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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 4601-4700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremaxrep4 4601* A more traditional version of the Axiom of Replacement. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-1994.)
𝑧𝜑       (∀𝑥𝑧𝑦(𝜑𝑦 = 𝑧) → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝑦𝑧 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝑤𝜑)))
 
Theoremaxrep5 4602* Axiom of Replacement (similar to Axiom Rep of [BellMachover] p. 463). The antecedent tells us 𝜑 is analogous to a "function" from 𝑥 to 𝑦 (although it is not really a function since it is a wff and not a class). In the consequent we postulate the existence of a set 𝑧 that corresponds to the "image" of 𝜑 restricted to some other set 𝑤. The hypothesis says 𝑧 must not be free in 𝜑. (Contributed by NM, 26-Nov-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
𝑧𝜑       (∀𝑥(𝑥𝑤 → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝜑𝑦 = 𝑧)) → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝑦𝑧 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝑤𝜑)))
 
Theoremzfrepclf 4603* An inference rule based on the Axiom of Replacement. Typically, 𝜑 defines a function from 𝑥 to 𝑦. (Contributed by NM, 26-Nov-1995.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝐴 ∈ V    &   (𝑥𝐴 → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝜑𝑦 = 𝑧))       𝑧𝑦(𝑦𝑧 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝜑))
 
Theoremzfrep3cl 4604* An inference rule based on the Axiom of Replacement. Typically, 𝜑 defines a function from 𝑥 to 𝑦. (Contributed by NM, 26-Nov-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   (𝑥𝐴 → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝜑𝑦 = 𝑧))       𝑧𝑦(𝑦𝑧 ↔ ∃𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝜑))
 
Theoremzfrep4 4605* A version of Replacement using class abstractions. (Contributed by NM, 26-Nov-1995.)
{𝑥𝜑} ∈ V    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑧𝑦(𝜓𝑦 = 𝑧))       {𝑦 ∣ ∃𝑥(𝜑𝜓)} ∈ V
 
2.2.2  Derive the Axiom of Separation
 
Theoremaxsep 4606* Separation Scheme, which is an axiom scheme of Zermelo's original theory. Scheme Sep of [BellMachover] p. 463. As we show here, it is redundant if we assume Replacement in the form of ax-rep 4597. Some textbooks present Separation as a separate axiom scheme in order to show that much of set theory can be derived without the stronger Replacement. The Separation Scheme is a weak form of Frege's Axiom of Comprehension, conditioning it (with 𝑥𝑧) so that it asserts the existence of a collection only if it is smaller than some other collection 𝑧 that already exists. This prevents Russell's paradox ru 3305. In some texts, this scheme is called "Aussonderung" or the Subset Axiom.

The variable 𝑥 can appear free in the wff 𝜑, which in textbooks is often written 𝜑(𝑥). To specify this in the Metamath language, we omit the distinct variable requirement ($d) that 𝑥 not appear in 𝜑.

For a version using a class variable, see zfauscl 4609, which requires the Axiom of Extensionality as well as Separation for its derivation.

If we omit the requirement that 𝑦 not occur in 𝜑, we can derive a contradiction, as notzfaus 4665 shows (contradicting zfauscl 4609). However, as axsep2 4608 shows, we can eliminate the restriction that 𝑧 not occur in 𝜑.

Note: the distinct variable restriction that 𝑧 not occur in 𝜑 is actually redundant in this particular proof, but we keep it since its purpose is to demonstrate the derivation of the exact ax-sep 4607 from ax-rep 4597.

This theorem should not be referenced by any proof. Instead, use ax-sep 4607 below so that the uses of the Axiom of Separation can be more easily identified. (Contributed by NM, 11-Sep-2006.) (New usage is discouraged.)

