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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 14101-14200   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremiserex 14101* An infinite series converges, if and only if the series does with initial terms removed. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 9-Feb-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 27-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ seq𝑁( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ ))

Theoremisermulc2 14102* Multiplication of an infinite series by a constant. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 14-Nov-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺𝑘) = (𝐶 · (𝐹𝑘)))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐺) ⇝ (𝐶 · 𝐴))

Theoremclimlec2 14103* Comparison of a constant to the limit of a sequence. (Contributed by NM, 28-Feb-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ≤ (𝐹𝑘))       (𝜑𝐴𝐵)

Theoremiserle 14104* Comparison of the limits of two infinite series. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 12-Nov-2007.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐺) ⇝ 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))       (𝜑𝐴𝐵)

Theoremiserge0 14105* The limit of an infinite series of nonnegative reals is nonnegative. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 9-Feb-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑘))       (𝜑 → 0 ≤ 𝐴)

Theoremclimub 14106* The limit of a monotonic sequence is an upper bound. (Contributed by NM, 18-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ≤ (𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑁) ≤ 𝐴)

Theoremclimserle 14107* The partial sums of a converging infinite series with nonnegative terms are bounded by its limit. (Contributed by NM, 27-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑁𝑍)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 0 ≤ (𝐹𝑘))       (𝜑 → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁) ≤ 𝐴)

Theoremisershft 14108 Index shift of the limit of an infinite series. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Sep-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 5-Nov-2013.)
𝐹 ∈ V       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℤ) → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴 ↔ seq(𝑀 + 𝑁)( + , (𝐹 shift 𝑁)) ⇝ 𝐴))

Theoremisercolllem1 14109* Lemma for isercoll 14112. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐺𝑘) < (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)))       ((𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℕ) → (𝐺𝑆) Isom < , < (𝑆, (𝐺𝑆)))

Theoremisercolllem2 14110* Lemma for isercoll 14112. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐺𝑘) < (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)))       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘(𝐺‘1))) → (1...(#‘(𝐺 “ (𝐺 “ (𝑀...𝑁))))) = (𝐺 “ (𝑀...𝑁)))

Theoremisercolllem3 14111* Lemma for isercoll 14112. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐺𝑘) < (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (𝑍 ∖ ran 𝐺)) → (𝐹𝑛) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑛𝑍) → (𝐹𝑛) ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐻𝑘) = (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))       ((𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘(𝐺‘1))) → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁) = (seq1( + , 𝐻)‘(#‘(𝐺 “ (𝐺 “ (𝑀...𝑁))))))

Theoremisercoll 14112* Rearrange an infinite series by spacing out the terms using an order isomorphism. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:ℕ⟶𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐺𝑘) < (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (𝑍 ∖ ran 𝐺)) → (𝐹𝑛) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑛𝑍) → (𝐹𝑛) ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐻𝑘) = (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))       (𝜑 → (seq1( + , 𝐻) ⇝ 𝐴 ↔ seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴))

Theoremisercoll2 14113* Generalize isercoll 14112 so that both sequences have arbitrary starting point. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝑊 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍𝑊)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺𝑘) < (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)))    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (𝑊 ∖ ran 𝐺)) → (𝐹𝑛) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑛𝑊) → (𝐹𝑛) ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐻𝑘) = (𝐹‘(𝐺𝑘)))       (𝜑 → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐻) ⇝ 𝐴 ↔ seq𝑁( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐴))

Theoremclimsup 14114* A bounded monotonic sequence converges to the supremum of its range. Theorem 12-5.1 of [Gleason] p. 180. (Contributed by NM, 13-Mar-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 10-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ≤ (𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)))    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍 (𝐹𝑘) ≤ 𝑥)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ sup(ran 𝐹, ℝ, < ))

Theoremclimcau 14115* A converging sequence of complex numbers is a Cauchy sequence. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180 (necessity part). (Contributed by NM, 16-Apr-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 26-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ) → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥)

Theoremclimbdd 14116* A converging sequence of complex numbers is bounded. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 9-Jul-2017.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ∧ ∀𝑘𝑍 (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ) → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍 (abs‘(𝐹𝑘)) ≤ 𝑥)

Theoremcaucvgrlem 14117* Lemma for caurcvgr 14119. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.) (Revised by AV, 12-Sep-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝐴 ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (lim sup‘𝐹))) < (3 · 𝑅))))

