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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 38601-38700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremlimcmptdm 38601* The domain of a map-to function with a limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))       (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)
 
Theoremclim2f 38602* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴, with more general quantifier restrictions than clim 13939. Similar to clim2 13949, but without the disjoint var constraint 𝐹𝑘. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑥))))
 
Theoremlimcicciooub 38603 The limit of a function at the upper bound of a closed interval only depends on the values in the inner open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴[,]𝐵)⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵) = (𝐹 lim 𝐵))
 
Theoremltmod 38604 A sufficient condition for a "less than" relationship for the mod operator. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝐴 − (𝐴 mod 𝐵))[,)𝐴))       (𝜑 → (𝐶 mod 𝐵) < (𝐴 mod 𝐵))
 
Theoremislpcn 38605* A characterization for a limit point for the standard topology on the complex numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑃 ∈ ((limPt‘(TopOpen‘ℂfld))‘𝑆) ↔ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (𝑆 ∖ {𝑃})(abs‘(𝑥𝑃)) < 𝑒))
 
Theoremlptre2pt 38606* If a set in the real line has a limit point than it contains two distinct points that are closer than a given distance. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ((limPt‘𝐽)‘𝐴) ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐴 (𝑥𝑦 ∧ (abs‘(𝑥𝑦)) < 𝐸))
 
Theoremlimsupre 38607* If a sequence is bounded, then the limsup is real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.) (Revised by AV, 13-Sep-2020.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐵, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑏 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐵 (𝑘𝑗 → (abs‘(𝐹𝑗)) ≤ 𝑏))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)
 
TheoremlimsupreOLD 38608* If a sequence is bounded, then the limsup is real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.) Obsolete version of limsupre 38607 as of 13-Sep-2020. (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐵, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑏 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐵 (𝑘𝑗 → (abs‘(𝐹𝑗)) ≤ 𝑏))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremlimcresiooub 38609 The left limit doesn't change if the function is restricted to a smaller open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 < 𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵(,)𝐶) ⊆ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐵)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)𝐶)) lim 𝐶) = ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐷(,)𝐶)) lim 𝐶))
 
Theoremlimcresioolb 38610 The right limit doesn't change if the function is restricted to a smaller open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 < 𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵(,)𝐶) ⊆ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝐷)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)𝐶)) lim 𝐵) = ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)𝐷)) lim 𝐵))
 
Theoremlimcleqr 38611 If the left and the right limits are equal, the limit of the function exits and the three limits coincide. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)+∞)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐿 = 𝑅)       (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))
 
Theoremlptioo2cn 38612 The upper bound of an open interval is a limit point of the interval, wirth respect to the standard topology on complex numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴(,)𝐵)))
 
Theoremlptioo1cn 38613 The lower bound of an open interval is a limit point of the interval, wirth respect to the standard topology on complex numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐽 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴(,)𝐵)))
 
Theoremneglimc 38614* Limit of the negative function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))       (𝜑 → -𝐶 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))
 
Theoremaddlimc 38615* Sum of two limits. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐵 + 𝐶))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐸 + 𝐼) ∈ (𝐻 lim 𝐷))
 
Theorem0ellimcdiv 38616* If the numerator converges to 0 and the denominator converges to non zero then the fraction converges to 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐵 / 𝐶))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}))    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → 0 ∈ (𝐻 lim 𝐸))
 
Theoremclim2cf 38617* Express the predicate 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. Similar to clim2 13949, but without the disjoint var constraint 𝐹𝑘. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑥))
 
Theoremlimclner 38618 For a limit point, both from the left and from the right, of the domain, the limit of the function exits only if the left and the right limits are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (-∞(,)𝐵))))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵(,)+∞))))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)+∞)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐿𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 lim 𝐵) = ∅)
 
Theoremsublimc 38619* Subtraction of two limits. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐵𝐶))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐸𝐼) ∈ (𝐻 lim 𝐷))
 
Theoremreclimc 38620* Limit of the reciprocal of a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (1 / 𝐵))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (1 / 𝐶) ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))
 
Theoremclim0cf 38621* Express the predicate 𝐹 converges to 0. Similar to clim 13939, but without the disjoint var constraint 𝐹𝑘. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ⇝ 0 ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘𝐵) < 𝑥))
 