𝑦𝑥(𝑥𝑦 ↔ (𝑥𝑧𝜑))
 
Axiomax-sep 4607* The Axiom of Separation of ZF set theory. See axsep 4606 for more information. It was derived as axsep 4606 above and is therefore redundant, but we state it as a separate axiom here so that its uses can be identified more easily. (Contributed by NM, 11-Sep-2006.)
𝑦𝑥(𝑥𝑦 ↔ (𝑥𝑧𝜑))
 
Theoremaxsep2 4608* A less restrictive version of the Separation Scheme axsep 4606, where variables 𝑥 and 𝑧 can both appear free in the wff 𝜑, which can therefore be thought of as 𝜑(𝑥, 𝑧). This version was derived from the more restrictive ax-sep 4607 with no additional set theory axioms. (Contributed by NM, 10-Dec-2006.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2016.)
𝑦𝑥(𝑥𝑦 ↔ (𝑥𝑧𝜑))
 
Theoremzfauscl 4609* Separation Scheme (Aussonderung) using a class variable. To derive this from ax-sep 4607, we invoke the Axiom of Extensionality (indirectly via vtocl 3136), which is needed for the justification of class variable notation.

If we omit the requirement that 𝑦 not occur in 𝜑, we can derive a contradiction, as notzfaus 4665 shows. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)

𝐴 ∈ V       𝑦𝑥(𝑥𝑦 ↔ (𝑥𝐴𝜑))
 
Theorembm1.3ii 4610* Convert implication to equivalence using the Separation Scheme (Aussonderung) ax-sep 4607. Similar to Theorem 1.3ii of [BellMachover] p. 463. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)
𝑥𝑦(𝜑𝑦𝑥)       𝑥𝑦(𝑦𝑥𝜑)
 
Theoremax6vsep 4611* Derive a weakened version of ax-6 1838 ( i.e. ax6v 1839), where 𝑥 and 𝑦 must be distinct, from Separation ax-sep 4607 and Extensionality ax-ext 2494. See ax6 2142 for the derivation of ax-6 1838 from ax6v 1839. (Contributed by NM, 12-Nov-2013.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
2.2.3  Derive the Null Set Axiom
 
Theoremzfnuleu 4612* Show the uniqueness of the empty set (using the Axiom of Extensionality via bm1.1 2499 to strengthen the hypothesis in the form of axnul 4614). (Contributed by NM, 22-Dec-2007.)
𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥       ∃!𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥
 
TheoremaxnulALT 4613* Alternate proof of axnul 4614, proved directly from ax-rep 4597 using none of the equality axioms ax-7 1885 through ax-c14 33078 provided we accept sp 1990 as an axiom. Replace sp 1990 with the obsolete ax-c5 33070 to see this in 'show traceback'. (Contributed by Jeff Hoffman, 3-Feb-2008.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2016.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥
 
Theoremaxnul 4614* The Null Set Axiom of ZF set theory: there exists a set with no elements. Axiom of Empty Set of [Enderton] p. 18. In some textbooks, this is presented as a separate axiom; here we show it can be derived from Separation ax-sep 4607. This version of the Null Set Axiom tells us that at least one empty set exists, but does not tell us that it is unique - we need the Axiom of Extensionality to do that (see zfnuleu 4612).

This proof, suggested by Jeff Hoffman, uses only ax-4 1713 and ax-gen 1700 from predicate calculus, which are valid in "free logic" i.e. logic holding in an empty domain (see Axiom A5 and Rule R2 of [LeBlanc] p. 277). Thus, our ax-sep 4607 implies the existence of at least one set. Note that Kunen's version of ax-sep 4607 (Axiom 3 of [Kunen] p. 11) does not imply the existence of a set because his is universally closed i.e. prefixed with universal quantifiers to eliminate all free variables. His existence is provided by a separate axiom stating 𝑥𝑥 = 𝑥 (Axiom 0 of [Kunen] p. 10).

See axnulALT 4613 for a proof directly from ax-rep 4597.

