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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 5901-6000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Definitiondf-smo 5901* Definition of a strictly monotone ordinal function. Definition 7.46 in [TakeutiZaring] p. 50. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 15-Nov-2011.)
(Smo 𝐴 ↔ (𝐴:dom 𝐴⟶On ∧ Ord dom 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑦 ∈ dom 𝐴(𝑥𝑦 → (𝐴𝑥) ∈ (𝐴𝑦))))
 
Theoremdfsmo2 5902* Alternate definition of a strictly monotone ordinal function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Mar-2013.)
(Smo 𝐹 ↔ (𝐹:dom 𝐹⟶On ∧ Ord dom 𝐹 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ dom 𝐹𝑦𝑥 (𝐹𝑦) ∈ (𝐹𝑥)))
 
Theoremissmo 5903* Conditions for which 𝐴 is a strictly monotone ordinal function. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 15-Nov-2011.)
𝐴:𝐵⟶On    &   Ord 𝐵    &   ((𝑥𝐵𝑦𝐵) → (𝑥𝑦 → (𝐴𝑥) ∈ (𝐴𝑦)))    &   dom 𝐴 = 𝐵       Smo 𝐴
 
Theoremissmo2 5904* Alternative definition of a strictly monotone ordinal function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2013.)
(𝐹:𝐴𝐵 → ((𝐵 ⊆ On ∧ Ord 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝑥 (𝐹𝑦) ∈ (𝐹𝑥)) → Smo 𝐹))
 
Theoremsmoeq 5905 Equality theorem for strictly monotone functions. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 16-Nov-2011.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → (Smo 𝐴 ↔ Smo 𝐵))
 
Theoremsmodm 5906 The domain of a strictly monotone function is an ordinal. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 16-Nov-2011.)
(Smo 𝐴 → Ord dom 𝐴)
 
Theoremsmores 5907 A strictly monotone function restricted to an ordinal remains strictly monotone. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 16-Nov-2011.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 5-Dec-2016.)
((Smo 𝐴𝐵 ∈ dom 𝐴) → Smo (𝐴𝐵))
 
Theoremsmores3 5908 A strictly monotone function restricted to an ordinal remains strictly monotone. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)
((Smo (𝐴𝐵) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (dom 𝐴𝐵) ∧ Ord 𝐵) → Smo (𝐴𝐶))
 
Theoremsmores2 5909 A strictly monotone ordinal function restricted to an ordinal is still monotone. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Mar-2013.)
((Smo 𝐹 ∧ Ord 𝐴) → Smo (𝐹𝐴))
 
Theoremsmodm2 5910 The domain of a strictly monotone ordinal function is an ordinal. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2013.)
((𝐹 Fn 𝐴 ∧ Smo 𝐹) → Ord 𝐴)
 
Theoremsmofvon2dm 5911 The function values of a strictly monotone ordinal function are ordinals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2013.)
((Smo 𝐹𝐵 ∈ dom 𝐹) → (𝐹𝐵) ∈ On)
 
Theoremiordsmo 5912 The identity relation restricted to the ordinals is a strictly monotone function. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 16-Nov-2011.)
Ord 𝐴       Smo ( I ↾ 𝐴)
 
Theoremsmo0 5913 The null set is a strictly monotone ordinal function. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 20-Nov-2011.)
Smo ∅
 
Theoremsmofvon 5914 If 𝐵 is a strictly monotone ordinal function, and 𝐴 is in the domain of 𝐵, then the value of the function at 𝐴 is an ordinal. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 20-Nov-2011.)
((Smo 𝐵𝐴 ∈ dom 𝐵) → (𝐵𝐴) ∈ On)
 
Theoremsmoel 5915 If 𝑥 is less than 𝑦 then a strictly monotone function's value will be strictly less at 𝑥 than at 𝑦. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 22-Nov-2011.)
((Smo 𝐵𝐴 ∈ dom 𝐵𝐶𝐴) → (𝐵𝐶) ∈ (𝐵𝐴))
 
Theoremsmoiun 5916* The value of a strictly monotone ordinal function contains its indexed union. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 22-Nov-2011.)
((Smo 𝐵𝐴 ∈ dom 𝐵) → 𝑥𝐴 (𝐵𝑥) ⊆ (𝐵𝐴))
 