TheoremcaucvgrlemOLD 14118* Lemma for caurcvgr 14119. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.) Obsolete version of caucvgrlem 14117 as of 12-Sep-2020. (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝐴 ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (lim sup‘𝐹))) < (3 · 𝑅))))

Theoremcaurcvgr 14119* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges to its limit supremum. The third hypothesis specifies that 𝐹 is a Cauchy sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.) (Revised by AV, 12-Sep-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹𝑟 (lim sup‘𝐹))

TheoremcaurcvgrOLD 14120* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges to its limit supremum. The third hypothesis specifies that 𝐹 is a Cauchy sequence. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-May-2016.) Obsolete version of caurcvgr 14119 as of 12-Sep-2020. (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹𝑟 (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremcaucvgrlem2 14121* Lemma for caucvgr 14122. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))    &   𝐻:ℂ⟶ℝ    &   (((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ ∧ (𝐹𝑗) ∈ ℂ) → (abs‘((𝐻‘(𝐹𝑘)) − (𝐻‘(𝐹𝑗)))) ≤ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))))       (𝜑 → (𝑛𝐴 ↦ (𝐻‘(𝐹𝑛))) ⇝𝑟 ( ⇝𝑟 ‘(𝐻𝐹)))

Theoremcaucvgr 14122* A Cauchy sequence of complex numbers converges to a complex number. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180 (sufficiency part). (Contributed by NM, 20-Dec-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐴 (𝑗𝑘 → (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝𝑟 )

Theoremcaurcvg 14123* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges to its limit supremum. The fourth hypothesis specifies that 𝐹 is a Cauchy sequence. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Revised by AV, 12-Sep-2020.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑚𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑚))) < 𝑥)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹))

TheoremcaurcvgOLD 14124* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges to its limit supremum. The fourth hypothesis specifies that 𝐹 is a Cauchy sequence. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.) Obsolete version of caurcvg 14123 as of 12-Sep-2020. (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑚𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑚))) < 𝑥)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremcaurcvg2 14125* A Cauchy sequence of real numbers converges, existence version. (Contributed by NM, 4-Apr-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Sep-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ ∧ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremcaucvg 14126* A Cauchy sequence of complex numbers converges to a complex number. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180 (sufficiency part). (Contributed by NM, 20-Dec-2006.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 8-May-2016.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremcaucvgb 14127* A function is convergent if and only if it is Cauchy. Theorem 12-5.3 of [Gleason] p. 180. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐹𝑉) → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ ∧ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − (𝐹𝑗))) < 𝑥)))

Theoremserf0 14128* If an infinite series converges, its underlying sequence converges to zero. (Contributed by NM, 2-Sep-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 16-Feb-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ 0)

Theoremiseraltlem1 14129* Lemma for iseralt 14132. A decreasing sequence with limit zero consists of positive terms. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍) → 0 ≤ (𝐺𝑁))

Theoremiseraltlem2 14130* Lemma for iseralt 14132. The terms of an alternating series form a chain of inequalities in alternate terms, so that for example 𝑆(1) ≤ 𝑆(3) ≤ 𝑆(5) ≤ ... and ... ≤ 𝑆(4) ≤ 𝑆(2) ≤ 𝑆(0) (assuming 𝑀 = 0 so that these terms are defined). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍𝐾 ∈ ℕ0) → ((-1↑𝑁) · (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘(𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾)))) ≤ ((-1↑𝑁) · (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁)))

Theoremiseraltlem3 14131* Lemma for iseralt 14132. From iseraltlem2 14130, we have (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) and (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1), and we also have (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) for each 𝑛 by the definition of the partial sum 𝑆, so combining the inequalities we get (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) = (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − 𝐺(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ≤ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) + 𝐺(𝑛 + 1), so ∣ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) − (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ = 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘 + 1) − 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ ≤ 𝐺(𝑛 + 1) and ∣ (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − (-1↑𝑛) · 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ = 𝑆(𝑛 + 2𝑘) − 𝑆(𝑛) ∣ ≤ 𝐺(𝑛 + 1). Thus, both even and odd partial sums are Cauchy if 𝐺 converges to 0. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       ((𝜑𝑁𝑍𝐾 ∈ ℕ0) → ((abs‘((seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘(𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾))) − (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))) ≤ (𝐺‘(𝑁 + 1)) ∧ (abs‘((seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘((𝑁 + (2 · 𝐾)) + 1)) − (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))) ≤ (𝐺‘(𝑁 + 1))))

