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Theorem List for Intuitionistic Logic Explorer - 4301-4400   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremordtri2orexmid 4301* Ordinal trichotomy implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 31-Jul-2019.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦 ∈ On (𝑥𝑦𝑦𝑥)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theorem2ordpr 4302 Version of 2on 6121 with the definition of 2𝑜 expanded and expressed in terms of Ord. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2021.)
Ord {∅, {∅}}
 
Theoremontr2exmid 4303* An ordinal transitivity law which implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 17-Sep-2021.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦𝑧 ∈ On ((𝑥𝑦𝑦𝑧) → 𝑥𝑧)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremordtri2or2exmidlem 4304* A set which is 2𝑜 if 𝜑 or if ¬ 𝜑 is an ordinal. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2021.)
{𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ 𝜑} ∈ On
 
Theoremonsucsssucexmid 4305* The converse of onsucsssucr 4288 implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jul-2019.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦 ∈ On (𝑥𝑦 → suc 𝑥 ⊆ suc 𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremonsucelsucexmidlem1 4306* Lemma for onsucelsucexmid 4308. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Aug-2019.)
∅ ∈ {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = ∅ ∨ 𝜑)}
 
Theoremonsucelsucexmidlem 4307* Lemma for onsucelsucexmid 4308. The set {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = ∅ ∨ 𝜑)} appears as 𝐴 in the proof of Theorem 1.3 in [Bauer] p. 483 (see acexmidlema 5581), and similar sets also appear in other proofs that various propositions imply excluded middle, for example in ordtriexmidlem 4298. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Aug-2019.)
{𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = ∅ ∨ 𝜑)} ∈ On
 
Theoremonsucelsucexmid 4308* The converse of onsucelsucr 4287 implies excluded middle. On the other hand, if 𝑦 is constrained to be a natural number, instead of an arbitrary ordinal, then the converse of onsucelsucr 4287 does hold, as seen at nnsucelsuc 6183. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Aug-2019.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦 ∈ On (𝑥𝑦 → suc 𝑥 ∈ suc 𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremordsucunielexmid 4309* The converse of sucunielr 4289 (where 𝐵 is an ordinal) implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Aug-2019.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦 ∈ On (𝑥 𝑦 → suc 𝑥𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
2.5  IZF Set Theory - add the Axiom of Set Induction
 
2.5.1  The ZF Axiom of Foundation would imply Excluded Middle
 
Theoremregexmidlemm 4310* Lemma for regexmid 4313. 𝐴 is inhabited. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Sep-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = {∅} ∨ (𝑥 = ∅ ∧ 𝜑))}       𝑦 𝑦𝐴
 
Theoremregexmidlem1 4311* Lemma for regexmid 4313. If 𝐴 has a minimal element, excluded middle follows. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Sep-2019.)
𝐴 = {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = {∅} ∨ (𝑥 = ∅ ∧ 𝜑))}       (∃𝑦(𝑦𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑧(𝑧𝑦 → ¬ 𝑧𝐴)) → (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑))
 
Theoremreg2exmidlema 4312* Lemma for reg2exmid 4314. If 𝐴 has a minimal element (expressed by ), excluded middle follows. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Oct-2021.)
𝐴 = {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = {∅} ∨ (𝑥 = ∅ ∧ 𝜑))}       (∃𝑢𝐴𝑣𝐴 𝑢𝑣 → (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑))
 
Theoremregexmid 4313* The axiom of foundation implies excluded middle.

By foundation (or regularity), we mean the principle that every inhabited set has an element which is minimal (when arranged by ). The statement of foundation here is taken from Metamath Proof Explorer's ax-reg, and is identical (modulo one unnecessary quantifier) to the statement of foundation in Theorem "Foundation implies instances of EM" of [Crosilla], p. "Set-theoretic principles incompatible with intuitionistic logic".

For this reason, IZF does not adopt foundation as an axiom and instead replaces it with ax-setind 4315. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Sep-2019.)

(∃𝑦 𝑦𝑥 → ∃𝑦(𝑦𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑧(𝑧𝑦 → ¬ 𝑧𝑥)))       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremreg2exmid 4314* If any inhabited set has a minimal element (when expressed by ), excluded middle follows. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 2-Oct-2021.)
𝑧(∃𝑤 𝑤𝑧 → ∃𝑥𝑧𝑦𝑧 𝑥𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
2.5.2  Introduce the Axiom of Set Induction
 
Axiomax-setind 4315* Axiom of -Induction (also known as set induction). An axiom of Intuitionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Axiom 9 of [Crosilla] p. "Axioms of CZF and IZF". This replaces the Axiom of Foundation (also called Regularity) from Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory.

