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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 14401-14500   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremcaurcvg 14401* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges to its limit supremum. The fourth hypothesis specifies that 𝐹 is a Cauchy sequence. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Revised by AV, 12-Sep-2020.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑚𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑚))) < 𝑥)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremcaurcvg2 14402* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges, existence version. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Sep-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ ∧ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremcaucvg 14403* A Cauchy sequence of complex numbers converges to a complex number. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180 (sufficiency part). (Contributed by NM, 20-Dec-2006.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremcaucvgb 14404* A function is convergent if and only if it is Cauchy. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐹𝑉) → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥)))

Theoremserf0 14405* If an infinite series converges, its underlying sequence converges to zero. (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ 0)

Theoremiseraltlem1 14406* Lemma for iseralt 14409. A decreasing sequence with limit zero consists of positive terms. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍) → 0 ≤ (𝐺𝑁))

Theoremiseraltlem2 14407* Lemma for iseralt 14409. The terms of an alternating series form a chain of inequalities in alternate terms, so that for example 𝑆(1) ≤ 𝑆(3) ≤ 𝑆(5) ≤ ... and ... ≤ 𝑆(4) ≤ 𝑆(2) ≤ 𝑆(0) (assuming 𝑀 = 0 so that these terms are defined). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍𝐾 ∈ ℕ0) → ((-1↑𝑁) · (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘(𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾)))) ≤ ((-1↑𝑁) · (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁)))

Theoremiseraltlem3 14408* Lemma for iseralt 14409. From iseraltlem2 14407, we have (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) and (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1), and we also have (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) for each 𝑛 by the definition of the partial sum 𝑆, so combining the inequalities we get (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) + 𝐺(𝑛 + 1), so ∣ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) − (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ = 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) − 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ ≤ 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) and ∣ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ = 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ ≤ 𝐺(𝑛 + 1). Thus, both even and odd partial sums are Cauchy if 𝐺 converges to 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍𝐾 ∈ ℕ0) → ((abs‘((seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘(𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾))) − (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))) ≤ (𝐺‘(𝑁 + 1)) ∧ (abs‘((seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘((𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾)) + 1)) − (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))) ≤ (𝐺‘(𝑁 + 1))))

Theoremiseralt 14409* The alternating series test. If 𝐺(𝑘) is a decreasing sequence that converges to 0, then Σ𝑘𝑍(-1↑𝑘) · 𝐺(𝑘) is a convergent series. (Note that the first term is positive if 𝑀 is even, and negative if 𝑀 is odd. If the parity of your series does not match up with this, you will need to post-compose the series with multiplication by -1 using isermulc2 14382.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )

5.10.3  Finite and infinite sums

Syntaxcsu 14410 Extend class notation to include finite summations. (An underscore was added to the ASCII token in order to facilitate set.mm text searches, since "sum" is a commonly used word in comments.)
class Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Definitiondf-sum 14411* Define the sum of a series with an index set of integers 𝐴. 𝑘 is normally a free variable in 𝐵, i.e. 𝐵 can be thought of as 𝐵(𝑘). This definition is the result of a collection of discussions over the most general definition for a sum that does not need the index set to have a specified ordering. This definition is in two parts, one for finite sums and one for subsets of the upper integers. When summing over a subset of the upper integers, we extend the index set to the upper integers by adding zero outside the domain, and then sum the set in order, setting the result to the limit of the partial sums, if it exists. This means that conditionally convergent sums can be evaluated meaningfully. For finite sums, we are explicitly order-independent, by picking any bijection to a 1-based finite sequence and summing in the induced order. These two methods of summation produce the same result on their common region of definition (i.e. finite subsets of the upper integers) by summo 14442. Examples: Σ𝑘 ∈ {1, 2, 4} 𝑘 means 1 + 2 + 4 = 7, and Σ𝑘 ∈ ℕ (1 / (2↑𝑘)) = 1 means 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... = 1 (geoihalfsum 14608). (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (℩𝑥(∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑛𝐴, 𝑛 / 𝑘𝐵, 0))) ⇝ 𝑥) ∨ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑥 = (seq1( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵))‘𝑚))))

Theoremsumex 14412 A sum is a set. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ V

