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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 40001-40100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremstoweidlem21 40001* Once the Stone Weierstrass theorem has been proven for approximating nonnegative functions, then this lemma is used to extend the result to functions with (possibly) negative values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝐻    &   𝑡𝑆    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐻𝑡) + 𝑆))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑓𝐴 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐻𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝐻𝑡) − ((𝐹𝑡) − 𝑆))) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem22 40002* If a set of real functions from a common domain is closed under addition, multiplication and it contains constants, then it is closed under subtraction. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡)))    &   𝐼 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ -1)    &   𝐿 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐼𝑡) · (𝐺𝑡)))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem23 40003* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in the beginning of Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: for all t in T - U, there exists a function p in the subalgebra, such that pt ( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐺𝑡) − (𝐺𝑍)))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐺𝑆) ≠ (𝐺𝑍))       (𝜑 → (𝐻𝐴 ∧ (𝐻𝑆) ≠ (𝐻𝑍) ∧ (𝐻𝑍) = 0))

Theoremstoweidlem24 40004* This lemma proves that for 𝑛 sufficiently large, qn( t ) > ( 1 - epsilon ), for all 𝑡 in 𝑉: see Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, (at the bottom of page 90). 𝑄 is used to represent qn in the paper, 𝑁 to represent 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 to represent 𝑘, 𝐷 to represent δ, and 𝐸 to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 − 𝐸) < (1 − (((𝐾 · 𝐷) / 2)↑𝑁)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))       ((𝜑𝑡𝑉) → (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑄𝑡))

Theoremstoweidlem25 40005* This lemma proves that for n sufficiently large, qn( t ) < ε, for all 𝑡 in 𝑇𝑈: see Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the top of page 91). 𝑄 is used to represent qn in the paper, 𝑁 to represent n in the paper, 𝐾 to represent k, 𝐷 to represent δ, 𝑃 to represent p, and 𝐸 to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 / ((𝐾 · 𝐷)↑𝑁)) < 𝐸)       ((𝜑𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)) → (𝑄𝑡) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem26 40006* This lemma is used to prove that there is a function 𝑔 as in the proof of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92: this lemma proves that g(t) > ( j - 4 / 3 ) * ε. Here 𝐿 is used to represnt j in the paper, 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper, 𝑆 is used to represent t, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (1...𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ((𝐷𝐿) ∖ (𝐷‘(𝐿 − 1))))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋𝑖):𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑖)) → (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡))       (𝜑 → ((𝐿 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < ((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑆))

