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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 7701-7800   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremnnmwordri 7701 Weak ordering property of ordinal multiplication. Proposition 8.21 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 63, limited to natural numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ω) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝐴 ·𝑜 𝐶) ⊆ (𝐵 ·𝑜 𝐶)))

Theoremnnawordex 7702* Equivalence for weak ordering of natural numbers. (Contributed by NM, 8-Nov-2002.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) → (𝐴𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑥 ∈ ω (𝐴 +𝑜 𝑥) = 𝐵))

Theoremnnaordex 7703* Equivalence for ordering. Compare Exercise 23 of [Enderton] p. 88. (Contributed by NM, 5-Dec-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) → (𝐴𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑥 ∈ ω (∅ ∈ 𝑥 ∧ (𝐴 +𝑜 𝑥) = 𝐵)))

Theorem1onn 7704 One is a natural number. (Contributed by NM, 29-Oct-1995.)
1𝑜 ∈ ω

Theorem2onn 7705 The ordinal 2 is a natural number. (Contributed by NM, 28-Sep-2004.)
2𝑜 ∈ ω

Theorem3onn 7706 The ordinal 3 is a natural number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Jan-2016.)
3𝑜 ∈ ω

Theorem4onn 7707 The ordinal 4 is a natural number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Jan-2016.)
4𝑜 ∈ ω

Theoremoaabslem 7708 Lemma for oaabs 7709. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2004.)
((ω ∈ On ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ω) → (𝐴 +𝑜 ω) = ω)

Theoremoaabs 7709 Ordinal addition absorbs a natural number added to the left of a transfinite number. Proposition 8.10 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 59. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2004.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2015.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ On) ∧ ω ⊆ 𝐵) → (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) = 𝐵)

Theoremoaabs2 7710 The absorption law oaabs 7709 is also a property of higher powers of ω. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2015.)
(((𝐴 ∈ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐶) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ On) ∧ (ω ↑𝑜 𝐶) ⊆ 𝐵) → (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) = 𝐵)

Theoremomabslem 7711 Lemma for omabs 7712. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.)
((ω ∈ On ∧ 𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ ∅ ∈ 𝐴) → (𝐴 ·𝑜 ω) = ω)

Theoremomabs 7712 Ordinal multiplication is also absorbed by powers of ω. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-May-2015.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ ∅ ∈ 𝐴) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ On ∧ ∅ ∈ 𝐵)) → (𝐴 ·𝑜 (ω ↑𝑜 𝐵)) = (ω ↑𝑜 𝐵))

Theoremnnm1 7713 Multiply an element of ω by 1𝑜. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐴 ·𝑜 1𝑜) = 𝐴)

Theoremnnm2 7714 Multiply an element of ω by 2𝑜. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Apr-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐴 ·𝑜 2𝑜) = (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐴))

Theoremnn2m 7715 Multiply an element of ω by 2𝑜. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Apr-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (2𝑜 ·𝑜 𝐴) = (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐴))

Theoremnnneo 7716 If a natural number is even, its successor is odd. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐶 = (2𝑜 ·𝑜 𝐴)) → ¬ suc 𝐶 = (2𝑜 ·𝑜 𝐵))

Theoremnneob 7717* A natural number is even iff its successor is odd. (Contributed by NM, 26-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 15-Nov-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (∃𝑥 ∈ ω 𝐴 = (2𝑜 ·𝑜 𝑥) ↔ ¬ ∃𝑥 ∈ ω suc 𝐴 = (2𝑜 ·𝑜 𝑥)))

Theoremomsmolem 7718* Lemma for omsmo 7719. (Contributed by NM, 30-Nov-2003.) (Revised by David Abernethy, 1-Jan-2014.)
(𝑦 ∈ ω → (((𝐴 ⊆ On ∧ 𝐹:ω⟶𝐴) ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ω (𝐹𝑥) ∈ (𝐹‘suc 𝑥)) → (𝑧𝑦 → (𝐹𝑧) ∈ (𝐹𝑦))))

Theoremomsmo 7719* A strictly monotonic ordinal function on the set of natural numbers is one-to-one. (Contributed by NM, 30-Nov-2003.) (Revised by David Abernethy, 1-Jan-2014.)
(((𝐴 ⊆ On ∧ 𝐹:ω⟶𝐴) ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ω (𝐹𝑥) ∈ (𝐹‘suc 𝑥)) → 𝐹:ω–1-1𝐴)