Theoremsmoiso 5917 If 𝐹 is an isomorphism from an ordinal 𝐴 onto 𝐵, which is a subset of the ordinals, then 𝐹 is a strictly monotonic function. Exercise 3 in [TakeutiZaring] p. 50. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 24-Nov-2011.)
((𝐹 Isom E , E (𝐴, 𝐵) ∧ Ord 𝐴𝐵 ⊆ On) → Smo 𝐹)
 
Theoremsmoel2 5918 A strictly monotone ordinal function preserves the epsilon relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2013.)
(((𝐹 Fn 𝐴 ∧ Smo 𝐹) ∧ (𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵)) → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ (𝐹𝐵))
 
2.6.19  "Strong" transfinite recursion
 
Syntaxcrecs 5919 Notation for a function defined by strong transfinite recursion.
class recs(𝐹)
 
Definitiondf-recs 5920* Define a function recs(𝐹) on On, the class of ordinal numbers, by transfinite recursion given a rule 𝐹 which sets the next value given all values so far. See df-irdg 5957 for more details on why this definition is desirable. Unlike df-irdg 5957 which restricts the update rule to use only the previous value, this version allows the update rule to use all previous values, which is why it is described as "strong", although it is actually more primitive. See tfri1d 5949 and tfri2d 5950 for the primary contract of this definition.

(Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 18-Jan-2015.)

recs(𝐹) = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}
 
Theoremrecseq 5921 Equality theorem for recs. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 18-Jan-2015.)
(𝐹 = 𝐺 → recs(𝐹) = recs(𝐺))
 
Theoremnfrecs 5922 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for recs. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 18-Jan-2015.)
𝑥𝐹       𝑥recs(𝐹)
 
Theoremtfrlem1 5923* A technical lemma for transfinite recursion. Compare Lemma 1 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47. (Contributed by NM, 23-Mar-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → (Fun 𝐹𝐴 ⊆ dom 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (Fun 𝐺𝐴 ⊆ dom 𝐺))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝐹𝑥) = (𝐵‘(𝐹𝑥)))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝐺𝑥) = (𝐵‘(𝐺𝑥)))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝐹𝑥) = (𝐺𝑥))
 
Theoremtfrlem3ag 5924* Lemma for transfinite recursion. This lemma just changes some bound variables in 𝐴 for later use. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       (𝐺 ∈ V → (𝐺𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑧 ∈ On (𝐺 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝐺𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑤)))))
 
Theoremtfrlem3a 5925* Lemma for transfinite recursion. Let 𝐴 be the class of "acceptable" functions. The final thing we're interested in is the union of all these acceptable functions. This lemma just changes some bound variables in 𝐴 for later use. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   𝐺 ∈ V       (𝐺𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑧 ∈ On (𝐺 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝐺𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑤))))
 
Theoremtfrlem3 5926* Lemma for transfinite recursion. Let 𝐴 be the class of "acceptable" functions. The final thing we're interested in is the union of all these acceptable functions. This lemma just changes some bound variables in 𝐴 for later use. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       𝐴 = {𝑔 ∣ ∃𝑧 ∈ On (𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤)))}
 
Theoremtfrlem3-2 5927* Lemma for transfinite recursion which changes a bound variable (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 17-Apr-2019.)
(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V)       (Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑔) ∈ V)
 
Theoremtfrlem3-2d 5928* Lemma for transfinite recursion which changes a bound variable (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Jul-2019.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))       (𝜑 → (Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑔) ∈ V))
 
Theoremtfrlem4 5929* Lemma for transfinite recursion. 𝐴 is the class of all "acceptable" functions, and 𝐹 is their union. First we show that an acceptable function is in fact a function. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       (𝑔𝐴 → Fun 𝑔)
 
Theoremtfrlem5 5930* Lemma for transfinite recursion. The values of two acceptable functions are the same within their domains. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       ((𝑔𝐴𝐴) → ((𝑥𝑔𝑢𝑥𝑣) → 𝑢 = 𝑣))
 