Theoremstoweidlem27 40007* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here (𝑞𝑖) is used to represent p(t_i) in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐺 = (𝑤𝑋 ↦ {𝑄𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}})    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 Fn ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝐺 ∈ V)    &   ((𝜑𝑙 ∈ ran 𝐺) → (𝑌𝑙) ∈ 𝑙)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto→ran 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑄       (𝜑 → ∃𝑞(𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑞:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)0 < ((𝑞𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem28 40008* There exists a δ as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 0 < delta < 1 and p >= delta on 𝑇𝑈. Here 𝑑 is used to represent δ in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑃𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑑(𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 < 1 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝑑 ≤ (𝑃𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem29 40009* When the hypothesis for the extreme value theorem hold, then the inf of the range of the function belongs to the range, it is real and it a lower bound of the range. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.) (Revised by AV, 13-Sep-2020.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ∈ ran 𝐹 ∧ inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ∈ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem30 40010* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       ((𝜑𝑆𝑇) → (𝑃𝑆) = ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem31 40011* This lemma is used to prove that there exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91: assuming that 𝑅 is a finite subset of 𝑉, 𝑥 indexes a finite set of functions in the subalgebra (of the Stone Weierstrass theorem), such that for all 𝑖 ranging in the finite indexing set, 0 ≤ xi ≤ 1, xi < ε / m on V(ti), and xi > 1 - ε / m on 𝐵. Here M is used to represent m in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, vi is used to represent V(ti). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   𝐺 = (𝑤𝑅 ↦ {𝐴 ∣ (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < (𝑡))})    &   (𝜑𝑅𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑣:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ (𝑇𝑈))    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝐺 ∈ Fin)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑣𝑖)((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem32 40012* If a set A of real functions from a common domain T is a subalgebra and it contains constants, then it is closed under the sum of a finite number of functions, indexed by G and finally scaled by a real Y. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑌 · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       (𝜑𝑃𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem33 40013* If a set of real functions from a common domain is closed under addition, multiplication and it contains constants, then it is closed under subtraction. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝜑    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝐹𝐴𝐺𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − (𝐺𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem34 40014* This lemma proves that for all 𝑡 in 𝑇 there is a 𝑗 as in the proof of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the bottom of page 91 and at the top of page 92): (j-4/3) * ε < f(t) <= (j-1/3) * ε , g(t) < (j+1/3) * ε, and g(t) > (j-4/3) * ε. Here 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   𝐽 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ {𝑗 ∈ (1...𝑁) ∣ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)})    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑡𝑇) → (𝐹𝑡) < ((𝑁 − 1) · 𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋𝑗):𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → 0 ≤ ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡𝑇) → ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡) ≤ 1)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)) → ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)) → (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑋𝑗)‘𝑡))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇𝑗 ∈ ℝ ((((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝐹𝑡) ∧ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)) ∧ (((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑡) < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ∧ ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < ((𝑡𝑇 ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝐸 · ((𝑋𝑖)‘𝑡)))‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem35 40015* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here (𝑞𝑖) is used to represent p(t_i) in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝜑    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝐺 = (𝑤𝑋 ↦ {𝑄𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}})    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚𝑞(𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑞:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑄 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑚)0 < ((𝑞𝑖)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem36 40016* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90 (at the beginning of Lemma 1): for all t in T - U, there exists a function p in the subalgebra, such that pt ( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. Z is used for t0 , S is used for t e. T - U , h is used for pt . G is used for (ht)^2 and the final h is a normalized version of G ( divided by its norm, see the variable N ). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄    &   𝑡𝐻    &   𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝐺    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) · (𝐹𝑡)))    &   𝑁 = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ, < )    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐺𝑡) / 𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑆) ≠ (𝐹𝑍))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑍) = 0)       (𝜑 → ∃(𝑄 ∧ 0 < (𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem37 40017* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)       (𝜑 → (𝑃𝑍) = 0)

Theoremstoweidlem38 40018* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used for t0, P is used for p, (𝐺𝑖) is used for p(t_i). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)       ((𝜑𝑆𝑇) → (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑆) ∧ (𝑃𝑆) ≤ 1))

Theoremstoweidlem39 40019* This lemma is used to prove that there exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91: assuming that 𝑟 is a finite subset of 𝑊, 𝑥 indexes a finite set of functions in the subalgebra (of the Stone Weierstrass theorem), such that for all i ranging in the finite indexing set, 0 ≤ xi ≤ 1, xi < ε / m on V(ti), and xi > 1 - ε / m on 𝐵. Here 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper's Lemma 2 (because 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra), 𝑀 is used to represent m in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε, and vi is used to represent V(ti). 𝑊 is just a local definition, used to shorten statements. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   (𝜑𝑟 ∈ (𝒫 𝑊 ∩ Fin))    &   (𝜑𝐷 𝑟)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑣(𝑣:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑊𝐷 ran 𝑣 ∧ ∃𝑥(𝑥:(1...𝑚)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑚)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑣𝑖)((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑚) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑚)) < ((𝑥𝑖)‘𝑡)))))

Theoremstoweidlem40 40020* This lemma proves that qn is in the subalgebra, as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Q is used to represent qn in the paper, N is used to represent n in the paper, and M is used to represent k^n in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑𝑀))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1)    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑𝑄𝐴)

Theoremstoweidlem41 40021* This lemma is used to prove that there exists x as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: 0 <= x(t) <= 1 for all t in T, x(t) < epsilon for all t in V, x(t) > 1 - epsilon for all t in T \ U. Here we prove the very last step of the proof of Lemma 1: "The result follows from taking x = 1 - qn";. Here 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, and 𝑦 to represent qn in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝜑    &   𝑋 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (1 − (𝑦𝑡)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ 1)    &   𝑉𝑇    &   (𝜑𝑦𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑦:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑤 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑤) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem42 40022* This lemma is used to prove that 𝑥 built as in Lemma 2 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, is such that x > 1 - ε on B. Here 𝑋 is used to represent 𝑥 in the paper, and E is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝑌    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝑌) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝑌𝑔𝑌) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑋𝑡))