This theorem should not be referenced by any proof. Instead, use ax-nul 4616 below so that the uses of the Null Set Axiom can be more easily identified. (Contributed by Jeff Hoffman, 3-Feb-2008.) (Revised by NM, 4-Feb-2008.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)

𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥
 
TheoremaxnulOLD 4615* Obsolete proof of axnul 4614 as of 21-Oct-2020. (Contributed by Jeff Hoffman, 3-Feb-2008.) (Revised by NM, 4-Feb-2008.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥
 
Axiomax-nul 4616* The Null Set Axiom of ZF set theory. It was derived as axnul 4614 above and is therefore redundant, but we state it as a separate axiom here so that its uses can be identified more easily. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-2003.)
𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑦𝑥
 
Theorem0ex 4617 The Null Set Axiom of ZF set theory: the empty set exists. Corollary 5.16 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 20. For the unabbreviated version, see ax-nul 4616. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 9-Jul-2011.)
∅ ∈ V
 
TheoremsseliALT 4618 Alternate proof of sseli 3468 illustrating the use of the weak deduction theorem to prove it from the inference sselii 3469. (Contributed by NM, 24-Aug-2018.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐴𝐵       (𝐶𝐴𝐶𝐵)
 
Theoremcsbexg 4619 The existence of proper substitution into a class. (Contributed by NM, 10-Nov-2005.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
(∀𝑥 𝐵𝑊𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵 ∈ V)
 
Theoremcsbex 4620 The existence of proper substitution into a class. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-2007.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 29-Jun-2011.) (Revised by NM, 17-Aug-2018.)
𝐵 ∈ V       𝐴 / 𝑥𝐵 ∈ V
 
Theoremunisn2 4621 A version of unisn 4285 without the 𝐴 ∈ V hypothesis. (Contributed by Stefan Allan, 14-Mar-2006.)
{𝐴} ∈ {∅, 𝐴}
 
2.2.4  Theorems requiring subset and intersection existence
 
Theoremnalset 4622* No set contains all sets. Theorem 41 of [Suppes] p. 30. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-1993.)
¬ ∃𝑥𝑦 𝑦𝑥
 
Theoremvprc 4623 The universal class is not a member of itself (and thus is not a set). Proposition 5.21 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 21; our proof, however, does not depend on the Axiom of Regularity. (Contributed by NM, 23-Aug-1993.)
¬ V ∈ V
 
Theoremnvel 4624 The universal class doesn't belong to any class. (Contributed by FL, 31-Dec-2006.)
¬ V ∈ 𝐴
 
Theoremvnex 4625 The universal class does not exist. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jul-2005.)
¬ ∃𝑥 𝑥 = V
 
Theoreminex1 4626 Separation Scheme (Aussonderung) using class notation. Compare Exercise 4 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐴𝐵) ∈ V
 
Theoreminex2 4627 Separation Scheme (Aussonderung) using class notation. (Contributed by NM, 27-Apr-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐵𝐴) ∈ V
 
Theoreminex1g 4628 Closed-form, generalized Separation Scheme. (Contributed by NM, 7-Apr-1995.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (𝐴𝐵) ∈ V)
 
Theoremssex 4629 The subset of a set is also a set. Exercise 3 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22. This is one way to express the Axiom of Separation ax-sep 4607 (a.k.a. Subset Axiom). (Contributed by NM, 27-Apr-1994.)
𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐴𝐵𝐴 ∈ V)
 
Theoremssexi 4630 The subset of a set is also a set. (Contributed by NM, 9-Sep-1993.)
𝐵 ∈ V    &   𝐴𝐵       𝐴 ∈ V
 
Theoremssexg 4631 The subset of a set is also a set. Exercise 3 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22 (generalized). (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-1994.)
((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) → 𝐴 ∈ V)
 
Theoremssexd 4632 A subclass of a set is a set. Deduction form of ssexg 4631. (Contributed by David Moews, 1-May-2017.)
(𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ V)
 
Theoremsselpwd 4633 Elementhood to a power set. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵)
 
Theoremdifexg 4634 Existence of a difference. (Contributed by NM, 26-May-1998.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (𝐴𝐵) ∈ V)
 