Theoremrecsfval 5931* Lemma for transfinite recursion. The definition recs is the union of all acceptable functions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-May-2015.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       recs(𝐹) = 𝐴
 
Theoremtfrlem6 5932* Lemma for transfinite recursion. The union of all acceptable functions is a relation. (Contributed by NM, 8-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-May-2015.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       Rel recs(𝐹)
 
Theoremtfrlem7 5933* Lemma for transfinite recursion. The union of all acceptable functions is a function. (Contributed by NM, 9-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       Fun recs(𝐹)
 
Theoremtfrlem8 5934* Lemma for transfinite recursion. The domain of recs is ordinal. (Contributed by NM, 14-Aug-1994.) (Proof shortened by Alan Sare, 11-Mar-2008.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       Ord dom recs(𝐹)
 
Theoremtfrlem9 5935* Lemma for transfinite recursion. Here we compute the value of recs (the union of all acceptable functions). (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-1994.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}       (𝐵 ∈ dom recs(𝐹) → (recs(𝐹)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(recs(𝐹) ↾ 𝐵)))
 
Theoremtfr2a 5936 A weak version of transfinite recursion. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Jun-2015.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)       (𝐴 ∈ dom 𝐹 → (𝐹𝐴) = (𝐺‘(𝐹𝐴)))
 
Theoremtfr0 5937 Transfinite recursion at the empty set. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 8-May-2020.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)       ((𝐺‘∅) ∈ 𝑉 → (𝐹‘∅) = (𝐺‘∅))
 
Theoremtfrlemisucfn 5938* We can extend an acceptable function by one element to produce a function. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   (𝜑𝑧 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝑔 Fn 𝑧)    &   (𝜑𝑔𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}) Fn suc 𝑧)
 
Theoremtfrlemisucaccv 5939* We can extend an acceptable function by one element to produce an acceptable function. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   (𝜑𝑧 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝑔 Fn 𝑧)    &   (𝜑𝑔𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}) ∈ 𝐴)
 
Theoremtfrlemibacc 5940* Each element of 𝐵 is an acceptable function. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑𝐵𝐴)
 
Theoremtfrlemibxssdm 5941* The union of 𝐵 is defined on all ordinals. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 18-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑𝑥 ⊆ dom 𝐵)
 
Theoremtfrlemibfn 5942* The union of 𝐵 is a function defined on 𝑥. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 18-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑 𝐵 Fn 𝑥)
 
Theoremtfrlemibex 5943* The set 𝐵 exists. Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 17-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)
 
Theoremtfrlemiubacc 5944* The union of 𝐵 satisfies the recursion rule (lemma for tfrlemi1 5946). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 22-Apr-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑢𝑥 ( 𝐵𝑢) = (𝐹‘( 𝐵𝑢)))
 
Theoremtfrlemiex 5945* Lemma for tfrlemi1 5946. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 18-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))    &   𝐵 = { ∣ ∃𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧𝑔𝐴 = (𝑔 ∪ {⟨𝑧, (𝐹𝑔)⟩}))}    &   (𝜑𝑥 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝑥𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝑧 ∧ ∀𝑤𝑧 (𝑔𝑤) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑤))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑓(𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑢𝑥 (𝑓𝑢) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑢))))
 
Theoremtfrlemi1 5946* We can define an acceptable function on any ordinal.

As with many of the transfinite recursion theorems, we have a hypothesis that states that 𝐹 is a function and that it is defined for all ordinals. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Mar-2019.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)

𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))       ((𝜑𝐶 ∈ On) → ∃𝑔(𝑔 Fn 𝐶 ∧ ∀𝑢𝐶 (𝑔𝑢) = (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑢))))
 
Theoremtfrlemi14d 5947* The domain of recs is all ordinals (lemma for transfinite recursion). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 9-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))       (𝜑 → dom recs(𝐹) = On)
 
Theoremtfrexlem 5948* The transfinite recursion function is set-like if the input is. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑓 ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ On (𝑓 Fn 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 (𝑓𝑦) = (𝐹‘(𝑓𝑦)))}    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑥) ∈ V))       ((𝜑𝐶𝑉) → (recs(𝐹)‘𝐶) ∈ V)
 
Theoremtfri1d 5949* Principle of Transfinite Recursion, part 1 of 3. Theorem 7.41(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47, with an additional condition.

