MPE Home Metamath Proof Explorer < Previous   Next >
Nearby theorems
Mirrors  >  Home  >  MPE Home  >  Th. List  >  fin23 Structured version   Visualization version   GIF version

Theorem fin23 9497
Description: Every II-finite set (every chain of subsets has a maximal element) is III-finite (has no denumerable collection of subsets). The proof here is the only one I could find, from http://matwbn.icm.edu.pl/ksiazki/fm/fm6/fm619.pdf p.94 (writeup by Tarski, credited to Kuratowski). Translated into English and modern notation, the proof proceeds as follows (variables renamed for uniqueness):

Suppose for a contradiction that 𝐴 is a set which is II-finite but not III-finite.

For any countable sequence of distinct subsets 𝑇 of 𝐴, we can form a decreasing sequence of nonempty subsets (𝑈𝑇) by taking finite intersections of initial segments of 𝑇 while skipping over any element of 𝑇 which would cause the intersection to be empty.

By II-finiteness (as fin2i2 9426) this sequence contains its intersection, call it 𝑌; since by induction every subset in the sequence 𝑈 is nonempty, the intersection must be nonempty.

Suppose that an element 𝑋 of 𝑇 has nonempty intersection with 𝑌. Thus, said element has a nonempty intersection with the corresponding element of 𝑈, therefore it was used in the construction of 𝑈 and all further elements of 𝑈 are subsets of 𝑋, thus 𝑋 contains the 𝑌. That is, all elements of 𝑋 either contain 𝑌 or are disjoint from it.

Since there are only two cases, there must exist an infinite subset of 𝑇 which uniformly either contain 𝑌 or are disjoint from it. In the former case we can create an infinite set by subtracting 𝑌 from each element. In either case, call the result 𝑍; this is an infinite set of subsets of 𝐴, each of which is disjoint from 𝑌 and contained in the union of 𝑇; the union of 𝑍 is strictly contained in the union of 𝑇, because only the latter is a superset of the nonempty set 𝑌.

The preceding four steps may be iterated a countable number of times starting from the assumed denumerable set of subsets to produce a denumerable sequence 𝐵 of the 𝑇 sets from each stage. Great caution is required to avoid ax-dc 9554 here; in particular an effective version of the pigeonhole principle (for aleph-null pigeons and 2 holes) is required. Since a denumerable set of subsets is assumed to exist, we can conclude ω ∈ V without the axiom.

This 𝐵 sequence is strictly decreasing, thus it has no minimum, contradicting the first assumption. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 2-Nov-2014.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 17-May-2015.)

Assertion
Ref Expression
fin23 (𝐴 ∈ FinII𝐴 ∈ FinIII)

Proof of Theorem fin23
Dummy variables 𝑎 𝑔 𝑥 are mutually distinct and distinct from all other variables.
StepHypRef Expression
1 isf33lem 9474 . 2 FinIII = {𝑔 ∣ ∀𝑎 ∈ (𝒫 𝑔𝑚 ω)(∀𝑥 ∈ ω (𝑎‘suc 𝑥) ⊆ (𝑎𝑥) → ran 𝑎 ∈ ran 𝑎)}
21fin23lem40 9459 1 (𝐴 ∈ FinII𝐴 ∈ FinIII)
Colors of variables: wff setvar class
Syntax hints:  wi 4  wcel 2157  FinIIcfin2 9387  FinIIIcfin3 9389
This theorem was proved from axioms:  ax-mp 5  ax-1 6  ax-2 7  ax-3 8  ax-gen 1891  ax-4 1905  ax-5 2006  ax-6 2072  ax-7 2107  ax-8 2159  ax-9 2166  ax-10 2185  ax-11 2200  ax-12 2213  ax-13 2354  ax-ext 2775  ax-rep 4962  ax-sep 4973  ax-nul 4981  ax-pow 5033  ax-pr 5095  ax-un 7181
This theorem depends on definitions:  df-bi 199  df-an 386  df-or 875  df-3or 1109  df-3an 1110  df-tru 1657  df-ex 1876  df-nf 1880  df-sb 2065  df-mo 2590  df-eu 2607  df-clab 2784  df-cleq 2790  df-clel 2793  df-nfc 2928  df-ne 2970  df-ral 3092  df-rex 3093  df-reu 3094  df-rmo 3095  df-rab 3096  df-v 3385  df-sbc 3632  df-csb 3727  df-dif 3770  df-un 3772  df-in 3774  df-ss 3781  df-pss 3783  df-nul 4114  df-if 4276  df-pw 4349  df-sn 4367  df-pr 4369  df-tp 4371  df-op 4373  df-uni 4627  df-int 4666  df-iun 4710  df-br 4842  df-opab 4904  df-mpt 4921  df-tr 4944  df-id 5218  df-eprel 5223  df-po 5231  df-so 5232  df-fr 5269  df-se 5270  df-we 5271  df-xp 5316  df-rel 5317  df-cnv 5318  df-co 5319  df-dm 5320  df-rn 5321  df-res 5322  df-ima 5323  df-pred 5896  df-ord 5942  df-on 5943  df-lim 5944  df-suc 5945  df-iota 6062  df-fun 6101  df-fn 6102  df-f 6103  df-f1 6104  df-fo 6105  df-f1o 6106  df-fv 6107  df-isom 6108  df-riota 6837  df-ov 6879  df-oprab 6880  df-mpt2 6881  df-rpss 7169  df-om 7298  df-1st 7399  df-2nd 7400  df-wrecs 7643  df-recs 7705  df-rdg 7743  df-seqom 7780  df-1o 7797  df-oadd 7801  df-er 7980  df-map 8095  df-en 8194  df-dom 8195  df-sdom 8196  df-fin 8197  df-wdom 8704  df-card 9049  df-fin2 9394  df-fin4 9395  df-fin3 9396
This theorem is referenced by:  fin1a2s  9522  finngch  9763  fin2so  33877
  Copyright terms: Public domain W3C validator