Theoremstoweidlem43 40023* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function pt as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90 (at the beginning of Lemma 1): for all t in T - U, there exists a function pt in the subalgebra, such that pt( t0 ) = 0 , pt ( t ) > 0, and 0 <= pt <= 1. Hera Z is used for t0 , S is used for t e. T - U , h is used for pt. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑔𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑄    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑙𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑙𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑙𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑙𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑔𝐴 (𝑔𝑟) ≠ (𝑔𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ (𝑇𝑈))       (𝜑 → ∃(𝑄 ∧ 0 < (𝑆)))

Theoremstoweidlem44 40024* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Z is used to represent t0 in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑃 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 / 𝑀) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)((𝐺𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑄)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)∃𝑗 ∈ (1...𝑀)0 < ((𝐺𝑗)‘𝑡))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑇)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem45 40025* This lemma proves that, given an appropriate 𝐾 (in another theorem we prove such a 𝐾 exists), there exists a function qn as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 ( at the top of page 91): 0 <= qn <= 1 , qn < ε on T \ U, and qn > 1 - ε on 𝑉. We use y to represent the final qn in the paper (the one with n large enough), 𝑁 to represent 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 to represent 𝑘, 𝐷 to represent δ, 𝐸 to represent ε, and 𝑃 to represent 𝑝. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑄 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((1 − ((𝑃𝑡)↑𝑁))↑(𝐾𝑁)))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (1 − 𝐸) < (1 − (((𝐾 · 𝐷) / 2)↑𝑁)))    &   (𝜑 → (1 / ((𝐾 · 𝐷)↑𝑁)) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem46 40026* This lemma proves that sets U(t) as defined in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, are a cover of T \ U. Using this lemma, in a later theorem we will prove that a finite subcover exists. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑄    &   𝑞𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐽 Cn 𝐾))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)       (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑊)

Theoremstoweidlem47 40027* Subtracting a constant from a real continuous function gives another continuous function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝑆    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐺 = (𝑇 × {-𝑆})    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Top)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − 𝑆)) ∈ 𝐶)

Theoremstoweidlem48 40028* This lemma is used to prove that 𝑥 built as in Lemma 2 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, is such that x < ε on 𝐴. Here 𝑋 is used to represent 𝑥 in the paper, 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper, and 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper (because 𝐴 is always used to represent the subalgebra). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡) < 𝐸)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑋𝑡) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweidlem49 40029* There exists a function qn as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (at the top of page 91): 0 <= qn <= 1 , qn < ε on 𝑇𝑈, and qn > 1 - ε on 𝑉. Here y is used to represent the final qn in the paper (the one with n large enough), 𝑁 represents 𝑛 in the paper, 𝐾 represents 𝑘, 𝐷 represents δ, 𝐸 represents ε, and 𝑃 represents 𝑝. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑃    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑃:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑉 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑦𝑡) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(𝑦𝑡) < 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem50 40030* This lemma proves that sets U(t) as defined in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90, contain a finite subcover of T \ U. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑢(𝑢 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑢𝑊 ∧ (𝑇𝑈) ⊆ 𝑢))

