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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 9501-9600   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremaddcji 9501 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremreaddi 9502 Real part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵))
 
Theoremimaddi 9503 Imaginary part distributes over addition. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵))
 
Theoremremuli 9504 Real part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimmuli 9505 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcjaddi 9506 Complex conjugate distributes over addition. Proposition 10-3.4(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) + (∗‘𝐵))
 
Theoremcjmuli 9507 Complex conjugate distributes over multiplication. Proposition 10-3.4(c) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 28-Jul-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵))
 
Theoremipcni 9508 Standard inner product on complex numbers. (Contributed by NM, 2-Oct-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐵))) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcjdivapi 9509 Complex conjugate distributes over division. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 14-Jun-2020.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐵 # 0 → (∗‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) / (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcrrei 9510 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴
 
Theoremcrimi 9511 The imaginary part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1999.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵
 
Theoremrecld 9512 The real part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremimcld 9513 The imaginary part of a complex number is real (closure law). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremcjcld 9514 Closure law for complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremreplimd 9515 Construct a complex number from its real and imaginary parts. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑𝐴 = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))
 
Theoremremimd 9516 Value of the conjugate of a complex number. The value is the real part minus i times the imaginary part. Definition 10-3.2 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (i · (ℑ‘𝐴))))
 
Theoremcjcjd 9517 The conjugate of the conjugate is the original complex number. Proposition 10-3.4(e) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(∗‘𝐴)) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremreim0bd 9518 A number is real iff its imaginary part is 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremrerebd 9519 A real number equals its real part. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremcjrebd 9520 A number is real iff it equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremcjne0d 9521 A number which is nonzero has a complex conjugate which is nonzero. Also see cjap0d 9522 which is similar but for apartness. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) ≠ 0)
 
Theoremcjap0d 9522 A number which is apart from zero has a complex conjugate which is apart from zero. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 11-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) # 0)
 
Theoremrecjd 9523 Real part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = (ℜ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremimcjd 9524 Imaginary part of a complex conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(∗‘𝐴)) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremcjmulrcld 9525 A complex number times its conjugate is real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremcjmulvald 9526 A complex number times its conjugate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴)↑2) + ((ℑ‘𝐴)↑2)))
 
Theoremcjmulge0d 9527 A complex number times its conjugate is nonnegative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ (𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴)))
 
Theoremrenegd 9528 Real part of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘-𝐴) = -(ℜ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremimnegd 9529 Imaginary part of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘-𝐴) = -(ℑ‘𝐴))
 
Theoremcjnegd 9530 Complex conjugate of negative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘-𝐴) = -(∗‘𝐴))
 
Theoremaddcjd 9531 A number plus its conjugate is twice its real part. Compare Proposition 10-3.4(h) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 + (∗‘𝐴)) = (2 · (ℜ‘𝐴)))
 
Theoremcjexpd 9532 Complex conjugate of positive integer exponentiation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴𝑁)) = ((∗‘𝐴)↑𝑁))
 
Theoremreaddd 9533 Real part distributes over addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) + (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimaddd 9534 Imaginary part distributes over addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) + (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremresubd 9535 Real part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℜ‘𝐴) − (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimsubd 9536 Imaginary part distributes over subtraction. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴𝐵)) = ((ℑ‘𝐴) − (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremremuld 9537 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) − ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremimmuld 9538 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremcjaddd 9539 Complex conjugate distributes over addition. Proposition 10-3.4(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 + 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) + (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremcjmuld 9540 Complex conjugate distributes over multiplication. Proposition 10-3.4(c) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) · (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremipcnd 9541 Standard inner product on complex numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐵))) = (((ℜ‘𝐴) · (ℜ‘𝐵)) + ((ℑ‘𝐴) · (ℑ‘𝐵))))
 
Theoremcjdivapd 9542 Complex conjugate distributes over division. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 # 0)       (𝜑 → (∗‘(𝐴 / 𝐵)) = ((∗‘𝐴) / (∗‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremrered 9543 A real number equals its real part. One direction of Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremreim0d 9544 The imaginary part of a real number is 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘𝐴) = 0)
 