Theoremiseralt 14132* The alternating series test. If 𝐺(𝑘) is a decreasing sequence that converges to 0, then Σ𝑘𝑍(-1↑𝑘) · 𝐺(𝑘) is a convergent series. (Note that the first term is positive if 𝑀 is even, and negative if 𝑀 is odd. If the parity of your series does not match up with this, you will need to post-compose the series with multiplication by -1 using isermulc2 14102.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐺‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≤ (𝐺𝑘))    &   (𝜑𝐺 ⇝ 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((-1↑𝑘) · (𝐺𝑘)))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )

5.10.3  Finite and infinite sums

Syntaxcsu 14133 Extend class notation to include finite summations. (An underscore was added to the ASCII token in order to facilitate set.mm text searches, since "sum" is a commonly used word in comments.)
class Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Definitiondf-sum 14134* Define the sum of a series with an index set of integers 𝐴. 𝑘 is normally a free variable in 𝐵, i.e. 𝐵 can be thought of as 𝐵(𝑘). This definition is the result of a collection of discussions over the most general definition for a sum that does not need the index set to have a specified ordering. This definition is in two parts, one for finite sums and one for subsets of the upper integers. When summing over a subset of the upper integers, we extend the index set to the upper integers by adding zero outside the domain, and then sum the set in order, setting the result to the limit of the partial sums, if it exists. This means that conditionally convergent sums can be evaluated meaningfully. For finite sums, we are explicitly order-independent, by picking any bijection to a 1-based finite sequence and summing in the induced order. These two methods of summation produce the same result on their common region of definition (i.e. finite subsets of the upper integers) by summo 14164. Examples: Σ𝑘 ∈ {1, 2, 4} 𝑘 means 1 + 2 + 4 = 7, and Σ𝑘 ∈ ℕ (1 / (2↑𝑘)) = 1 means 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + ... = 1 (geoihalfsum 14322). (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (℩𝑥(∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑛𝐴, 𝑛 / 𝑘𝐵, 0))) ⇝ 𝑥) ∨ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑥 = (seq1( + , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵))‘𝑚))))

Theoremsumex 14135 A sum is a set. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ V

Theoremsumeq1 14136 Equality theorem for a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝐴 = 𝐵 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremnfsum1 14137 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑘𝐴       𝑘Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremnfsum 14138 Bound-variable hypothesis builder for sum: if 𝑥 is (effectively) not free in 𝐴 and 𝐵, it is not free in Σ𝑘𝐴𝐵. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑥𝐴    &   𝑥𝐵       𝑥Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremsumeq2w 14139 Equality theorem for sum, when the class expressions 𝐵 and 𝐶 are equal everywhere. Proved using only Extensionality. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Jun-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑘 𝐵 = 𝐶 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2ii 14140* Equality theorem for sum, with the class expressions 𝐵 and 𝐶 guarded by I to be always sets. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(∀𝑘𝐴 ( I ‘𝐵) = ( I ‘𝐶) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2 14141* Equality theorem for sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
(∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐶 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremcbvsum 14142* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   𝑘𝐴    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑘𝐵    &   𝑗𝐶       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremcbvsumv 14143* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
(𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremcbvsumi 14144* Change bound variable in a sum. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.)
𝑘𝐵    &   𝑗𝐶    &   (𝑗 = 𝑘𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑗𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremsumeq1i 14145* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2006.)
𝐴 = 𝐵       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶

Theoremsumeq2i 14146* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-2005.)
(𝑘𝐴𝐵 = 𝐶)       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶

Theoremsumeq12i 14147* Equality inference for sum. (Contributed by FL, 10-Dec-2006.)
𝐴 = 𝐵    &   (𝑘𝐴𝐶 = 𝐷)       Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷

Theoremsumeq1d 14148* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Nov-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2d 14149* Equality deduction for sum. Note that unlike sumeq2dv 14150, 𝑘 may occur in 𝜑. (Contributed by NM, 1-Nov-2005.)
(𝜑 → ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2dv 14150* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theoremsumeq2sdv 14151* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.)
(𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶)