The condition is that 𝐺 is defined "everywhere" and here is stated as (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V. Alternatively 𝑥 ∈ On∀𝑓(𝑓 Fn 𝑥𝑓 ∈ dom 𝐺) would suffice.

Given a function 𝐺 satisfying that condition, we define a class 𝐴 of all "acceptable" functions. The final function we're interested in is the union 𝐹 = recs(𝐺) of them. 𝐹 is then said to be defined by transfinite recursion. The purpose of the 3 parts of this theorem is to demonstrate properties of 𝐹. In this first part we show that 𝐹 is a function whose domain is all ordinal numbers. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-May-2019.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)

𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V))       (𝜑𝐹 Fn On)
 
Theoremtfri2d 5950* Principle of Transfinite Recursion, part 2 of 3. Theorem 7.41(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47, with an additional condition on the recursion rule 𝐺 ( as described at tfri1 5951). Here we show that the function 𝐹 has the property that for any function 𝐺 satisfying that condition, the "next" value of 𝐹 is 𝐺 recursively applied to all "previous" values of 𝐹. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-May-2019.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V))       ((𝜑𝐴 ∈ On) → (𝐹𝐴) = (𝐺‘(𝐹𝐴)))
 
Theoremtfri1 5951* Principle of Transfinite Recursion, part 1 of 3. Theorem 7.41(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47, with an additional condition.

The condition is that 𝐺 is defined "everywhere" and here is stated as (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V. Alternatively 𝑥 ∈ On∀𝑓(𝑓 Fn 𝑥𝑓 ∈ dom 𝐺) would suffice.

Given a function 𝐺 satisfying that condition, we define a class 𝐴 of all "acceptable" functions. The final function we're interested in is the union 𝐹 = recs(𝐺) of them. 𝐹 is then said to be defined by transfinite recursion. The purpose of the 3 parts of this theorem is to demonstrate properties of 𝐹. In this first part we show that 𝐹 is a function whose domain is all ordinal numbers. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-May-2019.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-May-2019.)

𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V)       𝐹 Fn On
 
Theoremtfri2 5952* Principle of Transfinite Recursion, part 2 of 3. Theorem 7.41(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47, with an additional condition on the recursion rule 𝐺 ( as described at tfri1 5951). Here we show that the function 𝐹 has the property that for any function 𝐺 satisfying that condition, the "next" value of 𝐹 is 𝐺 recursively applied to all "previous" values of 𝐹. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-May-2019.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V)       (𝐴 ∈ On → (𝐹𝐴) = (𝐺‘(𝐹𝐴)))
 
Theoremtfri3 5953* Principle of Transfinite Recursion, part 3 of 3. Theorem 7.41(3) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 47, with an additional condition on the recursion rule 𝐺 ( as described at tfri1 5951). Finally, we show that 𝐹 is unique. We do this by showing that any class 𝐵 with the same properties of 𝐹 that we showed in parts 1 and 2 is identical to 𝐹. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-May-2019.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V)       ((𝐵 Fn On ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ On (𝐵𝑥) = (𝐺‘(𝐵𝑥))) → 𝐵 = 𝐹)
 
Theoremtfrex 5954* The transfinite recursion function is set-like if the input is. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝐹 = recs(𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥(Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑥) ∈ V))       ((𝜑𝐴𝑉) → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ V)
 
Theoremtfrfun 5955 Transfinite recursion produces a function. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Aug-2021.)
Fun recs(𝐹)
 
2.6.20  Recursive definition generator
 
Syntaxcrdg 5956 Extend class notation with the recursive definition generator, with characteristic function 𝐹 and initial value 𝐼.
class rec(𝐹, 𝐼)
 