Theoremcjred 9545 A real number equals its complex conjugate. Proposition 10-3.4(f) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (∗‘𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremremul2d 9546 Real part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℜ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremimmul2d 9547 Imaginary part of a product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 · 𝐵)) = (𝐴 · (ℑ‘𝐵)))
 
Theoremredivapd 9548 Real part of a division. Related to remul2 9447. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐵 / 𝐴)) = ((ℜ‘𝐵) / 𝐴))
 
Theoremimdivapd 9549 Imaginary part of a division. Related to remul2 9447. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Jun-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 # 0)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐵 / 𝐴)) = ((ℑ‘𝐵) / 𝐴))
 
Theoremcrred 9550 The real part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℜ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremcrimd 9551 The imaginary part of a complex number representation. Definition 10-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 132. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℑ‘(𝐴 + (i · 𝐵))) = 𝐵)
 
3.7.3  Sequence convergence
 
Theoremcaucvgrelemrec 9552* Two ways to express a reciprocal. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Jul-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 # 0) → (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝐴 · 𝑟) = 1) = (1 / 𝐴))
 
Theoremcaucvgrelemcau 9553* Lemma for caucvgre 9554. Converting the Cauchy condition. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 20-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ (𝑛 < 𝑘 → ((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝑛 · 𝑟) = 1)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝑟 ∈ ℝ (𝑛 · 𝑟) = 1)))))
 
Theoremcaucvgre 9554* Convergence of real sequences.

A Cauchy sequence (as defined here, which has a rate of convergence built in) of real numbers converges to a real number. Specifically on rate of convergence, all terms after the nth term must be within 1 / 𝑛 of the nth term.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-Jul-2021.)

(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))
 
Theoremcvg1nlemcxze 9555 Lemma for cvg1n 9559. Rearranging an expression related to the rate of convergence. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ((((𝐶 · 2) / 𝑋) / 𝑍) + 𝐴) < 𝐸)       (𝜑 → (𝐶 / (𝐸 · 𝑍)) < (𝑋 / 2))
 
Theoremcvg1nlemf 9556* Lemma for cvg1n 9559. The modified sequence 𝐺 is a sequence. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶ℝ)
 
Theoremcvg1nlemcau 9557* Lemma for cvg1n 9559. By selecting spaced out terms for the modified sequence 𝐺, the terms are within 1 / 𝑛 (without the constant 𝐶). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐺𝑛) < ((𝐺𝑘) + (1 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐺𝑘) < ((𝐺𝑛) + (1 / 𝑛))))
 
Theoremcvg1nlemres 9558* Lemma for cvg1n 9559. The original sequence 𝐹 has a limit (turns out it is the same as the limit of the modified sequence 𝐺). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑗 · 𝑍)))    &   (𝜑𝑍 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝑍)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))
 
Theoremcvg1n 9559* Convergence of real sequences.

This is a version of caucvgre 9554 with a constant multiplier 𝐶 on the rate of convergence. That is, all terms after the nth term must be within 𝐶 / 𝑛 of the nth term.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 1-Aug-2021.)

(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑛)((𝐹𝑛) < ((𝐹𝑘) + (𝐶 / 𝑛)) ∧ (𝐹𝑘) < ((𝐹𝑛) + (𝐶 / 𝑛))))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑦 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑦 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))
 
Theoremuzin2 9560 The upper integers are closed under intersection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Dec-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ran ℤ𝐵 ∈ ran ℤ) → (𝐴𝐵) ∈ ran ℤ)
 
Theoremrexanuz 9561* Combine two different upper integer properties into one. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 25-Dec-2013.)
(∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜓))
 
Theoremrexuz3 9562* Restrict the base of the upper integers set to another upper integers set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Dec-2013.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       (𝑀 ∈ ℤ → (∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜑 ↔ ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜑))
 
Theoremrexanuz2 9563* Combine two different upper integer properties into one. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Dec-2013.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       (∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝜑𝜓) ↔ (∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜓))
 