Theorem2sumeq2dv 14152* Equality deduction for double sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2014.)
((𝜑𝑗𝐴𝑘𝐵) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶 = Σ𝑗𝐴 Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsumeq12dv 14153* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Dec-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsumeq12rdv 14154* Equality deduction for sum. (Contributed by NM, 1-Dec-2005.)
(𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐵) → 𝐶 = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐷)

Theoremsum2id 14155* The second class argument to a sum can be chosen so that it is always a set. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jul-2013.)
Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑘𝐴 ( I ‘𝐵)

Theoremsumfc 14156* A lemma to facilitate conversions from the function form to the class-variable form of a sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
Σ𝑗𝐴 ((𝑘𝐴𝐵)‘𝑗) = Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵

Theoremfz1f1o 14157* A lemma for working with finite sums. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ Fin → (𝐴 = ∅ ∨ ((#‘𝐴) ∈ ℕ ∧ ∃𝑓 𝑓:(1...(#‘𝐴))–1-1-onto𝐴)))

Theoremsumrblem 14158* Lemma for sumrb 14160. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))       ((𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑁)) → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ↾ (ℤ𝑁)) = seq𝑁( + , 𝐹))

Theoremfsumcvg 14159* The sequence of partial sums of a finite sum converges to the whole sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremsumrb 14160* Rebase the starting point of a sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 14-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 9-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑁))       (𝜑 → (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐶 ↔ seq𝑁( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐶))

Theoremsummolem3 14161* Lemma for summo 14164. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 29-Mar-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐾𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ))    &   (𝜑𝑓:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾:(1...𝑁)–1-1-onto𝐴)       (𝜑 → (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑀) = (seq1( + , 𝐻)‘𝑁))

Theoremsummolem2a 14162* Lemma for summo 14164. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐾𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑓:(1...𝑁)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾 Isom < , < ((1...(#‘𝐴)), 𝐴))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑁))

Theoremsummolem2 14163* Lemma for summo 14164. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)       ((𝜑 ∧ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑥)) → (∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑦 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑚)) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))

Theoremsummo 14164* A sum has at most one limit. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Aug-2014.)
𝐹 = (𝑘 ∈ ℤ ↦ if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑓𝑛) / 𝑘𝐵)       (𝜑 → ∃*𝑥(∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑚) ∧ seq𝑚( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝑥) ∨ ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1...𝑚)–1-1-onto𝐴𝑥 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑚))))

Theoremzsum 14165* Series sum with index set a subset of the upper integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = ( ⇝ ‘seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)))

Theoremisum 14166* Series sum with an upper integer index set (i.e. an infinite series). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐵 = ( ⇝ ‘seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)))

Theoremfsum 14167* The value of a sum over a nonempty finite set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 13-Jun-2019.)
(𝑘 = (𝐹𝑛) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(1...𝑀)–1-1-onto𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑀)) → (𝐺𝑛) = 𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (seq1( + , 𝐺)‘𝑀))

Theoremsum0 14168 Any sum over the empty set is zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
Σ𝑘 ∈ ∅ 𝐴 = 0

Theoremsumz 14169* Any sum of zero over a summable set is zero. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀) ∨ 𝐴 ∈ Fin) → Σ𝑘𝐴 0 = 0)

Theoremfsumf1o 14170* Re-index a finite sum using a bijection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝐺𝐵 = 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐶1-1-onto𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑛𝐶) → (𝐹𝑛) = 𝐺)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = Σ𝑛𝐶 𝐷)

Theoremsumss 14171* Change the index set to a subset in an upper integer sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝐵𝐴)) → 𝐶 = 0)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀))       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremfsumss 14172* Change the index set to a subset in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝐵𝐴)) → 𝐶 = 0)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ Fin)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶)

Theoremsumss2 14173* Change the index set of a sum by adding zeroes. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
(((𝐴𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) ∧ (𝐵 ⊆ (ℤ𝑀) ∨ 𝐵 ∈ Fin)) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 = Σ𝑘𝐵 if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐶, 0))

Theoremfsumcvg2 14174* The sequence of partial sums of a finite sum converges to the whole sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 20-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumsers 14175* Special case of series sum over a finite upper integer index set. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Jul-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝑀...𝑁))       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 = (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumcvg3 14176* A finite sum is convergent. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑍)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = if(𝑘𝐴, 𝐵, 0))    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremfsumser 14177* A finite sum expressed in terms of a partial sum of an infinite series. The recursive definition of follows as fsum1 14189 and fsump1i 14211, which should make our notation clear and from which, along with closure fsumcl 14180, we will derive the basic properties of finite sums. (Contributed by NM, 11-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)‘𝑁))