Theoremstoweidlem51 40031* There exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper, because here 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra of functions. 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑤𝑉    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝑋 = (seq1(𝑃, 𝑈)‘𝑀)    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑈:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌)    &   ((𝜑𝑤𝑉) → 𝑤𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑈𝑖)‘𝑡))    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴 ∧ (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem52 40032* There exists a neighborood V as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Here Z is used to represent t0 in the paper, and v is used to represent V in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑡𝑃    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑉 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝑃𝑡) < (𝐷 / 2)}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 < 1)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   (𝜑𝑃𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑃𝑡) ∧ (𝑃𝑡) ≤ 1))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑃𝑍) = 0)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)𝐷 ≤ (𝑃𝑡))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑣𝐽 ((𝑍𝑣𝑣𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑣 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem53 40033* This lemma is used to prove the existence of a function p as in Lemma 1 of [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑇𝑈) ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem54 40034* There exists a function 𝑥 as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here 𝐷 is used to represent 𝐴 in the paper, because here 𝐴 is used for the subalgebra of functions. 𝐸 is used to represent ε in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑦𝜑    &   𝑤𝜑    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑃 = (𝑓𝑌, 𝑔𝑌 ↦ (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡)))    &   𝑍 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ (seq1( · , (𝐹𝑡))‘𝑀))    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴) → 𝑓:𝑇⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑊:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ran 𝑊)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑇)    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑦(𝑦:(1...𝑀)⟶𝑌 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (1...𝑀)(∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑊𝑖)((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑀) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − (𝐸 / 𝑀)) < ((𝑦𝑖)‘𝑡))))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem55 40035* This lemma proves the existence of a function p as in the proof of Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90: p is in the subalgebra, such that 0 <= p <= 1, p(t_0) = 0, and p > 0 on T - U. Here Z is used to represent t0 in the paper. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)    &   𝑄 = {𝐴 ∣ ((𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1))}    &   𝑊 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∃𝑄 𝑤 = {𝑡𝑇 ∣ 0 < (𝑡)}}       (𝜑 → ∃𝑝𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑝𝑡) ∧ (𝑝𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ (𝑝𝑍) = 0 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)0 < (𝑝𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem56 40036* This theorem proves Lemma 1 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 90. Here 𝑍 is used to represent t0 in the paper, 𝑣 is used to represent 𝑉 in the paper, and 𝑒 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐽)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑣𝐽 ((𝑍𝑣𝑣𝑈) ∧ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑣 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑥𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem57 40037* There exists a function x as in the proof of Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. In this theorem, it is proven the non-trivial case (the closed set D is nonempty). Here D is used to represent A in the paper, because the variable A is used for the subalgebra of functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐷    &   𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝑌 = {𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝑉 = {𝑤𝐽 ∣ ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑡) ∧ (𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝑤 (𝑡) < 𝑒 ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝑇𝑈)(1 − 𝑒) < (𝑡))}    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐷) = ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem58 40038* This theorem proves Lemma 2 in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91. Here D is used to represent the set A of Lemma 2, because here the variable A is used for the subalgebra of functions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐷    &   𝑡𝑈    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑎 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑎) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (Clsd‘𝐽))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐷) = ∅)    &   𝑈 = (𝑇𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 (∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑥𝑡) ∧ (𝑥𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡𝐷 (𝑥𝑡) < 𝐸 ∧ ∀𝑡𝐵 (1 − 𝐸) < (𝑥𝑡)))

Theoremstoweidlem59 40039* This lemma proves that there exists a function 𝑥 as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91, after Lemma 2: xj is in the subalgebra, 0 <= xj <= 1, xj < ε / n on Aj (meaning A in the paper), xj > 1 - \epslon / n on Bj. Here 𝐷 is used to represent A in the paper (because A is used for the subalgebra of functions), 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   𝑌 = {𝑦𝐴 ∣ ∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ (𝑦𝑡) ∧ (𝑦𝑡) ≤ 1)}    &   𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ {𝑦𝑌 ∣ (∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)(𝑦𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < (𝑦𝑡))})    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥(𝑥:(0...𝑁)⟶𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑁)(∀𝑡𝑇 (0 ≤ ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) ∧ ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) ≤ 1) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐷𝑗)((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡) < (𝐸 / 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑡 ∈ (𝐵𝑗)(1 − (𝐸 / 𝑁)) < ((𝑥𝑗)‘𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem60 40040* This lemma proves that there exists a function g as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 91 (this parte of the proof actually spans through pages 91-92): g is in the subalgebra, and for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, there is a 𝑗 such that (j-4/3)*ε < f(t) <= (j-1/3)*ε and (j-4/3)*ε < g(t) < (j+1/3)*ε. Here 𝐹 is used to represent f in the paper, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑛) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)})    &   𝐵 = (𝑗 ∈ (0...𝑛) ↦ {𝑡𝑇 ∣ ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ≤ (𝐹𝑡)})    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑦) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑔𝐴𝑡𝑇𝑗 ∈ ℝ ((((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝐹𝑡) ∧ (𝐹𝑡) ≤ ((𝑗 − (1 / 3)) · 𝐸)) ∧ ((𝑔𝑡) < ((𝑗 + (1 / 3)) · 𝐸) ∧ ((𝑗 − (4 / 3)) · 𝐸) < (𝑔𝑡))))

Theoremstoweidlem61 40041* This lemma proves that there exists a function 𝑔 as in the proof in [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 92: 𝑔 is in the subalgebra, and for all 𝑡 in 𝑇, abs( f(t) - g(t) ) < 2*ε. Here 𝐹 is used to represent f in the paper, and 𝐸 is used to represent ε. For this lemma there's the further assumption that the function 𝐹 to be approximated is nonnegative (this assumption is removed in a later theorem). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑡𝑇 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑔𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑔𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < (2 · 𝐸))