Definitiondf-irdg 5957* Define a recursive definition generator on On (the class of ordinal numbers) with characteristic function 𝐹 and initial value 𝐼. This rather amazing operation allows us to define, with compact direct definitions, functions that are usually defined in textbooks only with indirect self-referencing recursive definitions. A recursive definition requires advanced metalogic to justify - in particular, eliminating a recursive definition is very difficult and often not even shown in textbooks. On the other hand, the elimination of a direct definition is a matter of simple mechanical substitution. The price paid is the daunting complexity of our rec operation (especially when df-recs 5920 that it is built on is also eliminated). But once we get past this hurdle, definitions that would otherwise be recursive become relatively simple. In classical logic it would be easier to divide this definition into cases based on whether the domain of 𝑔 is zero, a successor, or a limit ordinal. Cases do not (in general) work that way in intuitionistic logic, so instead we choose a definition which takes the union of all the results of the characteristic function for ordinals in the domain of 𝑔. This means that this definition has the expected properties for increasing and continuous ordinal functions, which include ordinal addition and multiplication.

For finite recursion we also define df-frec 5978 and for suitable characteristic functions df-frec 5978 yields the same result as rec restricted to ω, as seen at frecrdg 5992.

Note: We introduce rec with the philosophical goal of being able to eliminate all definitions with direct mechanical substitution and to verify easily the soundness of definitions. Metamath itself has no built-in technical limitation that prevents multiple-part recursive definitions in the traditional textbook style. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-May-2019.)

rec(𝐹, 𝐼) = recs((𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐼 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥)))))
 
Theoremrdgeq1 5958 Equality theorem for the recursive definition generator. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-May-2015.)
(𝐹 = 𝐺 → rec(𝐹, 𝐴) = rec(𝐺, 𝐴))
 
Theoremrdgeq2 5959 Equality theorem for the recursive definition generator. (Contributed by NM, 9-Apr-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-May-2015.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → rec(𝐹, 𝐴) = rec(𝐹, 𝐵))
 
Theoremrdgfun 5960 The recursive definition generator is a function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 16-Nov-2014.)
Fun rec(𝐹, 𝐴)
 
Theoremrdgtfr 5961* The recursion rule for the recursive definition generator is defined everywhere. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-May-2020.)
((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → (Fun (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥)))) ∧ ((𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥))))‘𝑓) ∈ V))
 
Theoremrdgruledefgg 5962* The recursion rule for the recursive definition generator is defined everywhere. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jul-2019.)
((𝐹 Fn V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → (Fun (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥)))) ∧ ((𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥))))‘𝑓) ∈ V))
 
Theoremrdgruledefg 5963* The recursion rule for the recursive definition generator is defined everywhere. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jul-2019.)
𝐹 Fn V       (𝐴𝑉 → (Fun (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥)))) ∧ ((𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝐴 𝑥 ∈ dom 𝑔(𝐹‘(𝑔𝑥))))‘𝑓) ∈ V))
 
Theoremrdgexggg 5964 The recursive definition generator produces a set on a set input. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jul-2019.)
((𝐹 Fn V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) ∈ V)
 
Theoremrdgexgg 5965 The recursive definition generator produces a set on a set input. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 4-Jul-2019.)
𝐹 Fn V       ((𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) ∈ V)
 
Theoremrdgifnon 5966 The recursive definition generator is a function on ordinal numbers. The 𝐹 Fn V condition states that the characteristic function is defined for all sets (being defined for all ordinals might be enough if being used in a manner similar to rdgon 5973; in cases like df-oadd 6005 either presumably could work). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 13-Jul-2019.)
((𝐹 Fn V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → rec(𝐹, 𝐴) Fn On)
 
Theoremrdgifnon2 5967* The recursive definition generator is a function on ordinal numbers. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-May-2020.)
((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → rec(𝐹, 𝐴) Fn On)
 
Theoremrdgivallem 5968* Value of the recursive definition generator. Lemma for rdgival 5969 which simplifies the value further. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 13-Jul-2019.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((𝐹 Fn V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ On) → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐴 𝑥𝐵 (𝐹‘((rec(𝐹, 𝐴) ↾ 𝐵)‘𝑥))))
 
Theoremrdgival 5969* Value of the recursive definition generator. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Jul-2019.)
((𝐹 Fn V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ On) → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐴 𝑥𝐵 (𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝑥))))
 
Theoremrdgss 5970 Subset and recursive definition generator. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jul-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 Fn V)    &   (𝜑𝐼𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → (rec(𝐹, 𝐼)‘𝐴) ⊆ (rec(𝐹, 𝐼)‘𝐵))
 
Theoremrdgisuc1 5971* One way of describing the value of the recursive definition generator at a successor. There is no condition on the characteristic function 𝐹 other than 𝐹 Fn V. Given that, the resulting expression encompasses both the expected successor term (𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵)) but also terms that correspond to the initial value 𝐴 and to limit ordinals 𝑥𝐵(𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝑥)).

