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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 25001-25100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremqrngneg 25001 The additive inverse in the field of rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)       (𝑋 ∈ ℚ → ((invg𝑄)‘𝑋) = -𝑋)
 
Theoremqrngdiv 25002 The division operation in the field of rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)       ((𝑋 ∈ ℚ ∧ 𝑌 ∈ ℚ ∧ 𝑌 ≠ 0) → (𝑋(/r𝑄)𝑌) = (𝑋 / 𝑌))
 
Theoremqabvle 25003 By using induction on 𝑁, we show a long-range inequality coming from the triangle inequality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)       ((𝐹𝐴𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝐹𝑁) ≤ 𝑁)
 
Theoremqabvexp 25004 Induct the product rule abvmul 18559 to find the absolute value of a power. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)       ((𝐹𝐴𝑀 ∈ ℚ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ0) → (𝐹‘(𝑀𝑁)) = ((𝐹𝑀)↑𝑁))
 
Theoremostthlem1 25005* Lemma for ostth 25017. If two absolute values agree on the positive integers greater than one, then they agree for all rational numbers and thus are equal as functions. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝐹𝑛) = (𝐺𝑛))       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐺)
 
Theoremostthlem2 25006* Lemma for ostth 25017. Refine ostthlem1 25005 so that it is sufficient to only show equality on the primes. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Jun-2015.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑝 ∈ ℙ) → (𝐹𝑝) = (𝐺𝑝))       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐺)
 
Theoremqabsabv 25007 The regular absolute value function on the rationals is in fact an absolute value under our definition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)       (abs ↾ ℚ) ∈ 𝐴
 
Theorempadicabv 25008* The p-adic absolute value (with arbitrary base) is an absolute value. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐹 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑁↑(𝑃 pCnt 𝑥))))       ((𝑃 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (0(,)1)) → 𝐹𝐴)
 
Theorempadicabvf 25009* The p-adic absolute value is an absolute value. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))       𝐽:ℙ⟶𝐴
 
Theorempadicabvcxp 25010* All positive powers of the p-adic absolute value are absolute values. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))       ((𝑃 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝑅 ∈ ℝ+) → (𝑦 ∈ ℚ ↦ (((𝐽𝑃)‘𝑦)↑𝑐𝑅)) ∈ 𝐴)
 
Theoremostth1 25011* - Lemma for ostth 25017: trivial case. (Not that the proof is trivial, but that we are proving that the function is trivial.) If 𝐹 is equal to 1 on the primes, then by complete induction and the multiplicative property abvmul 18559 of the absolute value, 𝐹 is equal to 1 on all the integers, and ostthlem1 25005 extends this to the other rational numbers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ¬ 1 < (𝐹𝑛))    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℙ ¬ (𝐹𝑛) < 1)       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐾)
 
Theoremostth2lem2 25012* Lemma for ostth2 25015. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝐹𝑁))    &   𝑅 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑁)) / (log‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   𝑆 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑀)) / (log‘𝑀))    &   𝑇 = if((𝐹𝑀) ≤ 1, 1, (𝐹𝑀))       ((𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℕ0𝑌 ∈ (0...((𝑀𝑋) − 1))) → (𝐹𝑌) ≤ ((𝑀 · 𝑋) · (𝑇𝑋)))
 
Theoremostth2lem3 25013* Lemma for ostth2 25015. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝐹𝑁))    &   𝑅 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑁)) / (log‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   𝑆 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑀)) / (log‘𝑀))    &   𝑇 = if((𝐹𝑀) ≤ 1, 1, (𝐹𝑀))    &   𝑈 = ((log‘𝑁) / (log‘𝑀))       ((𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℕ) → (((𝐹𝑁) / (𝑇𝑐𝑈))↑𝑋) ≤ (𝑋 · ((𝑀 · 𝑇) · (𝑈 + 1))))
 