Theoremlimclr 38622 For a limit point, both from the left and from the right, of the domain, the limit of the function exits only if the left and the right limits are equal. In this case, the three limits coincide. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (-∞(,)𝐵))))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵(,)+∞))))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)+∞)) lim 𝐵))       (𝜑 → (((𝐹 lim 𝐵) ≠ ∅ ↔ 𝐿 = 𝑅) ∧ (𝐿 = 𝑅𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))))
 
Theoremdivlimc 38623* Limit of the quotient of two funcions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐴𝐶)    &   𝐻 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐵 / 𝐶))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ≠ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐶 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (𝑋 / 𝑌) ∈ (𝐻 lim 𝐷))
 
Theoremexpfac 38624* Factorial grows faster than exponential. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐴𝑛) / (!‘𝑛)))       (𝐴 ∈ ℂ → 𝐹 ⇝ 0)
 
Theoremclimconstmpt 38625* A constant sequence converges to its value. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑍𝐴) ⇝ 𝐴)
 
Theoremclimresmpt 38626* A function restricted to upper integers converges iff the original function converges. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥𝑍𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑍)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (ℤ𝑁) ↦ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝐵𝐹𝐵))
 
Theoremclimsubmpt 38627* Limit of the difference of two converging sequences. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍𝐴) ⇝ 𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍𝐵) ⇝ 𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ (𝐴𝐵)) ⇝ (𝐶𝐷))
 
Theoremclimsubc2mpt 38628* Limit of the difference of two converging sequences. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍𝐴) ⇝ 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ (𝐴𝐵)) ⇝ (𝐶𝐵))
 
Theoremclimsubc1mpt 38629* Limit of the difference of two converging sequences. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍𝐵) ⇝ 𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ (𝐴𝐵)) ⇝ (𝐴𝐶))
 
Theoremfnlimfv 38630* The value of the limit function 𝐺 at any point of its domain 𝐷. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑥𝐷    &   𝑥𝐹    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝑋) = ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋))))
 
Theoremclimreclf 38631* The limit of a convergent real sequence is real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremclimeldmeq 38632* Two functions that are eventually equal, either both are convergent or both are divergent. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = (𝐺𝑘))       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ 𝐺 ∈ dom ⇝ ))
 
Theoremclimf2 38633* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. Similar to clim 13939, but without the disjoint var constraint 𝜑𝑘 and 𝐹𝑘. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑥))))
 
Theoremfnlimcnv 38634* The sequence of function values converges to the value of the limit function 𝐺 at any point of its domain 𝐷. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑥𝐹    &   𝐷 = {𝑥 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚) ∣ (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥)) ∈ dom ⇝ }    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋)) ⇝ (𝐺𝑋))
 
Theoremclimeldmeqmpt 38635* Two functions that are eventually equal, either both are convergent or both are divergent. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐶) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → ((𝑘𝐴𝐵) ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ (𝑘𝐶𝐷) ∈ dom ⇝ ))
 
Theoremclimfveq 38636* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = (𝐺𝑘))       (𝜑 → ( ⇝ ‘𝐹) = ( ⇝ ‘𝐺))
 
Theoremclim2f2 38637* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴, with more general quantifier restrictions than clim 13939. Similar to clim2 13949, but without the disjoint var constraint 𝐹𝑘. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑥))))
 
Theoremclimfveqmpt 38638* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐶) → 𝐷𝑊)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → ( ⇝ ‘(𝑘𝐴𝐵)) = ( ⇝ ‘(𝑘𝐶𝐷)))
 
Theoremclimd 38639* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑋))
 
Theoremclim2d 38640* The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is eventually approximated. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) < 𝑋))
 
Theoremfnlimfvre 38641* The limit function of real functions, applied to elements in its domain, evaluates to Real values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑚𝜑    &   𝑚𝐹    &   𝑥𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑚𝑍) → (𝐹𝑚):dom (𝐹𝑚)⟶ℝ)    &   𝐷 = {𝑥 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚) ∣ (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥)) ∈ dom ⇝ }    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)       (𝜑 → ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋))) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremallbutfifvre 38642* Given a sequence of real valued functions, and 𝑋 that belongs to all but finitely many domains, then its function value is ultimately a real number. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑚𝜑    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑚𝑍) → (𝐹𝑚):dom (𝐹𝑚)⟶ℝ)    &   𝐷 = 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑛𝑍𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremclimleltrp 38643* The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is eventually approximated. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑁)) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < (𝐶 + 𝑋)))
 