Theoremstoweidlem62 40042* This theorem proves the Stone Weierstrass theorem for the non-trivial case in which T is nonempty. The proof follows [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.) (Revised by AV, 13-Sep-2020.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑓𝜑    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐻 = (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝐹𝑡) − inf(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < )))    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝑞𝐴 (𝑞𝑟) ≠ (𝑞𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝐸 < (1 / 3))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstoweid 40043* This theorem proves the Stone-Weierstrass theorem for real-valued functions: let 𝐽 be a compact topology on 𝑇, and 𝐶 be the set of real continuous functions on 𝑇. Assume that 𝐴 is a subalgebra of 𝐶 (closed under addition and multiplication of functions) containing constant functions and discriminating points (if 𝑟 and 𝑡 are distinct points in 𝑇, then there exists a function in 𝐴 such that h(r) is distinct from h(t) ). Then, for any continuous function 𝐹 and for any positive real 𝐸, there exists a function 𝑓 in the subalgebra 𝐴, such that 𝑓 approximates 𝐹 up to 𝐸 (𝐸 represents the usual ε value). As a classical example, given any a, b reals, the closed interval 𝑇 = [𝑎, 𝑏] could be taken, along with the subalgebra 𝐴 of real polynomials on 𝑇, and then use this theorem to easily prove that real polynomials are dense in the standard metric space of continuous functions on [𝑎, 𝑏]. The proof and lemmas are written following [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). Some effort is put in avoiding the use of the axiom of choice. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝑡𝐹    &   𝑡𝜑    &   𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ Comp)    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡)) → ∃𝐴 (𝑟) ≠ (𝑡))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸)

Theoremstowei 40044* This theorem proves the Stone-Weierstrass theorem for real-valued functions: let 𝐽 be a compact topology on 𝑇, and 𝐶 be the set of real continuous functions on 𝑇. Assume that 𝐴 is a subalgebra of 𝐶 (closed under addition and multiplication of functions) containing constant functions and discriminating points (if 𝑟 and 𝑡 are distinct points in 𝑇, then there exists a function in 𝐴 such that h(r) is distinct from h(t) ). Then, for any continuous function 𝐹 and for any positive real 𝐸, there exists a function 𝑓 in the subalgebra 𝐴, such that 𝑓 approximates 𝐹 up to 𝐸 (𝐸 represents the usual ε value). As a classical example, given any a, b reals, the closed interval 𝑇 = [𝑎, 𝑏] could be taken, along with the subalgebra 𝐴 of real polynomials on 𝑇, and then use this theorem to easily prove that real polynomials are dense in the standard metric space of continuous functions on [𝑎, 𝑏]. The proof and lemmas are written following [BrosowskiDeutsh] p. 89 (through page 92). Some effort is put in avoiding the use of the axiom of choice. The deduction version of this theorem is stoweid 40043: often times it will be better to use stoweid 40043 in other proofs (but this version is probably easier to be read and understood). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 20-Apr-2017.)
𝐾 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝐽 ∈ Comp    &   𝑇 = 𝐽    &   𝐶 = (𝐽 Cn 𝐾)    &   𝐴𝐶    &   ((𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) + (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝑓𝐴𝑔𝐴) → (𝑡𝑇 ↦ ((𝑓𝑡) · (𝑔𝑡))) ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝑥 ∈ ℝ → (𝑡𝑇𝑥) ∈ 𝐴)    &   ((𝑟𝑇𝑡𝑇𝑟𝑡) → ∃𝐴 (𝑟) ≠ (𝑡))    &   𝐹𝐶    &   𝐸 ∈ ℝ+       𝑓𝐴𝑡𝑇 (abs‘((𝑓𝑡) − (𝐹𝑡))) < 𝐸

20.31.13  Wallis' product for π

Theoremwallispilem1 40045* 𝐼 is monotone: increasing the exponent, the integral decreases. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑛) d𝑥)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝑁 + 1)) ≤ (𝐼𝑁))

Theoremwallispilem2 40046* A first set of properties for the sequence 𝐼 that will be used in the proof of the Wallis product formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑛) d𝑥)       ((𝐼‘0) = π ∧ (𝐼‘1) = 2 ∧ (𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2) → (𝐼𝑁) = (((𝑁 − 1) / 𝑁) · (𝐼‘(𝑁 − 2)))))