Theoremostth2lem4 25014* Lemma for ostth2 25015. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝐹𝑁))    &   𝑅 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑁)) / (log‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   𝑆 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑀)) / (log‘𝑀))    &   𝑇 = if((𝐹𝑀) ≤ 1, 1, (𝐹𝑀))    &   𝑈 = ((log‘𝑁) / (log‘𝑀))       (𝜑 → (1 < (𝐹𝑀) ∧ 𝑅𝑆))
 
Theoremostth2 25015* - Lemma for ostth 25017: regular case. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2))    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝐹𝑁))    &   𝑅 = ((log‘(𝐹𝑁)) / (log‘𝑁))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎 ∈ (0(,]1)𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℚ ↦ ((abs‘𝑦)↑𝑐𝑎)))
 
Theoremostth3 25016* - Lemma for ostth 25017: p-adic case. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑛 ∈ ℕ ¬ 1 < (𝐹𝑛))    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ ℙ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑃) < 1)    &   𝑅 = -((log‘(𝐹𝑃)) / (log‘𝑃))    &   𝑆 = if((𝐹𝑃) ≤ (𝐹𝑝), (𝐹𝑝), (𝐹𝑃))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎 ∈ ℝ+ 𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℚ ↦ (((𝐽𝑃)‘𝑦)↑𝑐𝑎)))
 
Theoremostth 25017* Ostrowski's theorem, which classifies all absolute values on . Any such absolute value must either be the trivial absolute value 𝐾, a constant exponent 0 < 𝑎 ≤ 1 times the regular absolute value, or a positive exponent times the p-adic absolute value. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 10-Sep-2014.)
𝑄 = (ℂflds ℚ)    &   𝐴 = (AbsVal‘𝑄)    &   𝐽 = (𝑞 ∈ ℙ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, (𝑞↑-(𝑞 pCnt 𝑥)))))    &   𝐾 = (𝑥 ∈ ℚ ↦ if(𝑥 = 0, 0, 1))       (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐹 = 𝐾 ∨ ∃𝑎 ∈ (0(,]1)𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℚ ↦ ((abs‘𝑦)↑𝑐𝑎)) ∨ ∃𝑎 ∈ ℝ+𝑔 ∈ ran 𝐽 𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℚ ↦ ((𝑔𝑦)↑𝑐𝑎))))
 
PART 15  ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY

This part develops elementary geometry based on Tarski's axioms, following [Schwabhauser]. Tarski's geometry is a first-order theory with one sort, the "points". It has two primitive notions, the ternary predicate of "betweenness" and the quaternary predicate of "congruence". To adapt this theory to the framework of set.mm, and to be able to talk of *a* Tarski structure as a space satisfying the given axioms, we use the following definition, stated informally:

A Tarski structure 𝑓 is a set (of points) (Base‘𝑓) together with functions (Itv‘𝑓) and (dist‘𝑓) on ((Base‘𝑓) × (Base‘𝑓)) satisfying certain axioms (given in the definitions df-trkg 25041 et sequentes). This allows us to treat a Tarski structure as a special kind of extensible structure (see df-struct 15581).

The translation to and from Tarski's treatment is as follows (given, again, informally).

Suppose that one is given an extensible structure 𝑓. One defines a betweenness ternary predicate Btw by positing that, for any 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧 ∈ (Base‘𝑓), one has "Btw 𝑥𝑦𝑧 " if and only if 𝑦𝑥(Itv‘𝑓)𝑧, and a congruence quaternary predicate Congr by positing that, for any 𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧, 𝑡 ∈ (Base‘𝑓), one has "Congr 𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑡 " if and only if 𝑥(dist‘𝑓)𝑦 = 𝑧(dist‘𝑓)𝑡. It is easy to check that if 𝑓 satisfies our Tarski axioms, then Btw and Congr satisfy Tarski's Tarski axioms when (Base‘𝑓) is interpreted as the universe of discourse.