Theoremfnlimfvre2 38644* The limit function of real functions, applied to elements in its domain, evaluates to Real values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑚𝜑    &   𝑚𝐹    &   𝑥𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑚𝑍) → (𝐹𝑚):dom (𝐹𝑚)⟶ℝ)    &   𝐷 = {𝑥 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚) ∣ (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥)) ∈ dom ⇝ }    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝑋) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremfnlimf 38645* The limit function of real functions, is a real valued function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑚𝜑    &   𝑚𝐹    &   𝑥𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑚𝑍) → (𝐹𝑚):dom (𝐹𝑚)⟶ℝ)    &   𝐷 = {𝑥 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚) ∣ (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥)) ∈ dom ⇝ }    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥))))       (𝜑𝐺:𝐷⟶ℝ)
 
Theoremfnlimabslt 38646* A sequence of function values, approximates the corresponding limit function value, all but finitely many times. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 26-Jun-2021.)
𝑚𝜑    &   𝑚𝐹    &   𝑥𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑚𝑍) → (𝐹𝑚):dom (𝐹𝑚)⟶ℝ)    &   𝐷 = {𝑥 𝑛𝑍 𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)dom (𝐹𝑚) ∣ (𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥)) ∈ dom ⇝ }    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ ( ⇝ ‘(𝑚𝑍 ↦ ((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑛𝑍𝑚 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)(((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋) ∈ ℝ ∧ (abs‘(((𝐹𝑚)‘𝑋) − (𝐺𝑋))) < 𝑌))
 
20.31.8  Trigonometry
 
Theoremcoseq0 38647 A complex number whose cosine is zero. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ((cos‘𝐴) = 0 ↔ ((𝐴 / π) + (1 / 2)) ∈ ℤ))
 
Theoremsinmulcos 38648 Multiplication formula for sine and cosine. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((sin‘𝐴) · (cos‘𝐵)) = (((sin‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) + (sin‘(𝐴𝐵))) / 2))
 
Theoremcoskpi2 38649 The cosine of an integer multiple of negative π is either 1 or negative 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐾 ∈ ℤ → (cos‘(𝐾 · π)) = if(2 ∥ 𝐾, 1, -1))
 
Theoremcosnegpi 38650 The cosine of negative π is negative 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(cos‘-π) = -1
 
Theoremsinaover2ne0 38651 If 𝐴 in (0, 2π) then sin(𝐴 / 2) is not 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ (0(,)(2 · π)) → (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)) ≠ 0)
 
Theoremcosknegpi 38652 The cosine of an integer multiple of negative π is either 1 ore negative 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐾 ∈ ℤ → (cos‘(𝐾 · -π)) = if(2 ∥ 𝐾, 1, -1))
 
20.31.9  Continuous Functions
 
Theoremmulcncff 38653 The multiplication of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑓 · 𝐺) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremsubcncf 38654* The addition of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐴) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐵) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴𝐵)) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfmptssg 38655* A continuous complex function restricted to a subset is continuous, using "map to" notation. This theorem generalizes cncfmptss 38553 because it allows to establish a subset for the codomain also. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴𝐸)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴cn𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐶) → 𝐸𝐷)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐶𝐸) ∈ (𝐶cn𝐷))
 
Theoremconstcncfg 38656* A constant function is a continuous function on . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ⊆ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐶))
 
Theoremidcncfg 38657* The identity function is a continuous function on . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝑥) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐵))
 
Theoremaddcncf 38658* The addition of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐴) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐵) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 + 𝐵)) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfshift 38659* A periodic continuous function stays continuous if the domain is shifted a period. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐵 = {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ ∃𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = (𝑦 + 𝑇)}    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐵 ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑥𝑇)))       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝐵cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremresincncf 38660 sin restricted to reals is continuous from reals to reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(sin ↾ ℝ) ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ)
 
Theoremaddccncf2 38661* Adding a constant is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐵 + 𝑥))       ((𝐴 ⊆ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → 𝐹 ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))
 
Theorem0cnf 38662 The empty set is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
∅ ∈ ({∅} Cn {∅})
 