Theoremfsumcl2lem 14178* - Lemma for finite sum closures. (The "-" before "Lemma" forces the math content to be displayed in the Statement List - NM 11-Feb-2008.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆)) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵𝑆)

Theoremfsumcllem 14179* - Lemma for finite sum closures. (The "-" before "Lemma" forces the math content to be displayed in the Statement List - NM 11-Feb-2008.) (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑆)) → (𝑥 + 𝑦) ∈ 𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵𝑆)    &   (𝜑 → 0 ∈ 𝑆)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵𝑆)

Theoremfsumcl 14180* Closure of a finite sum of complex numbers 𝐴(𝑘). (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)

Theoremfsumrecl 14181* Closure of a finite sum of reals. (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)

Theoremfsumzcl 14182* Closure of a finite sum of integers. (Contributed by NM, 9-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumnn0cl 14183* Closure of a finite sum of nonnegative integers. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremfsumrpcl 14184* Closure of a finite sum of positive reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Jun-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ≠ ∅)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremfsumzcl2 14185* A finite sum with integer summands is an integer. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Aug-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ ∀𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumadd 14186* The sum of two finite sums. (Contributed by NM, 14-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝐴) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝐴 (𝐵 + 𝐶) = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 + Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶))

Theoremfsumsplit 14187* Split a sum into two parts. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 18-Aug-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑 → (𝐴𝐵) = ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑈 = (𝐴𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ Fin)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑈) → 𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑈 𝐶 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐶 + Σ𝑘𝐵 𝐶))

Theoremsumsn 14188* A sum of a singleton is the term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       ((𝑀𝑉𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑀}𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremfsum1 14189* The finite sum of 𝐴(𝑘) from 𝑘 = 𝑀 to 𝑀 (i.e. a sum with only one term) is 𝐵 i.e. 𝐴(𝑀). (Contributed by NM, 8-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       ((𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑀)𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremsumpr 14190* A sum over a pair is the sum of the elements. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Dec-2016.)
(𝑘 = 𝐴𝐶 = 𝐷)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐸)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐷 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐸 ∈ ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵}𝐶 = (𝐷 + 𝐸))

Theoremsumtp 14191* A sum over a triple is the sum of the elements. (Contributed by AV, 24-Jul-2020.)
(𝑘 = 𝐴𝐷 = 𝐸)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐵𝐷 = 𝐹)    &   (𝑘 = 𝐶𝐷 = 𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐺 ∈ ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊𝐶𝑋))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶}𝐷 = ((𝐸 + 𝐹) + 𝐺))

Theoremsumsns 14192* A sum of a singleton is the term. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 22-Apr-2014.)
((𝑀𝑉𝑀 / 𝑘𝐴 ∈ ℂ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ {𝑀}𝐴 = 𝑀 / 𝑘𝐴)

Theoremfsumm1 14193* Separate out the last term in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 − 1))𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremfzosump1 14194* Separate out the last term in a finite sum. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 13-Apr-2016.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^(𝑁 + 1))𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀..^𝑁)𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremfsum1p 14195* Separate out the first term in a finite sum. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = 𝑀𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 = (𝐵 + Σ𝑘 ∈ ((𝑀 + 1)...𝑁)𝐴))

Theoremfsummsnunz 14196* A finite sum with an additional integer summand is an integer. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ)

Theoremfsumsplitsnun 14197* Separate out a term in a finite sum by splitting the sum into two parts. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Sep-2018.)
((𝐴 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑧𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝐴 ∪ {𝑧})𝐵 = (Σ𝑘𝐴 𝐵 + 𝑧 / 𝑘𝐵))

Theoremfsump1 14198* The addition of the next term in a finite sum of 𝐴(𝑘) is the current term plus 𝐵 i.e. 𝐴(𝑁 + 1). (Contributed by NM, 4-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 + 1))) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝑘 = (𝑁 + 1) → 𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...(𝑁 + 1))𝐴 = (Σ𝑘 ∈ (𝑀...𝑁)𝐴 + 𝐵))

Theoremisumclim 14199* An infinite sum equals the value its series converges to. (Contributed by NM, 25-Dec-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ 𝐵)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremisumclim2 14200* A converging series converges to its infinite sum. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2006.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 23-Apr-2014.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ⇝ Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐴)

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