Theoremomopthlem1 7720 Lemma for omopthi 7722. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Apr-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ ω    &   𝐶 ∈ ω       (𝐴𝐶 → ((𝐴 ·𝑜 𝐴) +𝑜 (𝐴 ·𝑜 2𝑜)) ∈ (𝐶 ·𝑜 𝐶))

Theoremomopthlem2 7721 Lemma for omopthi 7722. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Apr-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ ω    &   𝐵 ∈ ω    &   𝐶 ∈ ω    &   𝐷 ∈ ω       ((𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) ∈ 𝐶 → ¬ ((𝐶 ·𝑜 𝐶) +𝑜 𝐷) = (((𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) ·𝑜 (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵)) +𝑜 𝐵))

Theoremomopthi 7722 An ordered pair theorem for ω. Theorem 17.3 of [Quine] p. 124. This proof is adapted from nn0opthi 13040. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Apr-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ ω    &   𝐵 ∈ ω    &   𝐶 ∈ ω    &   𝐷 ∈ ω       ((((𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) ·𝑜 (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵)) +𝑜 𝐵) = (((𝐶 +𝑜 𝐷) ·𝑜 (𝐶 +𝑜 𝐷)) +𝑜 𝐷) ↔ (𝐴 = 𝐶𝐵 = 𝐷))

Theoremomopth 7723 An ordered pair theorem for finite integers. Analogous to nn0opthi 13040. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 1-May-2012.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐷 ∈ ω)) → ((((𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵) ·𝑜 (𝐴 +𝑜 𝐵)) +𝑜 𝐵) = (((𝐶 +𝑜 𝐷) ·𝑜 (𝐶 +𝑜 𝐷)) +𝑜 𝐷) ↔ (𝐴 = 𝐶𝐵 = 𝐷)))

2.4.20  Equivalence relations and classes

Syntaxwer 7724 Extend the definition of a wff to include the equivalence predicate.
wff 𝑅 Er 𝐴

Syntaxcec 7725 Extend the definition of a class to include equivalence class.
class [𝐴]𝑅

Syntaxcqs 7726 Extend the definition of a class to include quotient set.
class (𝐴 / 𝑅)

Definitiondf-er 7727 Define the equivalence relation predicate. Our notation is not standard. A formal notation doesn't seem to exist in the literature; instead only informal English tends to be used. The present definition, although somewhat cryptic, nicely avoids dummy variables. In dfer2 7728 we derive a more typical definition. We show that an equivalence relation is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive in erref 7747, ersymb 7741, and ertr 7742. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 2-Nov-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 ↔ (Rel 𝑅 ∧ dom 𝑅 = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑅 ∪ (𝑅𝑅)) ⊆ 𝑅))

Theoremdfer2 7728* Alternate definition of equivalence predicate. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-1997.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 ↔ (Rel 𝑅 ∧ dom 𝑅 = 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥𝑦𝑧((𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑥) ∧ ((𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑧) → 𝑥𝑅𝑧))))

Definitiondf-ec 7729 Define the 𝑅-coset of 𝐴. Exercise 35 of [Enderton] p. 61. This is called the equivalence class of 𝐴 modulo 𝑅 when 𝑅 is an equivalence relation (i.e. when Er 𝑅; see dfer2 7728). In this case, 𝐴 is a representative (member) of the equivalence class [𝐴]𝑅, which contains all sets that are equivalent to 𝐴. Definition of [Enderton] p. 57 uses the notation [𝐴] (subscript) 𝑅, although we simply follow the brackets by 𝑅 since we don't have subscripted expressions. For an alternate definition, see dfec2 7730. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
[𝐴]𝑅 = (𝑅 “ {𝐴})

Theoremdfec2 7730* Alternate definition of 𝑅-coset of 𝐴. Definition 34 of [Suppes] p. 81. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-1997.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴𝑉 → [𝐴]𝑅 = {𝑦𝐴𝑅𝑦})

Theoremecexg 7731 An equivalence class modulo a set is a set. (Contributed by NM, 24-Jul-1995.)
(𝑅𝐵 → [𝐴]𝑅 ∈ V)

Theoremecexr 7732 A nonempty equivalence class implies the representative is a set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ [𝐵]𝑅𝐵 ∈ V)