Theoremfsumcncf 38663* The finite sum of continuous complex function is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → (𝑥𝑋𝐵) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋 ↦ Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfperiod 38664* A periodic continuous function stays continuous if the domain is shifted a period. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐵 = {𝑥 ∈ ℂ ∣ ∃𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = (𝑦 + 𝑇)}    &   (𝜑𝐹:dom 𝐹⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ dom 𝐹)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → (𝐹‘(𝑥 + 𝑇)) = (𝐹𝑥))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐵) ∈ (𝐵cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremsubcncff 38665 The subtraction of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑓𝐺) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremnegcncfg 38666* The opposite of a continuous function is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝐵) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcnfdmsn 38667* A function with a singleton domain is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (𝑥 ∈ {𝐴} ↦ 𝐵) ∈ (𝒫 {𝐴} Cn 𝒫 {𝐵}))
 
Theoremcncfcompt 38668* Composition of continuous functions. A generalization of cncfmpt1f 22447 to arbitrary domains. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝐵) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶cn𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴 ↦ (𝐹𝐵)) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐷))
 
Theoremdivcncf 38669* The quotient of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐴) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋𝐵) ∈ (𝑋cn→(ℂ ∖ {0})))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 / 𝐵)) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremaddcncff 38670 The addition of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑓 + 𝐺) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremioccncflimc 38671 Limit at the upper bound, of a continuous function defined on a left open right closed interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐵) ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))
 
Theoremcncfuni 38672* A function is continuous if it's domain is the union of sets over which the function is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑏𝐵) → (𝐴𝑏) ∈ ((TopOpen‘ℂfld) ↾t 𝐴))    &   ((𝜑𝑏𝐵) → (𝐹𝑏) ∈ ((𝐴𝑏)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremicccncfext 38673* A continuous function on a closed interval can be extended to a continuous function on the whole real line. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑥𝐹    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑌 = 𝐾    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ if(𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵), (𝐹𝑥), if(𝑥 < 𝐴, (𝐹𝐴), (𝐹𝐵))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ Top)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐽t (𝐴[,]𝐵)) Cn 𝐾))       (𝜑 → (𝐺 ∈ (𝐽 Cn (𝐾t ran 𝐹)) ∧ (𝐺 ↾ (𝐴[,]𝐵)) = 𝐹))
 
Theoremcncficcgt0 38674* A the absolute value of a continuous function on a closed interval, that is never 0, has a strictly positive lower bound. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→(ℝ ∖ {0})))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵)𝑦 ≤ (abs‘𝐶))
 
Theoremicocncflimc 38675 Limit at the lower bound, of a continuous function defined on a left closed right open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐴))
 
Theoremcncfdmsn 38676* A complex function with a singleton domain is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (𝑥 ∈ {𝐴} ↦ 𝐵) ∈ ({𝐴}–cn→{𝐵}))
 
Theoremdivcncff 38677 The quotient of two continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝑋cn→(ℂ ∖ {0})))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑓 / 𝐺) ∈ (𝑋cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfshiftioo 38678* A periodic continuous function stays continuous if the domain is an open interval that is shifted a period. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐶 = (𝐴(,)𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐷 = ((𝐴 + 𝑇)(,)(𝐵 + 𝑇))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐶cn→ℂ))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑥𝑇)))       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ (𝐷cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfiooicclem1 38679* A continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval (𝐴(,)𝐵) can be extended to a continuous function 𝐺 on the corresponding closed interval, if it has a finite right limit 𝑅 in 𝐴 and a finite left limit 𝐿 in 𝐵. 𝐹 can be complex valued. This lemma assumes 𝐴 < 𝐵, the invoking theorem drops this assumption. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐴, 𝑅, if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfiooicc 38680* A continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval (𝐴(,)𝐵) can be extended to a continuous function 𝐺 on the corresponding closed interval, if it has a finite right limit 𝑅 in 𝐴 and a finite left limit 𝐿 in 𝐵. 𝐹 can be complex valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐴, 𝑅, if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremcncfiooiccre 38681* A continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval (𝐴(,)𝐵) can be extended to a continuous function 𝐺 on the corresponding closed interval, if it has a finite right limit 𝑅 in 𝐴 and a finite left limit 𝐿 in 𝐵. 𝐹 is assumed to be real valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐴, 𝑅, if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℝ))
 