Theoremsumeq1 14413 Equality theorem for a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremnfsum1 14414 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑘𝐴       𝑘Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremnfsum 14415 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for sum: if 𝑥 is (effectively) not free in 𝐴 and 𝐵, it is not free in Σ𝑘𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝐵       𝑥Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremsumeq2w 14416 Equality theorem for sum, when the class expressions 𝐵 and 𝐶 are equal everywhere. Proved using only Extensionality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Jun-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑘 𝐵 = 𝐶 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2ii 14417* Equality theorem for sum, with the class expressions 𝐵 and 𝐶 guarded by I to be always sets. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑘𝐴 ( I ‘𝐵) = ( I ‘𝐶) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2 14418* Equality theorem for sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
(∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐶 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremcbvsum 14419* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   𝑘𝐴    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑘𝐵    &   𝑗𝐶       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremcbvsumv 14420* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
(𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremcbvsumi 14421* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.)
𝑘𝐵    &   𝑗𝐶    &   (𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremsumeq1i 14422* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2006.)
𝐴 = 𝐵       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶

Theoremsumeq2i 14423* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2005.)
(𝑘𝐴𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremsumeq12i 14424* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by FL, 10-Dec-2006.)
𝐴 = 𝐵    &   (𝑘𝐴𝐶 = 𝐷)       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷

Theoremsumeq1d 14425* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Nov-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2d 14426* Equality deduction for sum. Note that unlike sumeq2dv 14427, 𝑘 may occur in 𝜑. (Contributed by NM, 1-Nov-2005.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2dv 14427* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2ad 14428* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
(𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2sdv 14429* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.)
(𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theorem2sumeq2dv 14430* Equality deduction for double sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2014.)
((𝜑𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsumeq12dv 14431* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Dec-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsumeq12rdv 14432* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Dec-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐵) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsum2id 14433* The second class argument to a sum can be chosen so that it is always a set. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 ( I ‘𝐵)

Theoremsumfc 14434* A lemma to facilitate conversions from the function form to the class-variable form of a sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
Σ𝑗𝐴 ((𝑘𝐴𝐵)‘𝑗) = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremfz1f1o 14435* A lemma for working with finite sums. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ Fin → (𝐴 = ∅ ∨ ((#‘𝐴) ∈ ℕ ∧ ∃𝑓 𝑓:(1...(#‘𝐴))–1-1-onto𝐴)))

Theoremsumrblem 14436* Lemma for sumrb 14438. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))       ((𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑁)) → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ↾ (ℤ𝑁)) = seq𝑁( + , 𝐹))

Theoremfsumcvg 14437* The sequence of partial sums of a finite sum converges to the whole sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremsumrb 14438* Rebase the starting point of a sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑁))       (𝜑 → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐶 ↔ seq𝑁( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐶))

Theoremsummolem3 14439* Lemma for summo 14442. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Mar-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐾𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ))    &   (𝜑𝑓:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾:(1...𝑁)–1-1-onto𝐴)       (𝜑 → (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑀) = (seq1( + , 𝐻)‘𝑁))

Theoremsummolem2a 14440* Lemma for summo 14442. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐾𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑓:(1...𝑁)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾 Isom < , < ((1...(#‘𝐴)), 𝐴))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑁))

Theoremsummolem2 14441* Lemma for summo 14442. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)       ((𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑥)) → (∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑦 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑚)) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))

Theoremsummo 14442* A sum has at most one limit. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Aug-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)       (𝜑 → ∃*𝑥(∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑥) ∨ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑥 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑚))))

Theoremzsum 14443* Series sum with index set a subset of the upper integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = ( ⇝ ‘seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)))

Theoremisum 14444* Series sum with an upper integer index set (i.e. an infinite series). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐵 = ( ⇝ ‘seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)))

Theoremfsum 14445* The value of a sum over a nonempty finite set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝑘 = (𝐹𝑛) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → (𝐺𝑛) = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑀))

Theoremsum0 14446 Any sum over the empty set is zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
Σ𝑘 ∈ ∅ 𝐴 = 0

Theoremsumz 14447* Any sum of zero over a summable set is zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀) ∨ 𝐴 ∈ Fin) → Σ𝑘𝐴 0 = 0)

Theoremfsumf1o 14448* Re-index a finite sum using a bijection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝐺𝐵 = 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐶1-1-onto𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑛𝐶) → (𝐹𝑛) = 𝐺)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑛𝐶 𝐷)

Theoremsumss 14449* Change the index set to a subset in an upper integer sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝐵𝐴)) → 𝐶 = 0)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremfsumss 14450* Change the index set to a subset in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝐵𝐴)) → 𝐶 = 0)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ Fin)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremsumss2 14451* Change the index set of a sum by adding zeroes. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
(((𝐴𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) ∧ (𝐵 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀) ∨ 𝐵 ∈ Fin)) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐶, 0))