Conversely, suppose that one is given a set 𝑎, a ternary predicate Btw and a quaternary predicate Congr. One defines the extensible structure 𝑓 such that (Base‘𝑓) is 𝑎, and (Itv‘𝑓) is the function which associates with each 𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∈ (𝑎 × 𝑎) the set of points 𝑧𝑎 such that "Btw 𝑥𝑧𝑦", and (dist‘𝑓) is the function which associates with each 𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∈ (𝑎 × 𝑎) the set of ordered pairs 𝑧, 𝑡⟩ ∈ (𝑎 × 𝑎) such that "Congr 𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑡". It is easy to check that if Btw and Congr satisfy Tarski's Tarski axioms when 𝑎 is interpreted as the universe of discourse, then 𝑓 satisfies our Tarski axioms.

We intentionally choose to represent congruence (without loss of generality) as 𝑥(dist‘𝑓)𝑦 = 𝑧(dist‘𝑓)𝑡 instead of "Congr 𝑥𝑦𝑧𝑡", as it is more convenient. It is always possible to define dist for any particular geometry to produce equal results when conguence is desired, and in many cases there is an obvious interpretation of "distance" between two points that can be useful in other situations. A similar representation is used in Axiom A1 of [Beeson2016] p. 5, which discusses how a large number of formalized proofs were found in Tarskian Geometry using OTTER. Their detailed proofs in Tarski Geometry, along with other information, are available at http://www.michaelbeeson.com/research/FormalTarski/.

Most theorems are in deduction form, as this is a very general, simple, and convenient format to use in Metamath. An assertion in deduction form can be easily converted into an assertion in inference form (removing the antecedents 𝜑) by insert a ⊤ → in each hypothesis using a1i 11, then using trud 1483 to remove the final ⊤ → prefix. In some cases we represent, without loss of generality, an implication antecedent in [Schwabhauser] as a hypothesis. The implication can be recreated from the stated proof format by using simpr 475, the theorem as stated, and ex 448.

For descriptions of individual axioms, we refer to the specific definitions below. A particular feature of Tarski's axioms is modularity, so by using various subsets of the set of axioms, we can define the classes of "absolute dimensionless Tarski structures" (df-trkg 25041), of "Euclidean dimensionless Tarski structures" (df-trkge 25039) and of "Tarski structures of dimension no less than N" (df-trkgld 25040).

The first section is devoted to the definitions of these various structures. The second section ("Tarskian geometry") develops the synthetic treatment of geometry. The remaining sections prove that the real Euclidean spaces and complex Hilbert spaces, with intended interpretations, are Euclidean Tarski structures.

Most of the work in this part is due to Thierry Arnoux, with earlier work by Mario Carneiro and Scott Fenton. See also the credits in the comment of each statement.

 
15.1  Definition and Tarski's Axioms of Geometry
 
Syntaxcstrkg 25018 Extends class notation with the class of Tarski geometries.
class TarskiG
 
Syntaxcstrkgc 25019 Extends class notation with the class of geometries fulfilling the congruence axioms.
class TarskiGC
 
Syntaxcstrkgb 25020 Extends class notation with the class of geometries fulfilling the betweenness axioms.
class TarskiGB
 
Syntaxcstrkgcb 25021 Extends class notation with the class of geometries fulfilling the congruence and betweenness axioms.
class TarskiGCB
 
Syntaxcstrkgld 25022 Extends class notation with the relation for geometries fulfilling the lower dimension axioms.
class DimTarskiG
 
Syntaxcstrkge 25023 Extends class notation with the class of geometries fulfilling Euclid's axiom.
class TarskiGE
 
Syntaxcitv 25024 Declare the syntax for the Interval (segment) index extractor.
class Itv
 
Syntaxclng 25025 Declare the syntax for the Line function.
class LineG
 
Definitiondf-itv 25026 Define the Interval (segment) index extractor for Tarski geometries. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
Itv = Slot 16
 
Definitiondf-lng 25027 Define the line index extractor for geometries. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Mar-2019.)
LineG = Slot 17
 
Theoremitvndx 25028 Index value of the Interval (segment) slot. Use ndxarg 15599. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
(Itv‘ndx) = 16
 
Theoremlngndx 25029 Index value of the "line" slot. Use ndxarg 15599. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Mar-2019.)
(LineG‘ndx) = 17
 