For more on axioms which might be adopted which are incompatible with this axiom (that is, Non-wellfounded Set Theory but in the absence of excluded middle), see Chapter 20 of [AczelRathjen], p. 183. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 19-Oct-2018.)

(∀𝑎(∀𝑦𝑎 [𝑦 / 𝑎]𝜑𝜑) → ∀𝑎𝜑)
 
Theoremsetindel 4316* -Induction in terms of membership in a class. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 22-Oct-2018.)
(∀𝑥(∀𝑦(𝑦𝑥𝑦𝑆) → 𝑥𝑆) → 𝑆 = V)
 
Theoremsetind 4317* Set (epsilon) induction. Theorem 5.22 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 21. (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2003.)
(∀𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐴) → 𝐴 = V)
 
Theoremsetind2 4318 Set (epsilon) induction, stated compactly. Given as a homework problem in 1992 by George Boolos (1940-1996). (Contributed by NM, 17-Sep-2003.)
(𝒫 𝐴𝐴𝐴 = V)
 
Theoremelirr 4319 No class is a member of itself. Exercise 6 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22.

The reason that this theorem is marked as discouraged is a bit subtle. If we wanted to reduce usage of ax-setind 4315, we could redefine Ord 𝐴 (df-iord 4156) to also require E Fr 𝐴 (df-frind 4122) and in that case any theorem related to irreflexivity of ordinals could use ordirr 4320 (which under that definition would presumably not need ax-setind 4315 to prove it). But since ordinals have not yet been defined that way, we cannot rely on the "don't add additional axiom use" feature of the minimizer to get theorems to use ordirr 4320. To encourage ordirr 4320 when possible, we mark this theorem as discouraged.

(Contributed by NM, 7-Aug-1994.) (Proof rewritten by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 26-Nov-2018.) (New usage is discouraged.)

¬ 𝐴𝐴
 
Theoremordirr 4320 Epsilon irreflexivity of ordinals: no ordinal class is a member of itself. Theorem 2.2(i) of [BellMachover] p. 469, generalized to classes. The present proof requires ax-setind 4315. If in the definition of ordinals df-iord 4156, we also required that membership be well-founded on any ordinal (see df-frind 4122), then we could prove ordirr 4320 without ax-setind 4315. (Contributed by NM, 2-Jan-1994.)
(Ord 𝐴 → ¬ 𝐴𝐴)
 
Theoremonirri 4321 An ordinal number is not a member of itself. Theorem 7M(c) of [Enderton] p. 192. (Contributed by NM, 11-Jun-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ On        ¬ 𝐴𝐴
 
Theoremnordeq 4322 A member of an ordinal class is not equal to it. (Contributed by NM, 25-May-1998.)
((Ord 𝐴𝐵𝐴) → 𝐴𝐵)
 
Theoremordn2lp 4323 An ordinal class cannot be an element of one of its members. Variant of first part of Theorem 2.2(vii) of [BellMachover] p. 469. (Contributed by NM, 3-Apr-1994.)
(Ord 𝐴 → ¬ (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐴))
 
Theoremorddisj 4324 An ordinal class and its singleton are disjoint. (Contributed by NM, 19-May-1998.)
(Ord 𝐴 → (𝐴 ∩ {𝐴}) = ∅)
 
Theoremorddif 4325 Ordinal derived from its successor. (Contributed by NM, 20-May-1998.)
(Ord 𝐴𝐴 = (suc 𝐴 ∖ {𝐴}))
 
Theoremelirrv 4326 The membership relation is irreflexive: no set is a member of itself. Theorem 105 of [Suppes] p. 54. (Contributed by NM, 19-Aug-1993.)
¬ 𝑥𝑥
 
Theoremsucprcreg 4327 A class is equal to its successor iff it is a proper class (assuming the Axiom of Set Induction). (Contributed by NM, 9-Jul-2004.)
𝐴 ∈ V ↔ suc 𝐴 = 𝐴)
 
Theoremruv 4328 The Russell class is equal to the universe V. Exercise 5 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 22. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 4-Oct-2008.)
{𝑥𝑥𝑥} = V
 
TheoremruALT 4329 Alternate proof of Russell's Paradox ru 2825, simplified using (indirectly) the Axiom of Set Induction ax-setind 4315. (Contributed by Alan Sare, 4-Oct-2008.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
{𝑥𝑥𝑥} ∉ V
 