Theoremr19.29uz 9564* A version of 19.29 1511 for upper integer quantifiers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((∀𝑘𝑍 𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜓) → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝜑𝜓))
 
Theoremr19.2uz 9565* A version of r19.2m 3309 for upper integer quantifiers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       (∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍 𝜑)
 
Theoremrecvguniqlem 9566 Lemma for recvguniq 9567. Some of the rearrangements of the expressions. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 8-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < ((𝐹𝐾) + ((𝐴𝐵) / 2)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐾) < (𝐵 + ((𝐴𝐵) / 2)))       (𝜑 → ⊥)
 
Theoremrecvguniq 9567* Limits are unique. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 7-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) < (𝐿 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) < (𝑀 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑀 < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑥)))       (𝜑𝐿 = 𝑀)
 
3.7.4  Square root; absolute value
 
Syntaxcsqrt 9568 Extend class notation to include square root of a complex number.
class
 
Syntaxcabs 9569 Extend class notation to include a function for the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number.
class abs
 
Definitiondf-rsqrt 9570* Define a function whose value is the square root of a nonnegative real number.

Defining the square root for complex numbers has one difficult part: choosing between the two roots. The usual way to define a principal square root for all complex numbers relies on excluded middle or something similar. But in the case of a nonnegative real number, we don't have the complications presented for general complex numbers, and we can choose the nonnegative root.

(Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Aug-2020.)

√ = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ((𝑦↑2) = 𝑥 ∧ 0 ≤ 𝑦)))
 
Definitiondf-abs 9571 Define the function for the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.)
abs = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (√‘(𝑥 · (∗‘𝑥))))
 
Theoremsqrtrval 9572* Value of square root function. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Aug-2020.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (√‘𝐴) = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ((𝑥↑2) = 𝐴 ∧ 0 ≤ 𝑥)))
 
Theoremabsval 9573 The absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. Proposition 10-3.7(a) of [Gleason] p. 133. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jul-1999.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Nov-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (abs‘𝐴) = (√‘(𝐴 · (∗‘𝐴))))
 
Theoremrennim 9574 A real number does not lie on the negative imaginary axis. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Jul-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (i · 𝐴) ∉ ℝ+)
 
Theoremsqrt0rlem 9575 Lemma for sqrt0 9576. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Aug-2020.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ ((𝐴↑2) = 0 ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐴)) ↔ 𝐴 = 0)
 
Theoremsqrt0 9576 Square root of zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2013.)
(√‘0) = 0
 
Theoremresqrexlem1arp 9577* Lemma for resqrex 9598. 1 + 𝐴 is a positive real (expressed in a way that will help apply iseqf 9198 and similar theorems). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 28-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ((ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)})‘𝑁) ∈ ℝ+)
 
Theoremresqrexlemp1rp 9578* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Applying the recursion rule yields a positive real (expressed in a way that will help apply iseqf 9198 and similar theorems). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 28-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝐵 ∈ ℝ+𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)) → (𝐵(𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2))𝐶) ∈ ℝ+)
 
Theoremresqrexlemf 9579* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence is a function. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶ℝ+)
 
Theoremresqrexlemf1 9580* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Initial value. Although this sequence converges to the square root with any positive initial value, this choice makes various steps in the proof of convergence easier. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝐹‘1) = (1 + 𝐴))
 
Theoremresqrexlemfp1 9581* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Recursion rule. This sequence is the ancient method for computing square roots, often known as the babylonian method, although known to many ancient cultures. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐹‘(𝑁 + 1)) = (((𝐹𝑁) + (𝐴 / (𝐹𝑁))) / 2))
 
Theoremresqrexlemover 9582* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Each element of the sequence is an overestimate. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → 𝐴 < ((𝐹𝑁)↑2))
 
Theoremresqrexlemdec 9583* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence is decreasing. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐹‘(𝑁 + 1)) < (𝐹𝑁))
 
Theoremresqrexlemdecn 9584* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence is decreasing. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 31-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 < 𝑀)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑀) < (𝐹𝑁))
 