Theoremdifexi 4635 Existence of a difference, inference version of difexg 4634. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.) (Revised by AV, 26-Mar-2021.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐴𝐵) ∈ V
 
TheoremdifexOLD 4636 Obsolete version of difexi 4635 as of 26-Mar-2021. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 3-Mar-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐴𝑉       (𝐴𝐵) ∈ V
 
Theoremzfausab 4637* Separation Scheme (Aussonderung) in terms of a class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 8-Jun-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ V       {𝑥 ∣ (𝑥𝐴𝜑)} ∈ V
 
Theoremrabexg 4638* Separation Scheme in terms of a restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 23-Oct-1999.)
(𝐴𝑉 → {𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∈ V)
 
Theoremrabex 4639* Separation Scheme in terms of a restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 19-Jul-1996.)
𝐴 ∈ V       {𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∈ V
 
Theoremrabexd 4640* Separation Scheme in terms of a restricted class abstraction, deduction form of rabex2 4641. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jul-2019.)
𝐵 = {𝑥𝐴𝜓}    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)
 
Theoremrabex2 4641* Separation Scheme in terms of a restricted class abstraction. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jul-2019.) (Revised by AV, 26-Mar-2021.)
𝐵 = {𝑥𝐴𝜓}    &   𝐴 ∈ V       𝐵 ∈ V
 
Theoremrab2ex 4642* A class abstraction based on a class abstraction based on a set is a set. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jul-2019.) (Revised by AV, 26-Mar-2021.)
𝐵 = {𝑦𝐴𝜓}    &   𝐴 ∈ V       {𝑥𝐵𝜑} ∈ V
 
Theoremrabex2OLD 4643* Obsolete version of rabex2 4641 as of 26-Mar-2021. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jul-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐵 = {𝑥𝐴𝜓}    &   𝐴𝑉       𝐵 ∈ V
 
Theoremrab2exOLD 4644* Obsolete version of rabex2 4641 as of 26-Mar-2021. (Contributed by AV, 16-Jul-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝐵 = {𝑦𝐴𝜓}    &   𝐴𝑉       {𝑥𝐵𝜑} ∈ V
 
Theoremelssabg 4645* Membership in a class abstraction involving a subset. Unlike elabg 3224, 𝐴 does not have to be a set. (Contributed by NM, 29-Aug-2006.)
(𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))       (𝐵𝑉 → (𝐴 ∈ {𝑥 ∣ (𝑥𝐵𝜑)} ↔ (𝐴𝐵𝜓)))
 
Theoremintex 4646 The intersection of a nonempty class exists. Exercise 5 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 44 and its converse. (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-2002.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ ↔ 𝐴 ∈ V)
 
Theoremintnex 4647 If a class intersection is not a set, it must be the universe. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jul-2005.)
𝐴 ∈ V ↔ 𝐴 = V)
 
Theoremintexab 4648 The intersection of a nonempty class abstraction exists. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2003.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 {𝑥𝜑} ∈ V)
 
Theoremintexrab 4649 The intersection of a nonempty restricted class abstraction exists. (Contributed by NM, 21-Oct-2003.)
(∃𝑥𝐴 𝜑 {𝑥𝐴𝜑} ∈ V)
 
Theoremiinexg 4650* The existence of an indexed union. 𝑥 is normally a free-variable parameter in 𝐵, which should be read 𝐵(𝑥). (Contributed by FL, 19-Sep-2011.)
((𝐴 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴 𝐵𝐶) → 𝑥𝐴 𝐵 ∈ V)
 
Theoremintabs 4651* Absorption of a redundant conjunct in the intersection of a class abstraction. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jul-2005.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = {𝑦𝜓} → (𝜑𝜒))    &   ( {𝑦𝜓} ⊆ 𝐴𝜒)        {𝑥 ∣ (𝑥𝐴𝜑)} = {𝑥𝜑}
 