Theoremfsumcvg2 14452* The sequence of partial sums of a finite sum converges to the whole sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumsers 14453* Special case of series sum over a finite upper integer index set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumcvg3 14454* A finite sum is convergent. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremfsumser 14455* A finite sum expressed in terms of a partial sum of an infinite series. The recursive definition of follows as fsum1 14470 and fsump1i 14494, which should make our notation clear and from which, along with closure fsumcl 14458, we will derive the basic properties of finite sums. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumcl2lem 14456* - Lemma for finite sum closures. (The "-" before "Lemma" forces the math content to be displayed in the Statement List - NM 11-Feb-2008.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆)) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵𝑆)

Theoremfsumcllem 14457* - Lemma for finite sum closures. (The "-" before "Lemma" forces the math content to be displayed in the Statement List - NM 11-Feb-2008.) (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆)) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ 𝑆)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵𝑆)

Theoremfsumcl 14458* Closure of a finite sum of complex numbers 𝐴(𝑘). (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)

Theoremfsumrecl 14459* Closure of a finite sum of reals. (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremfsumzcl 14460* Closure of a finite sum of integers. (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumnn0cl 14461* Closure of a finite sum of nonnegative integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremfsumrpcl 14462* Closure of a finite sum of positive reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ ∅)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremfsumzcl2 14463* A finite sum with integer summands is an integer. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Aug-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumadd 14464* The sum of two finite sums. (Contributed by NM, 14-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 + 𝐶) = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 + Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶))

Theoremfsumsplit 14465* Split a sum into two parts. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵) = ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑈 = (𝐴𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑈) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑈 𝐶 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 + Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶))

Theoremfsumsplitf 14466* Split a sum into two parts. A version of fsumsplit 14465 using bound-variable hypotheses instead of distinct variable conditions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵) = ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑈 = (𝐴𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑈) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑈 𝐶 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 + Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶))

Theoremsumsnf 14467* A sum of a singleton is the term. A version of sumsn 14469 using bound-variable hypotheses instead of distinct variable conditions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
𝑘𝐵    &   (𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       ((𝑀𝑉𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑀}𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremfsumsplitsn 14468* Separate out a term in a finite sum. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Apr-2020.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐷    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐵𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝐵})𝐶 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 + 𝐷))

Theoremsumsn 14469* A sum of a singleton is the term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       ((𝑀𝑉𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑀}𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremfsum1 14470* The finite sum of 𝐴(𝑘) from 𝑘 = 𝑀 to 𝑀 (i.e. a sum with only one term) is 𝐵 i.e. 𝐴(𝑀). (Contributed by NM, 8-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑀)𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremsumpr 14471* A sum over a pair is the sum of the elements. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Dec-2016.)
(𝑘 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐷)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐷 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐸 ∈ ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵}𝐶 = (𝐷 + 𝐸))

Theoremsumtp 14472* A sum over a triple is the sum of the elements. (Contributed by AV, 24-Jul-2020.)
(𝑘 = 𝐴𝐷 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐵𝐷 = 𝐹)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐶𝐷 = 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐺 ∈ ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊𝐶𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶}𝐷 = ((𝐸 + 𝐹) + 𝐺))

Theoremsumsns 14473* A sum of a singleton is the term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
((𝑀𝑉𝑀 / 𝑘𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑀}𝐴 = 𝑀 / 𝑘𝐴)

Theoremfsumm1 14474* Separate out the last term in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 − 1))𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremfzosump1 14475* Separate out the last term in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^(𝑁 + 1))𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremfsum1p 14476* Separate out the first term in a finite sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (𝐵 + Σ𝑘 ∈ ((𝑀 + 1)...𝑁)𝐴))

Theoremfsummsnunz 14477* A finite sum all of whose summands are integers is itself an integer (case where the summation set is the union of a finite set and a singleton). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-Dec-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑍})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑍})𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumsplitsnun 14478* Separate out a term in a finite sum by splitting the sum into two parts. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-Dec-2021.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ (𝑍𝑉𝑍𝐴) ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑍})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑍})𝐵 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 + 𝑍 / 𝑘𝐵))

TheoremfsummsnunzOLD 14479* Obsolete version of fsummsnunz 14477 as of 17-Dec-2021. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

TheoremfsumsplitsnunOLD 14480* Obsolete version of fsumsplitsnun 14478 as of 17-Dec-2021. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑧𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 + 𝑧 / 𝑘𝐵))