Definitiondf-qs 7733* Define quotient set. 𝑅 is usually an equivalence relation. Definition of [Enderton] p. 58. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐴 / 𝑅) = {𝑦 ∣ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝑦 = [𝑥]𝑅}

Theoremereq1 7734 Equality theorem for equivalence predicate. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 = 𝑆 → (𝑅 Er 𝐴𝑆 Er 𝐴))

Theoremereq2 7735 Equality theorem for equivalence predicate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝑅 Er 𝐴𝑅 Er 𝐵))

Theoremerrel 7736 An equivalence relation is a relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 → Rel 𝑅)

Theoremerdm 7737 The domain of an equivalence relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 → dom 𝑅 = 𝐴)

Theoremercl 7738 Elementhood in the field of an equivalence relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴𝑋)

Theoremersym 7739 An equivalence relation is symmetric. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐴)

Theoremercl2 7740 Elementhood in the field of an equivalence relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐵𝑋)

Theoremersymb 7741 An equivalence relation is symmetric. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐵𝑅𝐴))

Theoremertr 7742 An equivalence relation is transitive. (Contributed by NM, 4-Jun-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴𝑅𝐵𝐵𝑅𝐶) → 𝐴𝑅𝐶))

Theoremertrd 7743 A transitivity relation for equivalences. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremertr2d 7744 A transitivity relation for equivalences. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐴)

Theoremertr3d 7745 A transitivity relation for equivalences. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑅𝐶)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremertr4d 7746 A transitivity relation for equivalences. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐶)

Theoremerref 7747 An equivalence relation is reflexive on its field. Compare Theorem 3M of [Enderton] p. 56. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-May-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑋)       (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐴)

Theoremercnv 7748 The converse of an equivalence relation is itself. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴𝑅 = 𝑅)

Theoremerrn 7749 The range and domain of an equivalence relation are equal. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 11-Oct-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 → ran 𝑅 = 𝐴)

Theoremerssxp 7750 An equivalence relation is a subset of the cartesian product of the field. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴𝑅 ⊆ (𝐴 × 𝐴))

Theoremerex 7751 An equivalence relation is a set if its domain is a set. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 15-Oct-2010.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 → (𝐴𝑉𝑅 ∈ V))

Theoremerexb 7752 An equivalence relation is a set if and only if its domain is a set. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 15-Oct-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝑅 Er 𝐴 → (𝑅 ∈ V ↔ 𝐴 ∈ V))

Theoremiserd 7753* A reflexive, symmetric, transitive relation is an equivalence relation on its domain. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑 → Rel 𝑅)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝑅𝑦) → 𝑦𝑅𝑥)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑧)) → 𝑥𝑅𝑧)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝑅𝑥))       (𝜑𝑅 Er 𝐴)

Theoremiseri 7754* A reflexive, symmetric, transitive relation is an equivalence relation on its domain. Inference version of iserd 7753, which avoids the need to provide a "dummy antecedent" 𝜑 if there is no natural one to choose. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
Rel 𝑅    &   (𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑥)    &   ((𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑧) → 𝑥𝑅𝑧)    &   (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝑅𝑥)       𝑅 Er 𝐴

TheoremiseriALT 7755* Alternate proof of iseri 7754, avoiding the usage of trud 1491 and as antecedent by using ax-mp 5 and one of the hypotheses as antecedent. This results, however, in a slightly longer proof. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
Rel 𝑅    &   (𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑥)    &   ((𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑧) → 𝑥𝑅𝑧)    &   (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝑅𝑥)       𝑅 Er 𝐴

Theorembrdifun 7756 Evaluate the incomparability relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝑅 = ((𝑋 × 𝑋) ∖ ( < < ))       ((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑋) → (𝐴𝑅𝐵 ↔ ¬ (𝐴 < 𝐵𝐵 < 𝐴)))

Theoremswoer 7757* Incomparability under a strict weak partial order is an equivalence relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
𝑅 = ((𝑋 × 𝑋) ∖ ( < < ))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑦 < 𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧 < 𝑦))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑥 < 𝑦 → (𝑥 < 𝑧𝑧 < 𝑦)))       (𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)

Theoremswoord1 7758* The incomparability equivalence relation is compatible with the original order. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Dec-2014.)
𝑅 = ((𝑋 × 𝑋) ∖ ( < < ))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑦 < 𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧 < 𝑦))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑥 < 𝑦 → (𝑥 < 𝑧𝑧 < 𝑦)))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 < 𝐶𝐵 < 𝐶))

