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Type | Label | Description |
---|---|---|
Statement | ||
Theorem | alrimih 1401 | Inference from Theorem 19.21 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (New usage is discouraged.) |
Theorem | albii 1402 | Inference adding universal quantifier to both sides of an equivalence. (Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) |
Theorem | 2albii 1403 | Inference adding 2 universal quantifiers to both sides of an equivalence. (Contributed by NM, 9-Mar-1997.) |
Theorem | hbxfrbi 1404 | A utility lemma to transfer a bound-variable hypothesis builder into a definition. (Contributed by Jonathan Ben-Naim, 3-Jun-2011.) |
Theorem | nfbii 1405 | Equality theorem for not-free. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | nfxfr 1406 | A utility lemma to transfer a bound-variable hypothesis builder into a definition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | nfxfrd 1407 | A utility lemma to transfer a bound-variable hypothesis builder into a definition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | alcoms 1408 | Swap quantifiers in an antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1993.) |
Theorem | hbal 1409 | If is not free in , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | alcom 1410 | Theorem 19.5 of [Margaris] p. 89. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | alrimdh 1411 | Deduction from Theorem 19.21 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 10-Feb-1997.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 13-May-2011.) |
Theorem | albidh 1412 | Formula-building rule for universal quantifier (deduction rule). (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.26 1413 | Theorem 19.26 of [Margaris] p. 90. Also Theorem *10.22 of [WhiteheadRussell] p. 119. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 4-Jul-2014.) |
Theorem | 19.26-2 1414 | Theorem 19.26 of [Margaris] p. 90 with two quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.) |
Theorem | 19.26-3an 1415 | Theorem 19.26 of [Margaris] p. 90 with triple conjunction. (Contributed by NM, 13-Sep-2011.) |
Theorem | 19.33 1416 | Theorem 19.33 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | alrot3 1417 | Theorem *11.21 in [WhiteheadRussell] p. 160. (Contributed by Andrew Salmon, 24-May-2011.) |
Theorem | alrot4 1418 | Rotate 4 universal quantifiers twice. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-2005.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 28-Jun-2014.) |
Theorem | albiim 1419 | Split a biconditional and distribute quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 2albiim 1420 | Split a biconditional and distribute 2 quantifiers. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2005.) |
Theorem | hband 1421 | Deduction form of bound-variable hypothesis builder hban 1482. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2002.) |
Theorem | hb3and 1422 | Deduction form of bound-variable hypothesis builder hb3an 1485. (Contributed by NM, 17-Feb-2013.) |
Theorem | hbald 1423 | Deduction form of bound-variable hypothesis builder hbal 1409. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2002.) |
Syntax | wex 1424 | Extend wff definition to include the existential quantifier ("there exists"). |
Axiom | ax-ie1 1425 | is bound in . One of the axioms of predicate logic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Axiom | ax-ie2 1426 | Define existential quantification. means "there exists at least one set such that is true." One of the axioms of predicate logic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Theorem | hbe1 1427 | is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | nfe1 1428 | is not free in . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | 19.23ht 1429 | Closed form of Theorem 19.23 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 7-Nov-2005.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | 19.23h 1430 | Theorem 19.23 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 1-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | alnex 1431 | Theorem 19.7 of [Margaris] p. 89. To read this intuitionistically, think of it as "if can be refuted for all , then it is not possible to find an for which holds" (and likewise for the converse). Comparing this with dfexdc 1433 illustrates that statements which look similar (to someone used to classical logic) can be different intuitionistically due to different placement of negations. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by NM, 1-Feb-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 12-May-2015.) |
Theorem | nex 1432 | Generalization rule for negated wff. (Contributed by NM, 18-May-1994.) |
Theorem | dfexdc 1433 | Defining given decidability. It is common in classical logic to define as but in intuitionistic logic without a decidability condition, that is only an implication not an equivalence, as seen at exalim 1434. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 15-Mar-2018.) |
DECID | ||
Theorem | exalim 1434 | One direction of a classical definition of existential quantification. One direction of Definition of [Margaris] p. 49. For a decidable proposition, this is an equivalence, as seen as dfexdc 1433. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2018.) |
The equality predicate was introduced above in wceq 1287 for use by df-tru 1290. See the comments in that section. In this section, we continue with the first "real" use of it. | ||
Theorem | weq 1435 |
Extend wff definition to include atomic formulas using the equality
predicate.
(Instead of introducing weq 1435 as an axiomatic statement, as was done in an older version of this database, we introduce it by "proving" a special case of set theory's more general wceq 1287. This lets us avoid overloading the connective, thus preventing ambiguity that would complicate certain Metamath parsers. However, logically weq 1435 is considered to be a primitive syntax, even though here it is artificially "derived" from wceq 1287. Note: To see the proof steps of this syntax proof, type "show proof weq /all" in the Metamath program.) (Contributed by NM, 24-Jan-2006.) |
Syntax | wcel 1436 |
Extend wff definition to include the membership connective between
classes.
