and its edges are also edges of 𝐺, connecting vertices of the subgraph only. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝑆)       (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 → (𝑉𝐴𝐼𝐵𝐸 ⊆ 𝒫 𝑉))
 
Theoremuhgrissubgr 26148 The property of a hypergraph to be a subgraph. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺𝑊 ∧ Fun 𝐵𝑆 ∈ UHGraph ) → (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 ↔ (𝑉𝐴𝐼𝐵)))
 
Theoremsubgrprop3 26149 The properties of a subgraph: If 𝑆 is a subgraph of 𝐺, its vertices are also vertices of 𝐺, and its edges are also edges of 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐴 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝑆)    &   𝐵 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺 → (𝑉𝐴𝐸𝐵))
 
Theoremegrsubgr 26150 An empty graph consisting of a subset of vertices of a graph (and having no edges) is a subgraph of the graph. (Contributed by AV, 17-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 17-Dec-2020.)
(((𝐺𝑊𝑆𝑈) ∧ (Vtx‘𝑆) ⊆ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ (Fun (iEdg‘𝑆) ∧ (Edg‘𝑆) = ∅)) → 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theorem0grsubgr 26151 The null graph (represented by an empty set) is a subgraph of all graphs. (Contributed by AV, 17-Nov-2020.)
(𝐺𝑊 → ∅ SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theorem0uhgrsubgr 26152 The null graph (as hypergraph) is a subgraph of all graphs. (Contributed by AV, 17-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 28-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺𝑊𝑆 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (Vtx‘𝑆) = ∅) → 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theoremuhgrsubgrself 26153 A hypergraph is a subgraph of itself. (Contributed by AV, 17-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 21-Nov-2020.)
(𝐺 ∈ UHGraph → 𝐺 SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theoremsubgrfun 26154 The edge function of a subgraph of a graph whose edge function is actually a function is a function. (Contributed by AV, 20-Nov-2020.)
((Fun (iEdg‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → Fun (iEdg‘𝑆))
 
Theoremsubgruhgrfun 26155 The edge function of a subgraph of a hypergraph is a function. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 20-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → Fun (iEdg‘𝑆))
 
Theoremsubgreldmiedg 26156 An element of the domain of the edge function of a subgraph is an element of the domain of the edge function of the supergraph. (Contributed by AV, 20-Nov-2020.)
((𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺𝑋 ∈ dom (iEdg‘𝑆)) → 𝑋 ∈ dom (iEdg‘𝐺))
 
Theoremsubgruhgredgd 26157 An edge of a subgraph of a hypergraph is a nonempty subset of its vertices. (Contributed by AV, 17-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UHGraph )    &   (𝜑𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ dom 𝐼)       (𝜑 → (𝐼𝑋) ∈ (𝒫 𝑉 ∖ {∅}))
 
Theoremsubumgredg2 26158* An edge of a subgraph of a multigraph connects exactly two different vertices. (Contributed by AV, 26-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝑆)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝑆)       ((𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑋 ∈ dom 𝐼) → (𝐼𝑋) ∈ {𝑒 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (#‘𝑒) = 2})
 
Theoremsubuhgr 26159 A subgraph of a hypergraph is a hypergraph. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 21-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → 𝑆 ∈ UHGraph )
 
Theoremsubupgr 26160 A subgraph of a pseudograph is a pseudograph. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 21-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → 𝑆 ∈ UPGraph )
 
Theoremsubumgr 26161 A subgraph of a multigraph is a multigraph. (Contributed by AV, 26-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → 𝑆 ∈ UMGraph )
 
Theoremsubusgr 26162 A subgraph of a simple graph is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 16-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺) → 𝑆 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremuhgrspansubgrlem 26163 Lemma for uhgrspansubgr 26164: The edges of the graph 𝑆 obtained by removing some edges of a hypergraph 𝐺 are subsets of its vertices (a spanning subgraph, see comment for uhgrspansubgr 26164. (Contributed by AV, 18-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UHGraph )       (𝜑 → (Edg‘𝑆) ⊆ 𝒫 (Vtx‘𝑆))
 
Theoremuhgrspansubgr 26164 A spanning subgraph 𝑆 of a hypergraph 𝐺 is actually a subgraph of 𝐺. A subgraph 𝑆 of a graph 𝐺 which has the same vertices as 𝐺 and is obtained by removing some edges of 𝐺 is called a spanning subgraph (see section I.1 in [Bollobas] p. 2 and section 1.1 in [Diestel] p. 4). Formally, the edges are "removed" by restricting the edge function of the original graph by an arbitrary class (which actually needs not to be a subset of the domain of the edge function). (Contributed by AV, 18-Nov-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 21-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UHGraph )       (𝜑𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theoremuhgrspan 26165 A spanning subgraph 𝑆 of a hypergraph 𝐺 is a hypergraph. (Contributed by AV, 11-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 18-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UHGraph )       (𝜑𝑆 ∈ UHGraph )
 