Theoremswoord2 7759* The incomparability equivalence relation is compatible with the original order. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Dec-2014.)
𝑅 = ((𝑋 × 𝑋) ∖ ( < < ))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑦 < 𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧 < 𝑦))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑥 < 𝑦 → (𝑥 < 𝑧𝑧 < 𝑦)))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → (𝐶 < 𝐴𝐶 < 𝐵))

Theoremswoso 7760* If the incomparability relation is equivalent to equality in a subset, then the partial order strictly orders the subset. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Dec-2014.)
𝑅 = ((𝑋 × 𝑋) ∖ ( < < ))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑦 < 𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧 < 𝑦))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋𝑧𝑋)) → (𝑥 < 𝑦 → (𝑥 < 𝑧𝑧 < 𝑦)))    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑋)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑌𝑦𝑌𝑥𝑅𝑦)) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)       (𝜑< Or 𝑌)

Theoremeqerlem 7761* Lemma for eqer 7762. (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2008.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 6-Dec-2016.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   𝑅 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝐴 = 𝐵}       (𝑧𝑅𝑤𝑧 / 𝑥𝐴 = 𝑤 / 𝑥𝐴)

Theoremeqer 7762* Equivalence relation involving equality of dependent classes 𝐴(𝑥) and 𝐵(𝑦). (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 1-May-2021.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   𝑅 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝐴 = 𝐵}       𝑅 Er V

TheoremeqerOLD 7763* Obsolete proof of eqer 7762 as of 1-May-2021. Equivalence relation involving equality of dependent classes 𝐴(𝑥) and 𝐵(𝑦). (Contributed by NM, 17-Mar-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   𝑅 = {⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ 𝐴 = 𝐵}       𝑅 Er V

Theoremider 7764 The identity relation is an equivalence relation. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1998.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 22-Oct-2011.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
I Er V

Theorem0er 7765 The empty set is an equivalence relation on the empty set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Sep-2015.) (Proof shortened by AV, 1-May-2021.)
∅ Er ∅

Theorem0erOLD 7766 Obsolete proof of 0er 7765 as of 1-May-2021. The empty set is an equivalence relation on the empty set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 5-Sep-2015.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
∅ Er ∅

Theoremeceq1 7767 Equality theorem for equivalence class. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → [𝐴]𝐶 = [𝐵]𝐶)

Theoremeceq1d 7768 Equality theorem for equivalence class (deduction form). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 31-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → [𝐴]𝐶 = [𝐵]𝐶)

Theoremeceq2 7769 Equality theorem for equivalence class. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → [𝐶]𝐴 = [𝐶]𝐵)

Theoremelecg 7770 Membership in an equivalence class. Theorem 72 of [Suppes] p. 82. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
((𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (𝐴 ∈ [𝐵]𝑅𝐵𝑅𝐴))

Theoremelec 7771 Membership in an equivalence class. Theorem 72 of [Suppes] p. 82. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐴 ∈ [𝐵]𝑅𝐵𝑅𝐴)

Theoremrelelec 7772 Membership in an equivalence class when 𝑅 is a relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Sep-2015.)
(Rel 𝑅 → (𝐴 ∈ [𝐵]𝑅𝐵𝑅𝐴))

Theoremecss 7773 An equivalence class is a subset of the domain. (Contributed by NM, 6-Aug-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)       (𝜑 → [𝐴]𝑅𝑋)

Theoremecdmn0 7774 A representative of a nonempty equivalence class belongs to the domain of the equivalence relation. (Contributed by NM, 15-Feb-1996.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ dom 𝑅 ↔ [𝐴]𝑅 ≠ ∅)

Theoremereldm 7775 Equality of equivalence classes implies equivalence of domain membership. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jan-1996.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑 → [𝐴]𝑅 = [𝐵]𝑅)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑋))

Theoremerth 7776 Basic property of equivalence relations. Theorem 73 of [Suppes] p. 82. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jul-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵 ↔ [𝐴]𝑅 = [𝐵]𝑅))

Theoremerth2 7777 Basic property of equivalence relations. Compare Theorem 73 of [Suppes] p. 82. Assumes membership of the second argument in the domain. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 6-Jul-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑋)       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑅𝐵 ↔ [𝐴]𝑅 = [𝐵]𝑅))

Theoremerthi 7778 Basic property of equivalence relations. Part of Lemma 3N of [Enderton] p. 57. (Contributed by NM, 30-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑅𝐵)       (𝜑 → [𝐴]𝑅 = [𝐵]𝑅)