Theoremonprc 4330 No set contains all ordinal numbers. Proposition 7.13 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 38. This is also known as the Burali-Forti paradox (remark in [Enderton] p. 194). In 1897, Cesare Burali-Forti noticed that since the "set" of all ordinal numbers is an ordinal class (ordon 4265), it must be both an element of the set of all ordinal numbers yet greater than every such element. ZF set theory resolves this paradox by not allowing the class of all ordinal numbers to be a set (so instead it is a proper class). Here we prove the denial of its existence. (Contributed by NM, 18-May-1994.)
¬ On ∈ V
 
Theoremsucon 4331 The class of all ordinal numbers is its own successor. (Contributed by NM, 12-Sep-2003.)
suc On = On
 
Theoremen2lp 4332 No class has 2-cycle membership loops. Theorem 7X(b) of [Enderton] p. 206. (Contributed by NM, 16-Oct-1996.) (Proof rewritten by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 27-Nov-2018.)
¬ (𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐴)
 
Theorempreleq 4333 Equality of two unordered pairs when one member of each pair contains the other member. (Contributed by NM, 16-Oct-1996.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐵 ∈ V    &   𝐶 ∈ V    &   𝐷 ∈ V       (((𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷) ∧ {𝐴, 𝐵} = {𝐶, 𝐷}) → (𝐴 = 𝐶𝐵 = 𝐷))
 
Theoremopthreg 4334 Theorem for alternate representation of ordered pairs, requiring the Axiom of Set Induction ax-setind 4315 (via the preleq 4333 step). See df-op 3431 for a description of other ordered pair representations. Exercise 34 of [Enderton] p. 207. (Contributed by NM, 16-Oct-1996.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐵 ∈ V    &   𝐶 ∈ V    &   𝐷 ∈ V       ({𝐴, {𝐴, 𝐵}} = {𝐶, {𝐶, 𝐷}} ↔ (𝐴 = 𝐶𝐵 = 𝐷))
 
Theoremsuc11g 4335 The successor operation behaves like a one-to-one function (assuming the Axiom of Set Induction). Similar to Exercise 35 of [Enderton] p. 208 and its converse. (Contributed by NM, 25-Oct-2003.)
((𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑊) → (suc 𝐴 = suc 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))
 
Theoremsuc11 4336 The successor operation behaves like a one-to-one function. Compare Exercise 16 of [Enderton] p. 194. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-2003.)
((𝐴 ∈ On ∧ 𝐵 ∈ On) → (suc 𝐴 = suc 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))
 
Theoremdtruex 4337* At least two sets exist (or in terms of first-order logic, the universe of discourse has two or more objects). Although dtruarb 3989 can also be summarized as "at least two sets exist", the difference is that dtruarb 3989 shows the existence of two sets which are not equal to each other, but this theorem says that given a specific 𝑦, we can construct a set 𝑥 which does not equal it. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Dec-2018.)
𝑥 ¬ 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
Theoremdtru 4338* At least two sets exist (or in terms of first-order logic, the universe of discourse has two or more objects). If we assumed the law of the excluded middle this would be equivalent to dtruex 4337. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Dec-2018.)
¬ ∀𝑥 𝑥 = 𝑦
 
Theoremeunex 4339 Existential uniqueness implies there is a value for which the wff argument is false. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Dec-2018.)
(∃!𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥 ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremordsoexmid 4340 Weak linearity of ordinals implies the law of the excluded middle (that is, decidability of an arbitrary proposition). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Jan-2019.)
E Or On       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremordsuc 4341 The successor of an ordinal class is ordinal. (Contributed by NM, 3-Apr-1995.) (Constructive proof by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 20-Jul-2019.)
(Ord 𝐴 ↔ Ord suc 𝐴)
 
Theoremonsucuni2 4342 A successor ordinal is the successor of its union. (Contributed by NM, 10-Dec-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 27-Aug-2011.)
((𝐴 ∈ On ∧ 𝐴 = suc 𝐵) → suc 𝐴 = 𝐴)
 
Theorem0elsucexmid 4343* If the successor of any ordinal class contains the empty set, excluded middle follows. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Sep-2021.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∅ ∈ suc 𝑥       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremnlimsucg 4344 A successor is not a limit ordinal. (Contributed by NM, 25-Mar-1995.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 27-Aug-2011.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ¬ Lim suc 𝐴)
 
Theoremordpwsucss 4345 The collection of ordinals in the power class of an ordinal is a superset of its successor.