(The purpose of introducing here is to allow us to express i.e. "prove" the wel 1437 of predicate calculus in terms of the wceq 1287 of set theory, so that we don't "overload" the connective with two syntax definitions. This is done to prevent ambiguity that would complicate some Metamath parsers. The class variables and are introduced temporarily for the purpose of this definition but otherwise not used in predicate calculus.) |
Theorem | wel 1437 |
Extend wff definition to include atomic formulas with the epsilon
(membership) predicate. This is read " is an element of
," " is a member of ," " belongs to ,"
or " contains
." Note: The
phrase " includes
" means
" is a subset of
;" to use it also
for
, as some authors occasionally do, is poor form and causes
confusion, according to George Boolos (1992 lecture at MIT).
This syntactical construction introduces a binary non-logical predicate symbol (epsilon) into our predicate calculus. We will eventually use it for the membership predicate of set theory, but that is irrelevant at this point: the predicate calculus axioms for apply to any arbitrary binary predicate symbol. "Non-logical" means that the predicate is presumed to have additional properties beyond the realm of predicate calculus, although these additional properties are not specified by predicate calculus itself but rather by the axioms of a theory (in our case set theory) added to predicate calculus. "Binary" means that the predicate has two arguments. (Instead of introducing wel 1437 as an axiomatic statement, as was done in an older version of this database, we introduce it by "proving" a special case of set theory's more general wcel 1436. This lets us avoid overloading the connective, thus preventing ambiguity that would complicate certain Metamath parsers. However, logically wel 1437 is considered to be a primitive syntax, even though here it is artificially "derived" from wcel 1436. Note: To see the proof steps of this syntax proof, type "show proof wel /all" in the Metamath program.) (Contributed by NM, 24-Jan-2006.) |
Axiom | ax-8 1438 |
Axiom of Equality. One of the equality and substitution axioms of
predicate calculus with equality. This is similar to, but not quite, a
transitive law for equality (proved later as equtr 1639). Axiom scheme C8'
in [Megill] p. 448 (p. 16 of the preprint).
Also appears as Axiom C7 of
[Monk2] p. 105.
Axioms ax-8 1438 through ax-16 1739 are the axioms having to do with equality, substitution, and logical properties of our binary predicate (which later in set theory will mean "is a member of"). Note that all axioms except ax-16 1739 and ax-17 1462 are still valid even when , , and are replaced with the same variable because they do not have any distinct variable (Metamath's $d) restrictions. Distinct variable restrictions are required for ax-16 1739 and ax-17 1462 only. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Axiom | ax-10 1439 |
Axiom of Quantifier Substitution. One of the equality and substitution
axioms of predicate calculus with equality. Appears as Lemma L12 in
[Megill] p. 445 (p. 12 of the preprint).
The original version of this axiom was ax-10o 1648 ("o" for "old") and was replaced with this shorter ax-10 1439 in May 2008. The old axiom is proved from this one as theorem ax10o 1647. Conversely, this axiom is proved from ax-10o 1648 as theorem ax10 1649. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Axiom | ax-11 1440 |
Axiom of Variable Substitution. One of the 5 equality axioms of predicate
calculus. The final consequent
is a way of
expressing "
substituted for in wff
" (cf. sb6 1811).
It
is based on Lemma 16 of [Tarski] p. 70 and
Axiom C8 of [Monk2] p. 105,
from which it can be proved by cases.
Variants of this axiom which are equivalent in classical logic but which have not been shown to be equivalent for intuitionistic logic are ax11v 1752, ax11v2 1745 and ax-11o 1748. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Axiom | ax-i12 1441 |
Axiom of Quantifier Introduction. One of the equality and substitution
axioms of predicate calculus with equality. Informally, it says that
whenever is
distinct from and , and is
true,
then quantified with is also true. In other words,
is irrelevant to the truth of . Axiom scheme C9' in [Megill]
p. 448 (p. 16 of the preprint). It apparently does not otherwise appear
in the literature but is easily proved from textbook predicate calculus by
cases.
This axiom has been modified from the original ax-12 1445 for compatibility with intuitionistic logic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Axiom | ax-bndl 1442 |
Axiom of bundling. The general idea of this axiom is that two variables
are either distinct or non-distinct. That idea could be expressed as
. However, we instead choose an axiom
which has many of the same consequences, but which is different with
respect to a universe which contains only one object. holds
if and are the same variable,
likewise for and ,
and
holds if is distinct from
the others (and the universe has at least two objects).