Theoremitvid 25030 Utility theorem: index-independent form of df-itv 25026. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
Itv = Slot (Itv‘ndx)
 
Theoremlngid 25031 Utility theorem: index-independent form of df-lng 25027. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Mar-2019.)
LineG = Slot (LineG‘ndx)
 
Theoremtrkgstr 25032 Functionality of a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       𝑊 Struct ⟨1, 16⟩
 
Theoremtrkgbas 25033 The base set of a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       (𝑈𝑉𝑈 = (Base‘𝑊))
 
Theoremtrkgdist 25034 The measure of a distance in a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       (𝐷𝑉𝐷 = (dist‘𝑊))
 
Theoremtrkgitv 25035 The congruence relation in a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       (𝐼𝑉𝐼 = (Itv‘𝑊))
 
Definitiondf-trkgc 25036* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the congruence axioms of reflexivity, identity and transitivity. These are axioms A1 to A3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. With our distance based notation for congruence, transitivity of congruence boils down to transitivity of equality and is already given by eqtr 2533, so it is not listed in this definition. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
TarskiGC = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑓) / 𝑑](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝 (𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑦𝑑𝑥) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝 ((𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑧𝑑𝑧) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))}
 
Definitiondf-trkgb 25037* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the 3 betweenness axioms in Tarski's Axiomatization of Geometry: identity, Axiom A6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11, axiom of Pasch, Axiom A7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 12, and continuity, Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
TarskiGB = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑥) → 𝑥 = 𝑦) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑣𝑝 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑦𝑖𝑧)) → ∃𝑎𝑝 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑢𝑖𝑦) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑣𝑖𝑥))) ∧ ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝑝𝑡 ∈ 𝒫 𝑝(∃𝑎𝑝𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑝𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦)))}
 
Definitiondf-trkgcb 25038* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the five segment axiom, Axiom A5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11, and segment construction axiom, Axiom A4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
TarskiGCB = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑓) / 𝑑][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝𝑐𝑝𝑣𝑝 (((𝑥𝑦𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑐)) ∧ (((𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑎𝑑𝑏) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑧) = (𝑏𝑑𝑐)) ∧ ((𝑥𝑑𝑢) = (𝑎𝑑𝑣) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑢) = (𝑏𝑑𝑣)))) → (𝑧𝑑𝑢) = (𝑐𝑑𝑣)) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝𝑧𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑧) = (𝑎𝑑𝑏)))}
 
Definitiondf-trkge 25039* Define the class of geometries fulfilling Euclid's axiom, Axiom A10 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
TarskiGE = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖]𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑣𝑝 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑣) ∧ 𝑢 ∈ (𝑦𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑥𝑢) → ∃𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑎) ∧ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑏) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑏)))}
 
Definitiondf-trkgld 25040* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the lower dimension axiom for dimension 𝑛. For such geometries, there are three non-colinear points that are equidistant from 𝑛 − 1 distinct points. Derived from remarks in Tarski's System of Geometry, Alfred Tarski and Steven Givant, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 5, Number 2 (1999), 175-214. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 22-Apr-2013.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2019.)
DimTarskiG≥ = {⟨𝑔, 𝑛⟩ ∣ [(Base‘𝑔) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑔) / 𝑑][(Itv‘𝑔) / 𝑖]𝑓(𝑓:(1..^𝑛)–1-1𝑝 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝 (∀𝑗 ∈ (2..^𝑛)(((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑥) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑥) ∧ ((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑦) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑦) ∧ ((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑧) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))))}
 
Definitiondf-trkg 25041* Define the class of Tarski geometries. A Tarski geometry is a set of points, equipped with a betweenness relation (denoting that a point lies on a line segment between two other points) and a congruence relation (denoting equality of line segment lengths). Here, we are using the following:
  • for congruence, (𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑧 𝑤) where = (dist‘𝑊)
  • for betweenness, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧), where 𝐼 = (Itv‘𝑊)
With this definition, the axiom A2 is actually equivalent to the transitivity of addition, eqtrd 2548.