Theoreminuni 4652* The intersection of a union 𝐴 with a class 𝐵 is equal to the union of the intersections of each element of 𝐴 with 𝐵. (Contributed by FL, 24-Mar-2007.)
( 𝐴𝐵) = {𝑥 ∣ ∃𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = (𝑦𝐵)}
 
Theoremelpw2g 4653 Membership in a power class. Theorem 86 of [Suppes] p. 47. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-2000.)
(𝐵𝑉 → (𝐴 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝐴𝐵))
 
Theoremelpw2 4654 Membership in a power class. Theorem 86 of [Suppes] p. 47. (Contributed by NM, 11-Oct-2007.)
𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ 𝒫 𝐵𝐴𝐵)
 
Theorempwnss 4655 The power set of a set is never a subset. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 22-Feb-2015.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ¬ 𝒫 𝐴𝐴)
 
Theorempwne 4656 No set equals its power set. The sethood antecedent is necessary; compare pwv 4269. (Contributed by NM, 17-Nov-2008.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 23-Dec-2016.)
(𝐴𝑉 → 𝒫 𝐴𝐴)
 
2.2.5  Theorems requiring empty set existence
 
Theoremclass2set 4657* Construct, from any class 𝐴, a set equal to it when the class exists and equal to the empty set when the class is proper. This theorem shows that the constructed set always exists. (Contributed by NM, 16-Oct-2003.)
{𝑥𝐴𝐴 ∈ V} ∈ V
 
Theoremclass2seteq 4658* Equality theorem based on class2set 4657. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.) (Proof shortened by Raph Levien, 30-Jun-2006.)
(𝐴𝑉 → {𝑥𝐴𝐴 ∈ V} = 𝐴)
 
Theorem0elpw 4659 Every power class contains the empty set. (Contributed by NM, 25-Oct-2007.)
∅ ∈ 𝒫 𝐴
 
Theorempwne0 4660 A power class is never empty. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-2018.)
𝒫 𝐴 ≠ ∅
 
Theorem0nep0 4661 The empty set and its power set are not equal. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-1993.)
∅ ≠ {∅}
 
Theorem0inp0 4662 Something cannot be equal to both the null set and the power set of the null set. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)
(𝐴 = ∅ → ¬ 𝐴 = {∅})
 
Theoremunidif0 4663 The removal of the empty set from a class does not affect its union. (Contributed by NM, 22-Mar-2004.)
(𝐴 ∖ {∅}) = 𝐴
 
Theoremiin0 4664* An indexed intersection of the empty set, with a nonempty index set, is empty. (Contributed by NM, 20-Oct-2005.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ ↔ 𝑥𝐴 ∅ = ∅)
 
Theoremnotzfaus 4665* In the Separation Scheme zfauscl 4609, we require that 𝑦 not occur in 𝜑 (which can be generalized to "not be free in"). Here we show special cases of 𝐴 and 𝜑 that result in a contradiction by violating this requirement. (Contributed by NM, 8-Feb-2006.)
𝐴 = {∅}    &   (𝜑 ↔ ¬ 𝑥𝑦)        ¬ ∃𝑦𝑥(𝑥𝑦 ↔ (𝑥𝐴𝜑))
 
Theoremintv 4666 The intersection of the universal class is empty. (Contributed by NM, 11-Sep-2008.)
V = ∅
 
Theoremaxpweq 4667* Two equivalent ways to express the Power Set Axiom. Note that ax-pow 4668 is not used by the proof. (Contributed by NM, 22-Jun-2009.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝒫 𝐴 ∈ V ↔ ∃𝑥𝑦(∀𝑧(𝑧𝑦𝑧𝐴) → 𝑦𝑥))
 
2.3  ZF Set Theory - add the Axiom of Power Sets
 
2.3.1  Introduce the Axiom of Power Sets
 
Axiomax-pow 4668* Axiom of Power Sets. An axiom of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. It states that a set 𝑦 exists that includes the power set of a given set 𝑥 i.e. contains every subset of 𝑥. The variant axpow2 4670 uses explicit subset notation. A version using class notation is pwex 4673. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.)
𝑦𝑧(∀𝑤(𝑤𝑧𝑤𝑥) → 𝑧𝑦)
 