Theoremcncfioobdlem 38682* 𝐺 actually extends 𝐹. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶𝑉)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐴, 𝑅, if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝑥))))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝐶) = (𝐹𝐶))
 
Theoremcncfioobd 38683* A continuous function 𝐹 on an open interval (𝐴(,)𝐵) with a finite right limit 𝑅 in 𝐴 and a finite left limit 𝐿 in 𝐵 is bounded. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)(abs‘(𝐹𝑦)) ≤ 𝑥)
 
Theoremjumpncnp 38684 Jump discontinuity or discontinuity of the first kind: if the left and the right limit don't match, the function is discontinuous at the point. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (TopOpen‘ℂfld)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (-∞(,)𝐵))))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ((limPt‘𝐽)‘(𝐴 ∩ (𝐵(,)+∞))))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝐵)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐵(,)+∞)) lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐿𝑅)       (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐹 ∈ ((𝐽 CnP (TopOpen‘ℂfld))‘𝐵))
 
Theoremcncfcompt2 38685* Composition of continuous functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝑅) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑦𝐶𝑆) ∈ (𝐶cn𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝑦 = 𝑅𝑆 = 𝑇)       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝑇) ∈ (𝐴cn𝐸))
 
Theoremcxpcncf2 38686* The complex power function is continuous with respect to its second argument. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
(𝐴 ∈ (ℂ ∖ (-∞(,]0)) → (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝐴𝑐𝑥)) ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremfprodcncf 38687* The finite product of continuous complex functions is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴𝑘𝐵) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐵) → (𝑥𝐴𝐶) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))       (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴 ↦ ∏𝑘𝐵 𝐶) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremadd1cncf 38688* Addition to a constant is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑥 + 𝐴))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremadd2cncf 38689* Addition to a constant is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝐴 + 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremsub1cncfd 38690* Subtracting a constant is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑥𝐴))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremsub2cncfd 38691* Subtraction from a constant is a continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝐴𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremfprodsub2cncf 38692* 𝐹 is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremfprodadd2cncf 38693* 𝐹 is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 + 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℂ–cn→ℂ))
 
Theoremfprodsubrecnncnvlem 38694* The sequence 𝑆 of finite products, where every factor is subtracted an "always smaller" amount, converges to the finite product of the factors. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 − (1 / 𝑛)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / 𝑛))       (𝜑𝑆 ⇝ ∏𝑘𝐴 𝐵)
 
Theoremfprodsubrecnncnv 38695* The sequence 𝑆 of finite products, where every factor is subtracted an "always smaller" amount, converges to the finite product of the factors. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ∏𝑘𝑋 (𝐴 − (1 / 𝑛)))       (𝜑𝑆 ⇝ ∏𝑘𝑋 𝐴)
 
Theoremfprodaddrecnncnvlem 38696* The sequence 𝑆 of finite products, where every factor is added an "always smaller" amount, converges to the finite product of the factors. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 + (1 / 𝑛)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ∏𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 + 𝑥))    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / 𝑛))       (𝜑𝑆 ⇝ ∏𝑘𝐴 𝐵)
 
Theoremfprodaddrecnncnv 38697* The sequence 𝑆 of finite products, where every factor is added an "always smaller" amount, converges to the finite product of the factors. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 8-Apr-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑋) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ∏𝑘𝑋 (𝐴 + (1 / 𝑛)))       (𝜑𝑆 ⇝ ∏𝑘𝑋 𝐴)
 
20.31.10  Derivatives
 
Theoremdvsinexp 38698* The derivative of sin^N . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (ℂ D (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑁))) = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ ((𝑁 · ((sin‘𝑥)↑(𝑁 − 1))) · (cos‘𝑥))))
 
Theoremdvcosre 38699 The real derivative of the cosine. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
(ℝ D (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (cos‘𝑥))) = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ -(sin‘𝑥))
 
Theoremdvrecg 38700* Derivative of the reciprocal of a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑆 ∈ {ℝ, ℂ})    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐵 ∈ (ℂ ∖ {0}))    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑋) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋𝐵)) = (𝑥𝑋𝐶))       (𝜑 → (𝑆 D (𝑥𝑋 ↦ (𝐴 / 𝐵))) = (𝑥𝑋 ↦ -((𝐴 · 𝐶) / (𝐵↑2))))
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