Tarski originally had more axioms, but later reduced his list to 11:

  • A1 A kind of reflexivity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
  • A2 Transitivity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
  • A3 Identity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
  • A4 Axiom of segment construction (TarskiGCB)
  • A5 5-segment axiom (TarskiGCB)
  • A6 Identity for the betweenness relation (TarskiGB)
  • A7 Axiom of Pasch (TarskiGB)
  • A8 Lower dimension axiom (DimTarskiG≥‘2)
  • A9 Upper dimension axiom (V ∖ (DimTarskiG≥‘3))
  • A10 Euclid's axiom (TarskiGE)
  • A11 Axiom of continuity (TarskiGB)
Our definition is split into 5 parts:
  • congruence axioms TarskiGC (which metric spaces fulfill)
  • betweenness axioms TarskiGB
  • congruence and betweenness axioms TarskiGCB
  • upper and lower dimension axioms DimTarskiG
  • axiom of Euclid / parallel postulate TarskiGE

So our definition of a Tarskian Geometry includes the 3 axioms for the quaternary congruence relation (A1, A2, A3), the 3 axioms for the ternary betweenness relation (A6, A7, A11), and the 2 axioms of compatibility of the congruence and the betweenness relations (A4,A5).

It does not include Euclid's axiom A10, nor the 2-dimensional axioms A8 (Lower dimension axiom) and A9 (Upper dimension axiom) so the number of dimensions of the geometry it formalizes is not constrained.

Considering A2 as one of the 3 axioms for the quaternary congruence relation is somewhat conventional, because the transitivity of the congruence relation is automatically given by our choice to take the distance as this congruence relation in our definition of Tarski geometries. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)

TarskiG = ((TarskiGC ∩ TarskiGB) ∩ (TarskiGCB ∩ {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](LineG‘𝑓) = (𝑥𝑝, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑝 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑝 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))})}))
 
Theoremistrkgc 25042* Property of being a Tarski geometry - congruence part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGC ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 (𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑦 𝑥) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ((𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑧 𝑧) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))))
 
Theoremistrkgb 25043* Property of being a Tarski geometry - betweenness part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGB ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑥) → 𝑥 = 𝑦) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑦𝐼𝑧)) → ∃𝑎𝑃 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑢𝐼𝑦) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑣𝐼𝑥))) ∧ ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝑃𝑡 ∈ 𝒫 𝑃(∃𝑎𝑃𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦)))))
 
Theoremistrkgcb 25044* Property of being a Tarski geometry - congruence and betweenness part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGCB ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑐𝑃𝑣𝑃 (((𝑥𝑦𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑐)) ∧ (((𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑎 𝑏) ∧ (𝑦 𝑧) = (𝑏 𝑐)) ∧ ((𝑥 𝑢) = (𝑎 𝑣) ∧ (𝑦 𝑢) = (𝑏 𝑣)))) → (𝑧 𝑢) = (𝑐 𝑣)) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑧𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ (𝑦 𝑧) = (𝑎 𝑏)))))
 
Theoremistrkge 25045* Property of fulfilling Euclid's axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGE ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑣) ∧ 𝑢 ∈ (𝑦𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑥𝑢) → ∃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑎) ∧ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑏) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑏)))))
 
Theoremistrkgl 25046* Building lines from the segment property. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](LineG‘𝑓) = (𝑥𝑝, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑝 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑝 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))})} ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (LineG‘𝐺) = (𝑥𝑃, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑃 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑃 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))})))
 
Theoremistrkgld 25047* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 𝑁 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       ((𝐺𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝐺DimTarskiG𝑁 ↔ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1..^𝑁)–1-1𝑃 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (∀𝑗 ∈ (2..^𝑁)(((𝑓‘1) 𝑥) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑥) ∧ ((𝑓‘1) 𝑦) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑦) ∧ ((𝑓‘1) 𝑧) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))))
 
Theoremistrkg2ld 25048* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 2 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐺DimTarskiG≥2 ↔ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))
 
Theoremistrkg3ld 25049* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 3 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Jul-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐺DimTarskiG≥3 ↔ ∃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 (𝑢𝑣 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (((𝑢 𝑥) = (𝑣 𝑥) ∧ (𝑢 𝑦) = (𝑣 𝑦) ∧ (𝑢 𝑧) = (𝑣 𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))))
 