Theoremwallispilem3 40047* I maps to real values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑛) d𝑥)       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝐼𝑁) ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremwallispilem4 40048* 𝐹 maps to explicit expression for the ratio of two consecutive values of 𝐼. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) − 1)) · ((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1))))    &   𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑧)↑𝑛) d𝑧)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐼‘(2 · 𝑛)) / (𝐼‘((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((π / 2) · (1 / (seq1( · , 𝐹)‘𝑛))))       𝐺 = 𝐻

Theoremwallispilem5 40049* The sequence 𝐻 converges to 1. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) − 1)) · ((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1))))    &   𝐼 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ∫(0(,)π)((sin‘𝑥)↑𝑛) d𝑥)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐼‘(2 · 𝑛)) / (𝐼‘((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((π / 2) · (1 / (seq1( · , 𝐹)‘𝑛))))    &   𝐿 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · 𝑛)))       𝐻 ⇝ 1

Theoremwallispi 40050* Wallis' formula for π : Wallis' product converges to π / 2 . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) − 1)) · ((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (seq1( · , 𝐹)‘𝑛))       𝑊 ⇝ (π / 2)

Theoremwallispi2lem1 40051 An intermediate step between the first version of the Wallis' formula for π and the second version of Wallis' formula. This second version will then be used to prove Stirling's approximation formula for the factorial. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (seq1( · , (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) − 1)) · ((2 · 𝑘) / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)))))‘𝑁) = ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1)) · (seq1( · , (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘)↑4) / (((2 · 𝑘) · ((2 · 𝑘) − 1))↑2))))‘𝑁)))

Theoremwallispi2lem2 40052 Two expressions are proven to be equal, and this is used to complete the proof of the second version of Wallis' formula for π . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (seq1( · , (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘)↑4) / (((2 · 𝑘) · ((2 · 𝑘) − 1))↑2))))‘𝑁) = (((2↑(4 · 𝑁)) · ((!‘𝑁)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑁))↑2)))

Theoremwallispi2 40053 An alternative version of Wallis' formula for π ; this second formula uses factorials and it is later used to prove Stirling's approximation formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))       𝑉 ⇝ (π / 2)

20.31.14  Stirling's approximation formula for ` n ` factorial

Theoremstirlinglem1 40054 A simple limit of fractions is computed. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 − (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / 𝑛))       𝐻 ⇝ (1 / 2)

Theoremstirlinglem2 40055 𝐴 maps to positive reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐴𝑁) ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremstirlinglem3 40056 Long but simple algebraic transformations are applied to show that 𝑉, the Wallis formula for π , can be expressed in terms of 𝐴, the Stirling's approximation formula for the factorial, up to a constant factor. This will allow (in a later theorem) to determine the right constant factor to be put into the 𝐴, in order to get the exact Stirling's formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))       𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)) · ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))))

Theoremstirlinglem4 40057* Algebraic manipulation of ((𝐵 n ) - ( B (𝑛 + 1))). It will be used in other theorems to show that 𝐵 is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) = (𝐽𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem5 40058* If 𝑇 is between 0 and 1, then a series (without alternating negative and positive terms) is given that converges to log (1+T)/(1-T) . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((-1↑(𝑗 − 1)) · ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗))    &   𝐹 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((-1↑(𝑗 − 1)) · ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)) + ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑗) + 1)) · (𝑇↑((2 · 𝑗) + 1)))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((2 · 𝑗) + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝑇) < 1)       (𝜑 → seq0( + , 𝐻) ⇝ (log‘((1 + 𝑇) / (1 − 𝑇))))

Theoremstirlinglem6 40059* A series that converges to log (N+1)/N. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑗) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑((2 · 𝑗) + 1)))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq0( + , 𝐻) ⇝ (log‘((𝑁 + 1) / 𝑁)))

Theoremstirlinglem7 40060* Algebraic manipulation of the formula for J(n). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))    &   𝐻 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑((2 · 𝑘) + 1)))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ (𝐽𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem8 40061 If 𝐴 converges to 𝐶, then 𝐹 converges to C^2 . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑛𝜑    &   𝑛𝐴    &   𝑛𝐷    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   (𝜑𝐴:ℕ⟶ℝ+)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐴𝑛)↑4))    &   𝑀 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐷𝑛)↑2))    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐷𝑛) ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ (𝐶↑2))

Theoremstirlinglem9 40062* ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) is expressed as a limit of a series. This result will be used both to prove that 𝐵 is decreasing and to prove that 𝐵 is bounded (below). It will follow that 𝐵 converges in the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))))