Theoremerdisj 7779 Equivalence classes do not overlap. In other words, two equivalence classes are either equal or disjoint. Theorem 74 of [Suppes] p. 83. (Contributed by NM, 15-Jun-2004.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝑅 Er 𝑋 → ([𝐴]𝑅 = [𝐵]𝑅 ∨ ([𝐴]𝑅 ∩ [𝐵]𝑅) = ∅))

Theoremecidsn 7780 An equivalence class modulo the identity relation is a singleton. (Contributed by NM, 24-Oct-2004.)
[𝐴] I = {𝐴}

Theoremqseq1 7781 Equality theorem for quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝐴 / 𝐶) = (𝐵 / 𝐶))

Theoremqseq2 7782 Equality theorem for quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (𝐶 / 𝐴) = (𝐶 / 𝐵))

Theoremelqsg 7783* Closed form of elqs 7784. (Contributed by Rodolfo Medina, 12-Oct-2010.)
(𝐵𝑉 → (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴 / 𝑅) ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = [𝑥]𝑅))

Theoremelqs 7784* Membership in a quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴 / 𝑅) ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = [𝑥]𝑅)

Theoremelqsi 7785* Membership in a quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.)
(𝐵 ∈ (𝐴 / 𝑅) → ∃𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = [𝑥]𝑅)

Theoremelqsecl 7786* Membership in a quotient set by an equivalence class according to . (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 12-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
(𝐵𝑋 → (𝐵 ∈ (𝑊 / ) ↔ ∃𝑥𝑊 𝐵 = {𝑦𝑥 𝑦}))

Theoremecelqsg 7787 Membership of an equivalence class in a quotient set. (Contributed by Jeff Madsen, 10-Jun-2010.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
((𝑅𝑉𝐵𝐴) → [𝐵]𝑅 ∈ (𝐴 / 𝑅))

Theoremecelqsi 7788 Membership of an equivalence class in a quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 25-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝑅 ∈ V       (𝐵𝐴 → [𝐵]𝑅 ∈ (𝐴 / 𝑅))

Theoremecopqsi 7789 "Closure" law for equivalence class of ordered pairs. (Contributed by NM, 25-Mar-1996.)
𝑅 ∈ V    &   𝑆 = ((𝐴 × 𝐴) / 𝑅)       ((𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐴) → [⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩]𝑅𝑆)

Theoremqsexg 7790 A quotient set exists. (Contributed by FL, 19-May-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (𝐴 / 𝑅) ∈ V)

Theoremqsex 7791 A quotient set exists. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (𝐴 / 𝑅) ∈ V

Theoremuniqs 7792 The union of a quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 9-Dec-2008.)
(𝑅𝑉 (𝐴 / 𝑅) = (𝑅𝐴))

Theoremqsss 7793 A quotient set is a set of subsets of the base set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 / 𝑅) ⊆ 𝒫 𝐴)

Theoremuniqs2 7794 The union of a quotient set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Jul-2014.)
(𝜑𝑅 Er 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑅𝑉)       (𝜑 (𝐴 / 𝑅) = 𝐴)

Theoremsnec 7795 The singleton of an equivalence class. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ V       {[𝐴]𝑅} = ({𝐴} / 𝑅)

Theoremecqs 7796 Equivalence class in terms of quotient set. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1999.)
𝑅 ∈ V       [𝐴]𝑅 = ({𝐴} / 𝑅)

Theoremecid 7797 A set is equal to its converse epsilon coset. (Note: converse epsilon is not an equivalence relation.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ V       [𝐴] E = 𝐴

Theoremqsid 7798 A set is equal to its quotient set mod converse epsilon. (Note: converse epsilon is not an equivalence relation.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Aug-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
(𝐴 / E ) = 𝐴

Theoremectocld 7799* Implicit substitution of class for equivalence class. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝑆 = (𝐵 / 𝑅)    &   ([𝑥]𝑅 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   ((𝜒𝑥𝐵) → 𝜑)       ((𝜒𝐴𝑆) → 𝜓)

Theoremectocl 7800* Implicit substitution of class for equivalence class. (Contributed by NM, 23-Jul-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2014.)
𝑆 = (𝐵 / 𝑅)    &   ([𝑥]𝑅 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥𝐵𝜑)       (𝐴𝑆𝜓)

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