Theoremresqrexlemlo 9585* Lemma for resqrex 9598. A (variable) lower bound for each term of the sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (1 / (2↑𝑁)) < (𝐹𝑁))
 
Theoremresqrexlemcalc1 9586* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Some of the calculations involved in showing that the sequence converges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (((𝐹‘(𝑁 + 1))↑2) − 𝐴) = (((((𝐹𝑁)↑2) − 𝐴)↑2) / (4 · ((𝐹𝑁)↑2))))
 
Theoremresqrexlemcalc2 9587* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Some of the calculations involved in showing that the sequence converges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (((𝐹‘(𝑁 + 1))↑2) − 𝐴) ≤ ((((𝐹𝑁)↑2) − 𝐴) / 4))
 
Theoremresqrexlemcalc3 9588* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Some of the calculations involved in showing that the sequence converges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (((𝐹𝑁)↑2) − 𝐴) ≤ (((𝐹‘1)↑2) / (4↑(𝑁 − 1))))
 
Theoremresqrexlemnmsq 9589* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The difference between the squares of two terms of the sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 30-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑀)       (𝜑 → (((𝐹𝑁)↑2) − ((𝐹𝑀)↑2)) < (((𝐹‘1)↑2) / (4↑(𝑁 − 1))))
 
Theoremresqrexlemnm 9590* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The difference between two terms of the sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 31-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑀)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝑁) − (𝐹𝑀)) < ((((𝐹‘1)↑2) · 2) / (2↑(𝑁 − 1))))
 
Theoremresqrexlemcvg 9591* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence has a limit. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑟 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝑟 + 𝑥) ∧ 𝑟 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑥)))
 
Theoremresqrexlemgt0 9592* Lemma for resqrex 9598. A limit is nonnegative. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 7-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝐿 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑒)))       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐿)
 
Theoremresqrexlemoverl 9593* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Every term in the sequence is an overestimate compared with the limit 𝐿. Although this theorem is stated in terms of a particular sequence the proof could be adapted for any decreasing convergent sequence. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 9-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝐿 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑒)))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑𝐿 ≤ (𝐹𝐾))
 
Theoremresqrexlemglsq 9594* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence formed by squaring each term of 𝐹 converges to (𝐿↑2). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 8-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝐿 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑒)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐹𝑥)↑2))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐺𝑘) < ((𝐿↑2) + 𝑒) ∧ (𝐿↑2) < ((𝐺𝑘) + 𝑒)))
 
Theoremresqrexlemga 9595* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The sequence formed by squaring each term of 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 8-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝐿 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑒)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐹𝑥)↑2))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐺𝑘) < (𝐴 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐴 < ((𝐺𝑘) + 𝑒)))
 
Theoremresqrexlemsqa 9596* Lemma for resqrex 9598. The square of a limit is 𝐴. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 7-Aug-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑒 ∈ ℝ+𝑗 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑖 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑖) < (𝐿 + 𝑒) ∧ 𝐿 < ((𝐹𝑖) + 𝑒)))       (𝜑 → (𝐿↑2) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremresqrexlemex 9597* Lemma for resqrex 9598. Existence of square root given a sequence which converges to the square root. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Jul-2021.)
𝐹 = seq1((𝑦 ∈ ℝ+, 𝑧 ∈ ℝ+ ↦ ((𝑦 + (𝐴 / 𝑦)) / 2)), (ℕ × {(1 + 𝐴)}), ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ (0 ≤ 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥↑2) = 𝐴))
 
Theoremresqrex 9598* Existence of a square root for positive reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2013.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐴) → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ (0 ≤ 𝑥 ∧ (𝑥↑2) = 𝐴))
 
Theoremrsqrmo 9599* Uniqueness for the square root function. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 10-Aug-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐴) → ∃*𝑥 ∈ ℝ ((𝑥↑2) = 𝐴 ∧ 0 ≤ 𝑥))
 
Theoremrersqreu 9600* Existence and uniqueness for the real square root function. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 10-Aug-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐴) → ∃!𝑥 ∈ ℝ ((𝑥↑2) = 𝐴 ∧ 0 ≤ 𝑥))
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