Theoremstirlinglem10 40063* A bound for any B(N)-B(N + 1) that will allow to find a lower bound for the whole 𝐵 sequence. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))    &   𝐿 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / (((2 · 𝑁) + 1)↑2))↑𝑘))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) ≤ ((1 / 4) · (1 / (𝑁 · (𝑁 + 1)))))

Theoremstirlinglem11 40064* 𝐵 is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1)) < (𝐵𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem12 40065* The sequence 𝐵 is bounded below. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / (𝑛 · (𝑛 + 1))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵‘1) − (1 / 4)) ≤ (𝐵𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem13 40066* 𝐵 is decreasing and has a lower bound, then it converges. Since 𝐵 is log𝐴, in another theorem it is proven that 𝐴 converges as well. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))       𝑑 ∈ ℝ 𝐵𝑑

Theoremstirlinglem14 40067* The sequence 𝐴 converges to a positive real. This proves that the Stirling's formula converges to the factorial, up to a constant. In another theorem, using Wallis' formula for π& , such constant is exactly determined, thus proving the Stirling's formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))       𝑐 ∈ ℝ+ 𝐴𝑐

Theoremstirlinglem15 40068* The Stirling's formula is proven using a number of local definitions. The main theorem stirling 40069 will use this final lemma, but it will not expose the local definitions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑛𝜑    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛))) ⇝ 1)

Theoremstirling 40069 Stirling's approximation formula for 𝑛 factorial. The proof follows two major steps: first it is proven that 𝑆 and 𝑛 factorial are asymptotically equivalent, up to an unknown constant. Then, using Wallis' formula for π it is proven that the unknown constant is the square root of π and then the exact Stirling's formula is established. This is Metamath 100 proof #90. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))       (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛))) ⇝ 1

Theoremstirlingr 40070 Stirling's approximation formula for 𝑛 factorial: here convergence is expressed with respect to the standard topology on the reals. The main theorem stirling 40069 is proven for convergence in the topology of complex numbers. The variable 𝑅 is used to denote convergence with respect to the standard topology on the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑅 = (⇝𝑡‘(topGen‘ran (,)))       (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛)))𝑅1

20.31.15  Dirichlet kernel

Theoremdirkerval 40071* The Nth Dirichlet Kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁) = (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑁) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))

Theoremdirker2re 40072 The Dirchlet Kernel value is a real if the argument is not a multiple of π . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) ∧ ¬ (𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0) → ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑆)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2)))) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremdirkerdenne0 40073 The Dirchlet Kernel denominator is never 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝑆 ∈ ℝ ∧ ¬ (𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0) → ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2))) ≠ 0)

Theoremdirkerval2 40074* The Nth Dirichlet Kernel evaluated at a specific point 𝑆. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑆) = if((𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑁) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑆)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2))))))

Theoremdirkerre 40075* The Dirichlet Kernel at any point evaluates to a real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑆) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremdirkerper 40076* the Dirichlet Kernel has period . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝑇 = (2 · π)       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘(𝑥 + 𝑇)) = ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑥))

Theoremdirkerf 40077* For any natural number 𝑁, the Dirichlet Kernel (𝐷𝑁) is a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁):ℝ⟶ℝ)

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem1 40078* Sum of an even number of alternating cos values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐾 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(2 · 𝐾))(cos‘(𝑛 · π)) = 0)

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem2 40079* Trigonomic equality lemma for the Dirichlet Kernel trigonomic equality. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (sin‘𝐴) ≠ 0)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑛 · 𝐴))) / π) = ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝐴)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem3 40080* Trigonometric equality lemma for the Dirichlet Kernel trigonometric equality. Here we handle the case for an angle that's an odd multiple of π. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (((2 · 𝐾) + 1) · π)       (𝜑 → (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑛 · 𝐴))) / π) = ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝐴)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))

Theoremdirkertrigeq 40081* Trigonometric equality for the Dirichlet kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐹 = (𝐷𝑁)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑘 · 𝑠))) / π))       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐻)

Theoremdirkeritg 40082* The definite integral of the Dirichlet Kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑥 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑥)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑥 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐹 = (𝐷𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ (((𝑥 / 2) + Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)((sin‘(𝑘 · 𝑥)) / 𝑘)) / π))       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥 = ((𝐺𝐵) − (𝐺𝐴)))