Theoremzfpow 4669* Axiom of Power Sets expressed with the fewest number of different variables. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-2003.)
𝑥𝑦(∀𝑥(𝑥𝑦𝑥𝑧) → 𝑦𝑥)
 
Theoremaxpow2 4670* A variant of the Axiom of Power Sets ax-pow 4668 using subset notation. Problem in [BellMachover] p. 466. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-2006.)
𝑦𝑧(𝑧𝑥𝑧𝑦)
 
Theoremaxpow3 4671* A variant of the Axiom of Power Sets ax-pow 4668. For any set 𝑥, there exists a set 𝑦 whose members are exactly the subsets of 𝑥 i.e. the power set of 𝑥. Axiom Pow of [BellMachover] p. 466. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-2006.)
𝑦𝑧(𝑧𝑥𝑧𝑦)
 
Theoremel 4672* Every set is an element of some other set. See elALT 4736 for a shorter proof using more axioms. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jan-2002.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-Jul-2011.)
𝑦 𝑥𝑦
 
Theorempwex 4673 Power set axiom expressed in class notation. Axiom 4 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 17. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1993.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-Jul-2011.)
𝐴 ∈ V       𝒫 𝐴 ∈ V
 
Theoremvpwex 4674 The powerset of a setvar is a set. (Contributed by BJ, 3-May-2021.)
𝒫 𝑥 ∈ V
 
Theorempwexg 4675 Power set axiom expressed in class notation, with the sethood requirement as an antecedent. Axiom 4 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 17. (Contributed by NM, 30-Oct-2003.)
(𝐴𝑉 → 𝒫 𝐴 ∈ V)
 
Theoremabssexg 4676* Existence of a class of subsets. (Contributed by NM, 15-Jul-2006.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-Jul-2011.)
(𝐴𝑉 → {𝑥 ∣ (𝑥𝐴𝜑)} ∈ V)
 
TheoremsnexALT 4677 Alternate proof of snex 4734 using Power Set (ax-pow 4668) instead of Pairing (ax-pr 4732). Unlike in the proof of zfpair 4730, Replacement (ax-rep 4597) is not needed. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-Jul-2011.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
{𝐴} ∈ V
 
Theoremp0ex 4678 The power set of the empty set (the ordinal 1) is a set. See also p0exALT 4679. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-1993.)
{∅} ∈ V
 
Theoremp0exALT 4679 Alternate proof of p0ex 4678 which is quite different and longer if snexALT 4677 is expanded. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-1993.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
{∅} ∈ V
 
Theorempp0ex 4680 The power set of the power set of the empty set (the ordinal 2) is a set. (Contributed by NM, 24-Jun-1993.)
{∅, {∅}} ∈ V
 
Theoremord3ex 4681 The ordinal number 3 is a set, proved without the Axiom of Union ax-un 6728. (Contributed by NM, 2-May-2009.)
{∅, {∅}, {∅, {∅}}} ∈ V
 
Theoremdtru 4682* At least two sets exist (or in terms of first-order logic, the universe of discourse has two or more objects). Note that we may not substitute the same variable for both 𝑥 and 𝑦 (as indicated by the distinct variable requirement), for otherwise we would contradict stdpc6 1907.

This theorem is proved directly from set theory axioms (no set theory definitions) and does not use ax-ext 2494 or ax-sep 4607. See dtruALT 4725 for a shorter proof using these axioms.

The proof makes use of dummy variables 𝑧 and 𝑤 which do not appear in the final theorem. They must be distinct from each other and from 𝑥 and 𝑦. In other words, if we were to substitute 𝑥 for 𝑧 throughout the proof, the proof would fail. (Contributed by NM, 7-Nov-2006.)

¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
Theoremaxc16b 4683* This theorem shows that axiom ax-c16 33079 is redundant in the presence of theorem dtru 4682, which states simply that at least two things exist. This justifies the remark at mmzfcnd.html#twoness (which links to this theorem). (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 7-Nov-2006.)
(∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝜑))
 
Theoremeunex 4684 Existential uniqueness implies there is a value for which the wff argument is false. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-2010.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremeusv1 4685* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐴(𝑥). (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2010.)
(∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴)
 
Theoremeusvnf 4686* Even if 𝑥 is free in 𝐴, it is effectively bound when 𝐴(𝑥) is single-valued. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Oct-2016.)
(∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴𝑥𝐴)
 
Theoremeusvnfb 4687* Two ways to say that 𝐴(𝑥) is a set expression that does not depend on 𝑥. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.)
(∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴 ↔ (𝑥𝐴𝐴 ∈ V))
 
Theoremeusv2i 4688* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐴(𝑥). (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.)
(∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴 → ∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴)
 
Theoremeusv2nf 4689* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐴(𝑥). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴𝑥𝐴)
 
Theoremeusv2 4690* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐴(𝑥). (Contributed by NM, 15-Oct-2010.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴 ↔ ∃!𝑦𝑥 𝑦 = 𝐴)
 
Theoremreusv1 4691* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐶(𝑦). (Contributed by NM, 16-Dec-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 7-Aug-2021.)
(∃𝑦𝐵 𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶)))
 
Theoremreusv1OLD 4692* Obsolete proof of reusv1 4691 as of 7-Aug-2021. (Contributed by NM, 16-Dec-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 18-Nov-2016.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(∃𝑦𝐵 𝜑 → (∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶) ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶)))
 
Theoremreusv2lem1 4693* Lemma for reusv2 4699. (Contributed by NM, 22-Oct-2010.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
(𝐴 ≠ ∅ → (∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵))
 
Theoremreusv2lem2 4694* Lemma for reusv2 4699. (Contributed by NM, 27-Oct-2010.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 7-Aug-2021.)
(∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵 → ∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵)
 
Theoremreusv2lem2OLD 4695* Obsolete proof of reusv2lem2 4694 as of 7-Aug-2021. (Contributed by NM, 27-Oct-2010.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵 → ∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵)
 
Theoremreusv2lem3 4696* Lemma for reusv2 4699. (Contributed by NM, 14-Dec-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
(∀𝑦𝐴 𝐵 ∈ V → (∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝑦𝐴 𝑥 = 𝐵))
 
Theoremreusv2lem4 4697* Lemma for reusv2 4699. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2012.)
(∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶) ↔ ∃!𝑥𝑦𝐵 ((𝐶𝐴𝜑) → 𝑥 = 𝐶))
 
Theoremreusv2lem5 4698* Lemma for reusv2 4699. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jan-2013.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
((∀𝑦𝐵 𝐶𝐴𝐵 ≠ ∅) → (∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 𝑥 = 𝐶 ↔ ∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 𝑥 = 𝐶))
 
Theoremreusv2 4699* Two ways to express single-valuedness of a class expression 𝐶(𝑦) that is constant for those 𝑦𝐵 such that 𝜑. The first antecedent ensures that the constant value belongs to the existential uniqueness domain 𝐴, and the second ensures that 𝐶(𝑦) is evaluated for at least one 𝑦. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jan-2013.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 19-Nov-2016.)
((∀𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝐶𝐴) ∧ ∃𝑦𝐵 𝜑) → (∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶) ↔ ∃!𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶)))
 
Theoremreusv3i 4700* Two ways of expressing existential uniqueness via an indirect equality. (Contributed by NM, 23-Dec-2012.)
(𝑦 = 𝑧 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑦 = 𝑧𝐶 = 𝐷)       (∃𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐵 (𝜑𝑥 = 𝐶) → ∀𝑦𝐵𝑧𝐵 ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐶 = 𝐷))
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