As with other statements of the form "x is decidable (either true or false)", this does not entail the full Law of the Excluded Middle (which is the proposition that all statements are decidable), but instead merely the assertion that particular kinds of statements are decidable (or in this case, an assertion similar to decidability). This axiom implies ax-i12 1441 as can be seen at axi12 1450. Whether ax-bndl 1442 can be proved from the remaining axioms including ax-i12 1441 is not known. The reason we call this "bundling" is that a statement without a distinct variable constraint "bundles" together two statements, one in which the two variables are the same and one in which they are different. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 14-Mar-2018.) |
Axiom | ax-4 1443 |
Axiom of Specialization. A quantified wff implies the wff without a
quantifier (i.e. an instance, or special case, of the generalized wff).
In other words if something is true for all , it is true for any
specific (that
would typically occur as a free variable in the wff
substituted for ). (A free variable is one that does not occur in
the scope of a quantifier: and are both
free in ,
but only is free
in .) Axiom
scheme C5' in [Megill]
p. 448 (p. 16 of the preprint). Also appears as Axiom B5 of [Tarski]
p. 67 (under his system S2, defined in the last paragraph on p. 77).
Note that the converse of this axiom does not hold in general, but a weaker inference form of the converse holds and is expressed as rule ax-gen 1381. Conditional forms of the converse are given by ax-12 1445, ax-16 1739, and ax-17 1462. Unlike the more general textbook Axiom of Specialization, we cannot choose a variable different from for the special case. For use, that requires the assistance of equality axioms, and we deal with it later after we introduce the definition of proper substitution - see stdpc4 1702. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | sp 1444 | Specialization. Another name for ax-4 1443. (Contributed by NM, 21-May-2008.) |
Theorem | ax-12 1445 | Rederive the original version of the axiom from ax-i12 1441. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | ax12or 1446 | Another name for ax-i12 1441. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2015.) |
Axiom | ax-13 1447 | Axiom of Equality. One of the equality and substitution axioms for a non-logical predicate in our predicate calculus with equality. It substitutes equal variables into the left-hand side of the binary predicate. Axiom scheme C12' in [Megill] p. 448 (p. 16 of the preprint). It is a special case of Axiom B8 (p. 75) of system S2 of [Tarski] p. 77. "Non-logical" means that the predicate is not a primitive of predicate calculus proper but instead is an extension to it. "Binary" means that the predicate has two arguments. In a system of predicate calculus with equality, like ours, equality is not usually considered to be a non-logical predicate. In systems of predicate calculus without equality, it typically would be. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Axiom | ax-14 1448 | Axiom of Equality. One of the equality and substitution axioms for a non-logical predicate in our predicate calculus with equality. It substitutes equal variables into the right-hand side of the binary predicate. Axiom scheme C13' in [Megill] p. 448 (p. 16 of the preprint). It is a special case of Axiom B8 (p. 75) of system S2 of [Tarski] p. 77. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | hbequid 1449 | Bound-variable hypothesis builder for . This theorem tells us that any variable, including , is effectively not free in , even though is technically free according to the traditional definition of free variable. (The proof uses only ax-5 1379, ax-8 1438, ax-12 1445, and ax-gen 1381. This shows that this can be proved without ax-9 1467, even though the theorem equid 1632 cannot be. A shorter proof using ax-9 1467 is obtainable from equid 1632 and hbth 1395.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Jan-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 23-Mar-2014.) |
Theorem | axi12 1450 | Proof that ax-i12 1441 follows from ax-bndl 1442. So that we can track which theorems rely on ax-bndl 1442, proofs should reference ax-i12 1441 rather than this theorem. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 17-Aug-2018.) (New usage is discouraged). (Proof modification is discouraged.) |
Theorem | alequcom 1451 | Commutation law for identical variable specifiers. The antecedent and consequent are true when and are substituted with the same variable. Lemma L12 in [Megill] p. 445 (p. 12 of the preprint). (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | alequcoms 1452 | A commutation rule for identical variable specifiers. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | nalequcoms 1453 | A commutation rule for distinct variable specifiers. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-2002.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 2-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | nfr 1454 | Consequence of the definition of not-free. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 26-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | nfri 1455 | Consequence of the definition of not-free. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | nfrd 1456 | Consequence of the definition of not-free in a context. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | alimd 1457 | Deduction from Theorem 19.20 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | alrimi 1458 | Inference from Theorem 19.21 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | nfd 1459 | Deduce that is not free in in a context. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | nfdh 1460 | Deduce that is not free in in a context. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | nfrimi 1461 | Moving an antecedent outside . (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Mar-2018.) |
Axiom | ax-17 1462* |
Axiom to quantify a variable over a formula in which it does not occur.