Theoremaxtgcgrrflx 25050 Axiom of reflexivity of congruence, Axiom A1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝑌 𝑋))
 
Theoremaxtgcgrid 25051 Axiom of identity of congruence, Axiom A3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝑍 𝑍))       (𝜑𝑋 = 𝑌)
 
Theoremaxtgsegcon 25052* Axiom of segment construction, Axiom A4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. As discussed in Axiom 4 of [Tarski1999] p. 178, "The intuitive content [is that] given any line segment 𝐴𝐵, one can construct a line segment congruent to it, starting at any point 𝑌 and going in the direction of any ray containing 𝑌. The ray is determined by the point 𝑌 and a second point 𝑋, the endpoint of the ray. The other endpoint of the line segment to be constructed is just the point 𝑧 whose existence is asserted." (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑧𝑃 (𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑧) ∧ (𝑌 𝑧) = (𝐴 𝐵)))
 
Theoremaxtg5seg 25053 Five segments axiom, Axiom A5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. Take two triangles 𝑋𝑍𝑈 and 𝐴𝐶𝑉, a point 𝑌 on 𝑋𝑍, and a point 𝐵 on 𝐴𝐶. If all corresponding line segments except for 𝑍𝑈 and 𝐶𝑉 are congruent ( i.e., 𝑋𝑌 𝐴𝐵, 𝑌𝑍 𝐵𝐶, 𝑋𝑈 𝐴𝑉, and 𝑌𝑈 𝐵𝑉), then 𝑍𝑈 and 𝐶𝑉 are also congruent. As noted in Axiom 5 of [Tarski1999] p. 178, "this axiom is similar in character to the well-known theorems of Euclidean geometry that allow one to conclude, from hypotheses about the congruence of certain corresponding sides and angles in two triangles, the congruence of other corresponding sides and angles." (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝐴 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 𝑍) = (𝐵 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑈) = (𝐴 𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 𝑈) = (𝐵 𝑉))       (𝜑 → (𝑍 𝑈) = (𝐶 𝑉))
 
Theoremaxtgbtwnid 25054 Identity of Betweenness. Axiom A6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑋))       (𝜑𝑋 = 𝑌)
 
Theoremaxtgpasch 25055* Axiom of (Inner) Pasch, Axiom A7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 12. Given triangle 𝑋𝑌𝑍, point 𝑈 in segment 𝑋𝑍, and point 𝑉 in segment 𝑌𝑍, there exists a point 𝑎 on both the segment 𝑈𝑌 and the segment 𝑉𝑋. This axiom is essentially a subset of the general Pasch axiom. The general Pasch axiom asserts that on a plane "a line intersecting a triangle in one of its sides, and not intersecting any of the vertices, must intersect one of the other two sides" (per the discussion about Axiom 7 of [Tarski1999] p. 179). The (general) Pasch axiom was used implicitly by Euclid, but never stated; Moritz Pasch discovered its omission in 1882. As noted in the Metamath book, this means that the omission of Pasch's axiom from Euclid went unnoticed for 2000 years. Only the inner Pasch algorithm is included as an axiom; the "outer" form of the Pasch axiom can be proved using the inner form (see theorem 9.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 69 and the brief discussion in axiom 7.1 of [Tarski1999] p. 180). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑌𝐼𝑍))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎𝑃 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑈𝐼𝑌) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑉𝐼𝑋)))
 
Theoremaxtgcont1 25056* Axiom of Continuity. Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. This axiom (scheme) asserts that any two sets 𝑆 and 𝑇 (of points) such that the elements of 𝑆 precede the elements of 𝑇 with respect to some point 𝑎 (that is, 𝑥 is between 𝑎 and 𝑦 whenever 𝑥 is in 𝑋 and 𝑦 is in 𝑌) are separated by some point 𝑏; this is explained in Axiom 11 of [Tarski1999] p. 185. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑇𝑃)       (𝜑 → (∃𝑎𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦)))
 