If we add conditions on the characteristic function, we can show tighter results such as rdgisucinc 5972. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 9-Jun-2019.)

(𝜑𝐹 Fn V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)       (𝜑 → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘suc 𝐵) = (𝐴 ∪ ( 𝑥𝐵 (𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝑥)) ∪ (𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵)))))
 
Theoremrdgisucinc 5972* Value of the recursive definition generator at a successor.

This can be thought of as a generalization of oasuc 6044 and omsuc 6051. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2019.)

(𝜑𝐹 Fn V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 𝑥 ⊆ (𝐹𝑥))       (𝜑 → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘suc 𝐵) = (𝐹‘(rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremrdgon 5973* Evaluating the recursive definition generator produces an ordinal. There is a hypothesis that the characteristic function produces ordinals on ordinal arguments. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Jul-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 Fn V)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ On)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ On (𝐹𝑥) ∈ On)       ((𝜑𝐵 ∈ On) → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) ∈ On)
 
Theoremrdg0 5974 The initial value of the recursive definition generator. (Contributed by NM, 23-Apr-1995.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 14-Nov-2014.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘∅) = 𝐴
 
Theoremrdg0g 5975 The initial value of the recursive definition generator. (Contributed by NM, 25-Apr-1995.)
(𝐴𝐶 → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘∅) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremrdgexg 5976 The recursive definition generator produces a set on a set input. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jul-2019.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐹 Fn V       (𝐵𝑉 → (rec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) ∈ V)
 
2.6.21  Finite recursion
 
Syntaxcfrec 5977 Extend class notation with the fnite recursive definition generator, with characteristic function 𝐹 and initial value 𝐼.
class frec(𝐹, 𝐼)
 
Definitiondf-frec 5978* Define a recursive definition generator on ω (the class of finite ordinals) with characteristic function 𝐹 and initial value 𝐼. This rather amazing operation allows us to define, with compact direct definitions, functions that are usually defined in textbooks only with indirect self-referencing recursive definitions. A recursive definition requires advanced metalogic to justify - in particular, eliminating a recursive definition is very difficult and often not even shown in textbooks. On the other hand, the elimination of a direct definition is a matter of simple mechanical substitution. The price paid is the daunting complexity of our frec operation (especially when df-recs 5920 that it is built on is also eliminated). But once we get past this hurdle, definitions that would otherwise be recursive become relatively simple; see frec0g 5983 and frecsuc 5991.

Unlike with transfinite recursion, finite recurson can readily divide definitions and proofs into zero and successor cases, because even without excluded middle we have theorems such as nn0suc 4327. The analogous situation with transfinite recursion - being able to say that an ordinal is zero, successor, or limit - is enabled by excluded middle and thus is not available to us. For the characteristic functions which satisfy the conditions given at frecrdg 5992, this definition and df-irdg 5957 restricted to ω produce the same result.

Note: We introduce frec with the philosophical goal of being able to eliminate all definitions with direct mechanical substitution and to verify easily the soundness of definitions. Metamath itself has no built-in technical limitation that prevents multiple-part recursive definitions in the traditional textbook style. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 10-Aug-2019.)

frec(𝐹, 𝐼) = (recs((𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐼))})) ↾ ω)
 
Theoremfreceq1 5979 Equality theorem for the finite recursive definition generator. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-May-2020.)
(𝐹 = 𝐺 → frec(𝐹, 𝐴) = frec(𝐺, 𝐴))
 
Theoremfreceq2 5980 Equality theorem for the finite recursive definition generator. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-May-2020.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → frec(𝐹, 𝐴) = frec(𝐹, 𝐵))
 