Theoremdirkercncflem1 40083* If 𝑌 is a multiple of π then it belongs to an open inerval (𝐴(,)𝐵) such that for any other point 𝑦 in the interval, cos y/2 and sin y/2 are non zero. Such an interval is needed to apply De L'Hopital theorem. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐴 = (𝑌 − π)    &   𝐵 = (𝑌 + π)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)       (𝜑 → (𝑌 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})((sin‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0 ∧ (cos‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)))

Theoremdirkercncflem2 40084* Lemma used to prove that the Dirichlet Kernel is continuous at 𝑌 points that are multiples of (2 · π). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ (sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) → (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)    &   𝐻 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ ((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · (cos‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦))))    &   𝐼 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ (π · (cos‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   𝐿 = (𝑤 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · (cos‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑤))) / (π · (cos‘(𝑤 / 2)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) → (cos‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑌) ∈ (((𝐷𝑁) ↾ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) lim 𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncflem3 40085* The Dirichlet Kernel is continuous at 𝑌 points that are multiples of (2 · π). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝐴 = (𝑌 − π)    &   𝐵 = (𝑌 + π)    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑌) ∈ ((𝐷𝑁) lim 𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncflem4 40086* The Dirichlet Kernel is continuos at points that are not multiple of 2 π . This is the easier condition, for the proof of the continuity of the Dirichlet kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) ≠ 0)    &   𝐴 = (⌊‘(𝑌 / (2 · π)))    &   𝐵 = (𝐴 + 1)    &   𝐶 = (𝐴 · (2 · π))    &   𝐸 = (𝐵 · (2 · π))       (𝜑 → (𝐷𝑁) ∈ (((topGen‘ran (,)) CnP (topGen‘ran (,)))‘𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncf 40087* For any natural number 𝑁, the Dirichlet Kernel (𝐷𝑁) is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁) ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ))

20.31.16  Fourier Series

Theoremfourierdlem1 40088 A partition interval is a subset of the partitioned interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ((𝑄𝐼)[,](𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))))       (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem2 40089* Membership in a partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ → (𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀) ↔ (𝑄 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 (0...𝑀)) ∧ (((𝑄‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑄𝑀) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)(𝑄𝑖) < (𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))))

Theoremfourierdlem3 40090* Membership in a partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ ((-π[,]π) ↑𝑚 (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = -π ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = π) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ → (𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀) ↔ (𝑄 ∈ ((-π[,]π) ↑𝑚 (0...𝑀)) ∧ (((𝑄‘0) = -π ∧ (𝑄𝑀) = π) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)(𝑄𝑖) < (𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))))

Theoremfourierdlem4 40091* 𝐸 is a function that maps any point to a periodic corresponding point in (𝐴, 𝐵]. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))       (𝜑𝐸:ℝ⟶(𝐴(,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem5 40092* 𝑆 is a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑆 = (𝑥 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ (sin‘((𝑋 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑥)))       (𝑋 ∈ ℝ → 𝑆:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem6 40093 𝑋 is in the periodic partition, when the considered interval is centered at 𝑋. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 < 𝐽)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐼 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐽 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))       (𝜑𝐽 = (𝐼 + 1))

Theoremfourierdlem7 40094* The difference between a point and it's periodic image in the interval, is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)       (𝜑 → ((𝐸𝑌) − 𝑌) ≤ ((𝐸𝑋) − 𝑋))

Theoremfourierdlem8 40095 A partition interval is a subset of the partitioned interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))       (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼)[,](𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))) ⊆ (𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem9 40096* 𝐻 is a complex function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 0, (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − if(0 < 𝑠, 𝑌, 𝑊)) / 𝑠)))       (𝜑𝐻:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem10 40097 Condition on the bounds of a non empty subinterval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶(,)𝐷) ⊆ (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐶𝐷𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem11 40098* If there is a partition, than the lower bound is strictly less than the upper bound. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 < 𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem12 40099* A point of a partition is not an element of any open interval determined by the partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ran 𝑄)       ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → ¬ 𝑋 ∈ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))

Theoremfourierdlem13 40100* Value of 𝑉 in terms of value of 𝑄. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑𝑚 (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = (𝐴 + 𝑋) ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = (𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0...𝑀))    &   𝑄 = (𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑉𝑖) − 𝑋))       (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼) = ((𝑉𝐼) − 𝑋) ∧ (𝑉𝐼) = (𝑋 + (𝑄𝐼))))

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