Theoremaxtgcont 25057* Axiom of Continuity. Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. For more information see axtgcont1 25056. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑇𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   ((𝜑𝑢𝑆𝑣𝑇) → 𝑢 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝑣))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦))
 
Theoremaxtglowdim2 25058* Lower dimension axiom for dimension 2, Axiom A8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. There exist 3 non-colinear points. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐺DimTarskiG≥2)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧)))
 
Theoremaxtgupdim2 25059 Upper dimension axiom for dimension 2, Axiom A9 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. Three points 𝑋, 𝑌 and 𝑍 equidistant to two given two points 𝑈 and 𝑉 must be colinear. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 29-May-2019.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Jul-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑋) = (𝑉 𝑋))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑌) = (𝑉 𝑌))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑍) = (𝑉 𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐺DimTarskiG≥3)       (𝜑 → (𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑋 ∈ (𝑍𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍)))
 
Theoremaxtgeucl 25060* Euclid's Axiom. Axiom A10 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. This is equivalent to Euclid's parallel postulate when combined with other axioms. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiGE)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑉))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑌𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃 (𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑎) ∧ 𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑏) ∧ 𝑉 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑏)))
 
15.2  Tarskian Geometry
 
15.2.1  Congruence
 
Theoremtgcgrcomimp 25061 Congruence commutes on the RHS. Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷) → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐶)))
 
Theoremtgcgrcomr 25062 Congruence commutes on the RHS. Variant of Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27, but in a convenient form for a common case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐶))
 
Theoremtgcgrcoml 25063 Congruence commutes on the LHS. Variant of Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27, but in a convenient form for a common case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐴) = (𝐶 𝐷))
 
Theoremtgcgrcomlr 25064 Congruence commutes on both sides. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐴) = (𝐷 𝐶))
 
Theoremtgcgreqb 25065 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 = 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐷))
 
Theoremtgcgreq 25066 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐶 = 𝐷)
 
Theoremtgcgrneq 25067 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑𝐶𝐷)
 
Theoremtgcgrtriv 25068 Degenerate segments are congruent. Theorem 2.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 28. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐴) = (𝐵 𝐵))
 
Theoremtgcgrextend 25069 Link congruence over a pair of line segments. Theorem 2.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 29. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.) (Shortened by David A. Wheeler and Thierry Arnoux, 22-Apr-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐷 𝐹))
 
Theoremtgsegconeq 25070 Two points that satisfy the conclusion of axtgsegcon 25052 are identical. Uniqueness portion of Theorem 2.12 of [Schwabhauser] p. 29. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐸) = (𝐵 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐹) = (𝐵 𝐶))       (𝜑𝐸 = 𝐹)
 
15.2.2  Betweenness
 
Theoremtgbtwntriv2 25071 Betweenness always holds for the second endpoint. Theorem 3.1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐵))
 
Theoremtgbtwncom 25072 Betweenness commutes. Theorem 3.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐴))
 
Theoremtgbtwncomb 25073 Betweenness commutes, biconditional version. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶) ↔ 𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐴)))
 
Theoremtgbtwnne 25074 Betweenness and inequality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴𝐶)
 
Theoremtgbtwntriv1 25075 Betweenness always holds for the first endpoint. Theorem 3.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐵))
 
Theoremtgbtwnswapid 25076 If you can swap the first two arguments of a betweenness statement, then those arguments are identical. Theorem 3.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))       (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)
 
Theoremtgbtwnintr 25077 Inner transitivity law for betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))
 
Theoremtgbtwnexch3 25078 Exchange the first endpoint in betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))
 
Theoremtgbtwnouttr2 25079 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))
 
Theoremtgbtwnexch2 25080 Exchange the outer point of two betweenness statements. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))
 
Theoremtgbtwnouttr 25081 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))
 
Theoremtgbtwnexch 25082 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))
 
Theoremtgtrisegint 25083* A line segment between two sides of a triange intersects a segment crossing from the remaining side to the opposite vertex. Theorem 3.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 33. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑞𝑃 (𝑞 ∈ (𝐹𝐼𝐶) ∧ 𝑞 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐸)))
 