Theoremfsump1 14481* The addition of the next term in a finite sum of 𝐴(𝑘) is the current term plus 𝐵 i.e. 𝐴(𝑁 + 1). (Contributed by NM, 4-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 + 1))) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = (𝑁 + 1) → 𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 + 1))𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremisumclim 14482* An infinite sum equals the value its series converges to. (Contributed by NM, 25-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremisumclim2 14483* A converging series converges to its infinite sum. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴)

Theoremisumclim3 14484* The sequence of partial finite sums of a converging infinite series converge to the infinite sum of the series. Note that 𝑗 must not occur in 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 9-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝑍) → (𝐹𝑗) = Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑗)𝐴)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴)

Theoremsumnul 14485* The sum of a non-convergent infinite series evaluates to the empty set. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 4-Nov-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 = ∅)

Theoremisumcl 14486* The sum of a converging infinite series is a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 13-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)

Theoremisummulc2 14487* An infinite sum multiplied by a constant. (Contributed by NM, 12-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐵 · Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴) = Σ𝑘𝑍 (𝐵 · 𝐴))

Theoremisummulc1 14488* An infinite sum multiplied by a constant. (Contributed by NM, 13-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 · 𝐵) = Σ𝑘𝑍 (𝐴 · 𝐵))

Theoremisumdivc 14489* An infinite sum divided by a constant. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 / 𝐵) = Σ𝑘𝑍 (𝐴 / 𝐵))

Theoremisumrecl 14490* The sum of a converging infinite real series is a real number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremisumge0 14491* An infinite sum of nonnegative terms is nonnegative. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 0 ≤ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴)

Theoremisumadd 14492* Addition of infinite sums. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐺) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 (𝐴 + 𝐵) = (Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 + Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐵))

Theoremsumsplit 14493* Split a sum into two parts. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵) = ∅)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵) ⊆ 𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐶, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐵, 𝐶, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝐴𝐵)) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐺) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴𝐵)𝐶 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 + Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶))

Theoremfsump1i 14494* Optimized version of fsump1 14481 for making sums of a concrete number of terms. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝑁 = (𝐾 + 1)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐾𝑍 ∧ Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝐾)𝐴 = 𝑆))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑆 + 𝐵) = 𝑇)       (𝜑 → (𝑁𝑍 ∧ Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = 𝑇))

Theoremfsum2dlem 14495* Lemma for fsum2d 14496- induction step. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
(𝑧 = ⟨𝑗, 𝑘⟩ → 𝐷 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵)) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝑦𝑥)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑥 ∪ {𝑦}) ⊆ 𝐴)    &   (𝜓 ↔ Σ𝑗𝑥 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑧 𝑗𝑥 ({𝑗} × 𝐵)𝐷)       ((𝜑𝜓) → Σ𝑗 ∈ (𝑥 ∪ {𝑦})Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑧 𝑗 ∈ (𝑥 ∪ {𝑦})({𝑗} × 𝐵)𝐷)

Theoremfsum2d 14496* Write a double sum as a sum over a two-dimensional region. Note that 𝐵(𝑗) is a function of 𝑗. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-Apr-2014.)
(𝑧 = ⟨𝑗, 𝑘⟩ → 𝐷 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵)) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑧 𝑗𝐴 ({𝑗} × 𝐵)𝐷)

Theoremfsumxp 14497* Combine two sums into a single sum over the cartesian product. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
(𝑧 = ⟨𝑗, 𝑘⟩ → 𝐷 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵)) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑧 ∈ (𝐴 × 𝐵)𝐷)

Theoremfsumcnv 14498* Transform a region of summation by using the converse operation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
(𝑥 = ⟨𝑗, 𝑘⟩ → 𝐵 = 𝐷)    &   (𝑦 = ⟨𝑘, 𝑗⟩ → 𝐶 = 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑 → Rel 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑥𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑦 𝐴𝐶)

Theoremfsumcom2 14499* Interchange order of summation. Note that 𝐵(𝑗) and 𝐷(𝑘) are not necessarily constant expressions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 2-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵) ↔ (𝑘𝐶𝑗𝐷)))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵)) → 𝐸 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐸 = Σ𝑘𝐶 Σ𝑗𝐷 𝐸)

Theoremfsumcom2OLD 14500* Obsolete proof of fsumcom2 14499 as of 2-Aug-2021. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2016.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵) ↔ (𝑘𝐶𝑗𝐷)))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵)) → 𝐸 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐸 = Σ𝑘𝐶 Σ𝑗𝐷 𝐸)

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