Theoremupgrspan 26166 A spanning subgraph 𝑆 of a pseudograph 𝐺 is a pseudograph. (Contributed by AV, 11-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 18-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UPGraph )       (𝜑𝑆 ∈ UPGraph )
 
Theoremumgrspan 26167 A spanning subgraph 𝑆 of a multigraph 𝐺 is a multigraph. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UMGraph )       (𝜑𝑆 ∈ UMGraph )
 
Theoremusgrspan 26168 A spanning subgraph 𝑆 of a simple graph 𝐺 is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 15-Oct-2020.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 18-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐸𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ USGraph )       (𝜑𝑆 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremuhgrspanop 26169 A spanning subgraph of a hypergraph represented by an ordered pair is a hypergraph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 27-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 11-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UHGraph → ⟨𝑉, (𝐸𝐴)⟩ ∈ UHGraph )
 
Theoremupgrspanop 26170 A spanning subgraph of a pseudograph represented by an ordered pair is a pseudograph. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 13-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UPGraph → ⟨𝑉, (𝐸𝐴)⟩ ∈ UPGraph )
 
Theoremumgrspanop 26171 A spanning subgraph of a multigraph represented by an ordered pair is a multigraph. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UMGraph → ⟨𝑉, (𝐸𝐴)⟩ ∈ UMGraph )
 
Theoremusgrspanop 26172 A spanning subgraph of a simple graph represented by an ordered pair is a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Aug-2017.) (Revised by AV, 16-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ USGraph → ⟨𝑉, (𝐸𝐴)⟩ ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremuhgrspan1lem1 26173 Lemma 1 for uhgrspan1 26176. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∉ (𝐼𝑖)}       ((𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}) ∈ V ∧ (𝐼𝐹) ∈ V)
 
Theoremuhgrspan1lem2 26174 Lemma 2 for uhgrspan1 26176. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∉ (𝐼𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐼𝐹)⟩       (Vtx‘𝑆) = (𝑉 ∖ {𝑁})
 
Theoremuhgrspan1lem3 26175 Lemma 3 for uhgrspan1 26176. (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∉ (𝐼𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐼𝐹)⟩       (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼𝐹)
 
Theoremuhgrspan1 26176* The induced subgraph 𝑆 of a hypergraph 𝐺 obtained by removing one vertex is actually a subgraph of 𝐺. A subgraph is called induced or spanned by a subset of vertices of a graph if it contains all edges of the original graph that join two vertices of the subgraph (see section I.1 in [Bollobas] p. 2 and section 1.1 in [Diestel] p. 4). (Contributed by AV, 19-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐼𝑁 ∉ (𝐼𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐼𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 SubGraph 𝐺)
 
Theoremupgrreslem 26177* Lemma for upgrres 26179. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 19-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∉ (𝐸𝑖)}       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → ran (𝐸𝐹) ⊆ {𝑝 ∈ (𝒫 (𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}) ∖ {∅}) ∣ (#‘𝑝) ≤ 2})
 
Theoremumgrreslem 26178* Lemma for umgrres 26180 and usgrres 26181. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 19-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∉ (𝐸𝑖)}       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → ran (𝐸𝐹) ⊆ {𝑝 ∈ 𝒫 (𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}) ∣ (#‘𝑝) = 2})
 
Theoremupgrres 26179* A subgraph obtained by removing one vertex and all edges incident with this vertex from a pseudograph (see uhgrspan1 26176) is a pseudograph. (Contributed by AV, 8-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 19-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∉ (𝐸𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐸𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ UPGraph )
 
Theoremumgrres 26180* A subgraph obtained by removing one vertex and all edges incident with this vertex from a multigraph (see uhgrspan1 26176) is a multigraph. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.) (Revised by AV, 19-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∉ (𝐸𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐸𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ UMGraph )
 
Theoremusgrres 26181* A subgraph obtained by removing one vertex and all edges incident with this vertex from a simple graph (see uhgrspan1 26176) is a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 2-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 19-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐸𝑁 ∉ (𝐸𝑖)}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), (𝐸𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremupgrres1lem1 26182* Lemma 1 for upgrres1 26186. (Contributed by AV, 7-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}       ((𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}) ∈ V ∧ ( I ↾ 𝐹) ∈ V)
 