15.2.3  Dimension
 
Theoremtglowdim1 25084* Lower dimension axiom for one dimension. In dimension at least 1, there are at least two distinct points. The condition "the space is of dimension 1 or more" is written here as 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃) to avoid a new definition, but a different convention could be chosen. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 𝑥𝑦)
 
Theoremtglowdim1i 25085* Lower dimension axiom for one dimension. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-May-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝑃 𝑋𝑦)
 
Theoremtgldimor 25086 Excluded-middle like statement allowing to treat dimension zero as a special case. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝐸𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)       (𝜑 → ((#‘𝑃) = 1 ∨ 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃)))
 
Theoremtgldim0eq 25087 In dimension zero, any two points are equal. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝐸𝐹)    &   (𝜑 → (#‘𝑃) = 1)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)
 
Theoremtgldim0itv 25088 In dimension zero, any two points are equal. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (#‘𝑃) = 1)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐶))
 
Theoremtgldim0cgr 25089 In dimension zero, any two pairs of points are congruent. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (#‘𝑃) = 1)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))
 
Theoremtgbtwndiff 25090* There is always a 𝑐 distinct from 𝐵 such that 𝐵 lies between 𝐴 and 𝑐. Theorem 3.14 of [Schwabhauser] p. 32. The condition "the space is of dimension 1 or more" is written here as 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃) for simplicity. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑐𝑃 (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝑐) ∧ 𝐵𝑐))
 
Theoremtgdim01 25091 In geometries of dimension lower than 2, all points are colinear. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐺DimTarskiG≥2)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑋 ∈ (𝑍𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍)))
 
Theoremnehash2 25092 The cardinality of a set with two distinct elements. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
(𝜑𝑃𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (#‘𝑃))
 
15.2.4  Betweenness and Congruence
 
Theoremtgifscgr 25093 Inner five segment congruence. Take two triangles, 𝐴𝐷𝐶 and 𝐸𝐻𝐾, with 𝐵 between 𝐴 and 𝐶 and 𝐹 between 𝐸 and 𝐾. If the other components of the triangles are congruent, then so are 𝐵𝐷 and 𝐹𝐻. Theorem 4.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 34. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐻𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝐼𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐹 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐷) = (𝐸 𝐻))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 𝐷) = (𝐾 𝐻))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐷) = (𝐹 𝐻))
 
Theoremtgcgrsub 25094 Removing identical parts from the end of a line segment preserves congruence. Theorem 4.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐷 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))
 
15.2.5  Congruence of a series of points
 
Syntaxccgrg 25095 Declare the constant for the congruence between shapes relation.
class cgrG
 
Definitiondf-cgrg 25096* Define the relation congruence bewteen shapes. Definition 4.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. Ideally, we would define this for functions of any set, but we will used words (functions over ) in most cases. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
cgrG = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩ ∣ ((𝑎 ∈ ((Base‘𝑔) ↑pm ℝ) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ ((Base‘𝑔) ↑pm ℝ)) ∧ (dom 𝑎 = dom 𝑏 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝑎𝑗 ∈ dom 𝑎((𝑎𝑖)(dist‘𝑔)(𝑎𝑗)) = ((𝑏𝑖)(dist‘𝑔)(𝑏𝑗))))})
 
Theoremiscgrg 25097* The congruence property for sequences of points. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ((𝐴 ∈ (𝑃pm ℝ) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑃pm ℝ)) ∧ (dom 𝐴 = dom 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗))))))
 
Theoremiscgrgd 25098* The property for two sequences 𝐴 and 𝐵 of points to be congruent. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴:𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵:𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗))))
 
Theoremiscgrglt 25099* The property for two sequences 𝐴 and 𝐵 of points to be congruent, where the congruence is only required for indices verifying a less-than relation. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Oct-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴:𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵:𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴(𝑖 < 𝑗 → ((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗)))))
 
Theoremtrgcgrg 25100 The property for two triangles to be congruent to each other. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)       (𝜑 → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩ ↔ ((𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸) ∧ (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹) ∧ (𝐶 𝐴) = (𝐹 𝐷))))
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