Theoremfrecex 5981 Finite recursion produces a set. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Aug-2021.)
frec(𝐹, 𝐴) ∈ V
 
Theoremnffrec 5982 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for the finite recursive definition generator. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-May-2020.)
𝑥𝐹    &   𝑥𝐴       𝑥frec(𝐹, 𝐴)
 
Theoremfrec0g 5983 The initial value resulting from finite recursive definition generation. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 7-May-2020.)
(𝐴𝑉 → (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘∅) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremfrecabex 5984* The class abstraction from df-frec 5978 exists. This is a lemma for other finite recursion proofs. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 13-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑆𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑦(𝐹𝑦) ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑊)       (𝜑 → {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑆 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑆𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑆 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))} ∈ V)
 
Theoremfrectfr 5985* Lemma to connect transfinite recursion theorems with finite recursion. That is, given the conditions 𝐹 Fn V and 𝐴𝑉 on frec(𝐹, 𝐴), we want to be able to apply tfri1d 5949 or tfri2d 5950, and this lemma lets us satisfy hypotheses of those theorems.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2019.)

𝐺 = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))})       ((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → ∀𝑦(Fun 𝐺 ∧ (𝐺𝑦) ∈ V))
 
Theoremfrecfnom 5986* The function generated by finite recursive definition generation is a function on omega. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 13-May-2020.)
((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉) → frec(𝐹, 𝐴) Fn ω)
 
Theoremfrecsuclem1 5987* Lemma for frecsuc 5991. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 13-Aug-2019.)
𝐺 = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))})       ((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ ω) → (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘suc 𝐵) = (𝐺‘(recs(𝐺) ↾ suc 𝐵)))
 
Theoremfrecsuclemdm 5988* Lemma for frecsuc 5991. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2019.)
𝐺 = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))})       ((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ ω) → dom (recs(𝐺) ↾ suc 𝐵) = suc 𝐵)
 
Theoremfrecsuclem2 5989* Lemma for frecsuc 5991. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2019.)
𝐺 = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))})       ((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ ω) → ((recs(𝐺) ↾ suc 𝐵)‘𝐵) = (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵))
 
Theoremfrecsuclem3 5990* Lemma for frecsuc 5991. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2019.)
𝐺 = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑥 ∣ (∃𝑚 ∈ ω (dom 𝑔 = suc 𝑚𝑥 ∈ (𝐹‘(𝑔𝑚))) ∨ (dom 𝑔 = ∅ ∧ 𝑥𝐴))})       ((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ ω) → (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘suc 𝐵) = (𝐹‘(frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremfrecsuc 5991* The successor value resulting from finite recursive definition generation. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Aug-2019.)
((∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V ∧ 𝐴𝑉𝐵 ∈ ω) → (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘suc 𝐵) = (𝐹‘(frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremfrecrdg 5992* Transfinite recursion restricted to omega.

Given a suitable characteristic function, df-frec 5978 produces the same results as df-irdg 5957 restricted to ω.

Presumably the theorem would also hold if 𝐹 Fn V were changed to 𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2019.)

(𝜑𝐹 Fn V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 𝑥 ⊆ (𝐹𝑥))       (𝜑 → frec(𝐹, 𝐴) = (rec(𝐹, 𝐴) ↾ ω))
 
Theoremfreccl 5993* Closure for finite recursion. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 25-May-2020.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑧(𝐹𝑧) ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑆)    &   ((𝜑𝑧𝑆) → (𝐹𝑧) ∈ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ω)       (𝜑 → (frec(𝐹, 𝐴)‘𝐵) ∈ 𝑆)
 
2.6.22  Ordinal arithmetic
 
Syntaxc1o 5994 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal number 1.
class 1𝑜
 
Syntaxc2o 5995 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal number 2.
class 2𝑜
 
Syntaxc3o 5996 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal number 3.
class 3𝑜
 
Syntaxc4o 5997 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal number 4.
class 4𝑜
 
Syntaxcoa 5998 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal addition operation.
class +𝑜
 
Syntaxcomu 5999 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal multiplication operation.
class ·𝑜
 
Syntaxcoei 6000 Extend the definition of a class to include the ordinal exponentiation operation.
class 𝑜
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