Axiom C5 in [Megill] p. 444 (p. 11 of the
preprint). Also appears as
Axiom B6 (p. 75) of system S2 of [Tarski]
p. 77 and Axiom C5-1 of
[Monk2] p. 113.
(Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | a17d 1463* | ax-17 1462 with antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-2013.) |
Theorem | nfv 1464* | If is not present in , then is not free in . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | nfvd 1465* | nfv 1464 with antecedent. Useful in proofs of deduction versions of bound-variable hypothesis builders such as nfimd 1520. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 6-Oct-2016.) |
Axiom | ax-i9 1466 | Axiom of Existence. One of the equality and substitution axioms of predicate calculus with equality. One thing this axiom tells us is that at least one thing exists (although ax-4 1443 and possibly others also tell us that, i.e. they are not valid in the empty domain of a "free logic"). In this form (not requiring that and be distinct) it was used in an axiom system of Tarski (see Axiom B7' in footnote 1 of [KalishMontague] p. 81.) Another name for this theorem is a9e 1629, which has additional remarks. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Theorem | ax-9 1467 | Derive ax-9 1467 from ax-i9 1466, the modified version for intuitionistic logic. Although ax-9 1467 does hold intuistionistically, in intuitionistic logic it is weaker than ax-i9 1466. (Contributed by NM, 3-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | equidqe 1468 | equid 1632 with some quantification and negation without using ax-4 1443 or ax-17 1462. (Contributed by NM, 13-Jan-2011.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 27-Feb-2014.) |
Theorem | ax4sp1 1469 | A special case of ax-4 1443 without using ax-4 1443 or ax-17 1462. (Contributed by NM, 13-Jan-2011.) |
Axiom | ax-ial 1470 | is not free in . One of the axioms of predicate logic. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Axiom | ax-i5r 1471 | Axiom of quantifier collection. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 31-Jan-2015.) |
Theorem | spi 1472 | Inference rule reversing generalization. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | sps 1473 | Generalization of antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | spsd 1474 | Deduction generalizing antecedent. (Contributed by NM, 17-Aug-1994.) |
Theorem | nfbidf 1475 | An equality theorem for effectively not free. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 4-Oct-2016.) |
Theorem | hba1 1476 | is not free in . Example in Appendix in [Megill] p. 450 (p. 19 of the preprint). Also Lemma 22 of [Monk2] p. 114. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | nfa1 1477 | is not free in . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | a5i 1478 | Inference generalizing a consequent. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | nfnf1 1479 | is not free in . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) |
Theorem | hbim 1480 | If is not free in and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by O'Cat, 3-Mar-2008.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 2-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | hbor 1481 | If is not free in and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by NM, 2-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | hban 1482 | If is not free in and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 2-Feb-2015.) |
Theorem | hbbi 1483 | If is not free in and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | hb3or 1484 | If is not free in , , and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 14-Sep-2003.) |
Theorem | hb3an 1485 | If is not free in , , and , it is not free in . (Contributed by NM, 14-Sep-2003.) |
Theorem | hba2 1486 | Lemma 24 of [Monk2] p. 114. (Contributed by NM, 29-May-2008.) |
Theorem | hbia1 1487 | Lemma 23 of [Monk2] p. 114. (Contributed by NM, 29-May-2008.) |
Theorem | 19.3h 1488 | A wff may be quantified with a variable not free in it. Theorem 19.3 of [Margaris] p. 89. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by NM, 21-May-2007.) |
Theorem | 19.3 1489 | A wff may be quantified with a variable not free in it. Theorem 19.3 of [Margaris] p. 89. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 24-Sep-2016.) |
Theorem | 19.16 1490 | Theorem 19.16 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 12-Mar-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.17 1491 | Theorem 19.17 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 12-Mar-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.21h 1492 | Theorem 19.21 of [Margaris] p. 90. The hypothesis can be thought of as " is not free in ." New proofs should use 19.21 1518 instead. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) (New usage is discouraged.) |
Theorem | 19.21bi 1493 | Inference from Theorem 19.21 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.21bbi 1494 | Inference removing double quantifier. (Contributed by NM, 20-Apr-1994.) |
Theorem | 19.27h 1495 | Theorem 19.27 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.27 1496 | Theorem 19.27 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.28h 1497 | Theorem 19.28 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | 19.28 1498 | Theorem 19.28 of [Margaris] p. 90. (Contributed by NM, 5-Aug-1993.) |
Theorem | nfan1 1499 | A closed form of nfan 1500. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 3-Oct-2016.) |
Theorem | nfan 1500 | If is not free in and , it is not free in . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Aug-2016.) (Proof shortened by Wolf Lammen, 13-Jan-2018.) |
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