Theoremumgrres1lem 26183* Lemma for umgrres1 26187. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → ran ( I ↾ 𝐹) ⊆ {𝑝 ∈ 𝒫 (𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}) ∣ (#‘𝑝) = 2})
 
Theoremupgrres1lem2 26184* Lemma 2 for upgrres1 26186. (Contributed by AV, 7-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), ( I ↾ 𝐹)⟩       (Vtx‘𝑆) = (𝑉 ∖ {𝑁})
 
Theoremupgrres1lem3 26185* Lemma 3 for upgrres1 26186. (Contributed by AV, 7-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), ( I ↾ 𝐹)⟩       (iEdg‘𝑆) = ( I ↾ 𝐹)
 
Theoremupgrres1 26186* A pseudograph obtained by removing one vertex and all edges incident with this vertex is a pseudograph. Remark: This graph is not a subgraph of the original graph in the sense of df-subgr 26141 since the domains of the edge functions may not be compatible. (Contributed by AV, 8-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), ( I ↾ 𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ UPGraph )
 
Theoremumgrres1 26187* A multigraph obtained by removing one vertex and all edges incident with this vertex is a multigraph. Remark: This graph is not a subgraph of the original graph in the sense of df-subgr 26141 since the domains of the edge functions may not be compatible. (Contributed by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), ( I ↾ 𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ UMGraph )
 
Theoremusgrres1 26188* Restricting a simple graph by removing one vertex results in a simple graph. Remark: This restricted graph is not a subgraph of the original graph in the sense of df-subgr 26141 since the domains of the edge functions may not be compatible. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 2-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 23-Oct-2020.) (Proof shortened by AV, 27-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}    &   𝑆 = ⟨(𝑉 ∖ {𝑁}), ( I ↾ 𝐹)⟩       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → 𝑆 ∈ USGraph )
 
16.2.8  Finite undirected simple graphs
 
Syntaxcfusgr 26189 Extend class notation with finite simple graphs.
class FinUSGraph
 
Definitiondf-fusgr 26190 Define the class of all finite undirected simple graphs without loops (called "finite simple graphs" in the following). A finite simple graph is an undirected simple graph of finite order, i.e. with a finite set of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 3-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
FinUSGraph = {𝑔 ∈ USGraph ∣ (Vtx‘𝑔) ∈ Fin}
 
Theoremisfusgr 26191 The property of being a finite simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 3-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ↔ (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin))
 
Theoremfusgrvtxfi 26192 A finite simple graph has a finite set of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 16-Dec-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph → 𝑉 ∈ Fin)
 
Theoremisfusgrf1 26193* The property of being a finite simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 3-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑊 → (𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ↔ (𝐼:dom 𝐼1-1→{𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (#‘𝑥) = 2} ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin)))
 
Theoremisfusgrcl 26194 The property of being a finite simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 3-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 9-Jan-2020.)
(𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ↔ (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (#‘(Vtx‘𝐺)) ∈ ℕ0))
 
Theoremfusgrusgr 26195 A finite simple graph is a simple graph. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
(𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph → 𝐺 ∈ USGraph )
 
Theoremopfusgr 26196 A finite simple graph represented as ordered pair. (Contributed by AV, 23-Oct-2020.)
((𝑉𝑋𝐸𝑌) → (⟨𝑉, 𝐸⟩ ∈ FinUSGraph ↔ (⟨𝑉, 𝐸⟩ ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin)))
 
Theoremusgredgffibi 26197 The number of edges in a simple graph is finite iff its edge function is finite. (Contributed by AV, 10-Jan-2020.) (Revised by AV, 22-Oct-2020.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ USGraph → (𝐸 ∈ Fin ↔ 𝐼 ∈ Fin))
 
Theoremfusgredgfi 26198* In a finite simple graph the number of edges which contain a given vertex is also finite. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 21-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒} ∈ Fin)
 
Theoremusgr1v0e 26199 The size of a (finite) simple graph with 1 vertex is 0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 22-Oct-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (#‘𝑉) = 1) → (#‘𝐸) = 0)
 
Theoremusgrfilem 26200* In a finite simple graph, the number of edges is finite iff the number of edges not containing one of the vertices is finite. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 9-Nov-2020.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐹 = {𝑒𝐸𝑁𝑒}       ((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (𝐸 ∈ Fin ↔ 𝐹 ∈ Fin))
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