We can think of (𝒫 𝐴 ∩ On) as another possible definition of successor, which would be equivalent to df-suc 4161 given excluded middle. It is an ordinal, and has some successor-like properties. For example, if 𝐴 ∈ On then both suc 𝐴 = 𝐴 (onunisuci 4222) and {𝑥 ∈ On ∣ 𝑥𝐴} = 𝐴 (onuniss2 4291).

Constructively (𝒫 𝐴 ∩ On) and suc 𝐴 cannot be shown to be equivalent (as proved at ordpwsucexmid 4348). (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 21-Jul-2019.)

(Ord 𝐴 → suc 𝐴 ⊆ (𝒫 𝐴 ∩ On))
 
Theoremonnmin 4346 No member of a set of ordinal numbers belongs to its minimum. (Contributed by NM, 2-Feb-1997.) (Constructive proof by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 21-Jul-2019.)
((𝐴 ⊆ On ∧ 𝐵𝐴) → ¬ 𝐵 𝐴)
 
Theoremssnel 4347 Relationship between subset and elementhood. In the context of ordinals this can be seen as an ordering law. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 22-Jul-2019.)
(𝐴𝐵 → ¬ 𝐵𝐴)
 
Theoremordpwsucexmid 4348* The subset in ordpwsucss 4345 cannot be equality. That is, strengthening it to equality implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-Jul-2019.)
𝑥 ∈ On suc 𝑥 = (𝒫 𝑥 ∩ On)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremordtri2or2exmid 4349* Ordinal trichotomy implies excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2021.)
𝑥 ∈ On ∀𝑦 ∈ On (𝑥𝑦𝑦𝑥)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremonintexmid 4350* If the intersection (infimum) of an inhabited class of ordinal numbers belongs to the class, excluded middle follows. The hypothesis would be provable given excluded middle. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro and Jim Kingdon, 29-Aug-2021.)
((𝑦 ⊆ On ∧ ∃𝑥 𝑥𝑦) → 𝑦𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremzfregfr 4351 The epsilon relation is well-founded on any class. (Contributed by NM, 26-Nov-1995.)
E Fr 𝐴
 
Theoremordfr 4352 Epsilon is well-founded on an ordinal class. (Contributed by NM, 22-Apr-1994.)
(Ord 𝐴 → E Fr 𝐴)
 
Theoremordwe 4353 Epsilon well-orders every ordinal. Proposition 7.4 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 36. (Contributed by NM, 3-Apr-1994.)
(Ord 𝐴 → E We 𝐴)
 
Theoremwetriext 4354* A trichotomous well-order is extensional. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 26-Sep-2021.)
(𝜑𝑅 We 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑎𝐴𝑏𝐴 (𝑎𝑅𝑏𝑎 = 𝑏𝑏𝑅𝑎))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑧𝐴 (𝑧𝑅𝐵𝑧𝑅𝐶))       (𝜑𝐵 = 𝐶)
 
Theoremwessep 4355 A subset of a set well-ordered by set membership is well-ordered by set membership. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 30-Sep-2021.)
(( E We 𝐴𝐵𝐴) → E We 𝐵)
 
Theoremreg3exmidlemwe 4356* Lemma for reg3exmid 4357. Our counterexample 𝐴 satisfies We. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Oct-2021.)
𝐴 = {𝑥 ∈ {∅, {∅}} ∣ (𝑥 = {∅} ∨ (𝑥 = ∅ ∧ 𝜑))}        E We 𝐴
 
Theoremreg3exmid 4357* If any inhabited set satisfying df-wetr 4124 for E has a minimal element, excluded middle follows. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Oct-2021.)
(( E We 𝑧 ∧ ∃𝑤 𝑤𝑧) → ∃𝑥𝑧𝑦𝑧 𝑥𝑦)       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremdcextest 4358* If it is decidable whether {𝑥𝜑} is a set, then ¬ 𝜑 is decidable (where 𝑥 does not occur in 𝜑). From this fact, we can deduce (outside the formal system, since we cannot quantify over classes) that if it is decidable whether any class is a set, then "weak excluded middle" (that is, any negated proposition ¬ 𝜑 is decidable) holds. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 3-Jul-2022.)
DECID {𝑥𝜑} ∈ V       DECID ¬ 𝜑
 
2.5.3  Transfinite induction
 
Theoremtfi 4359* The Principle of Transfinite Induction. Theorem 7.17 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 39. This principle states that if 𝐴 is a class of ordinal numbers with the property that every ordinal number included in 𝐴 also belongs to 𝐴, then every ordinal number is in 𝐴.

(Contributed by NM, 18-Feb-2004.)

((𝐴 ⊆ On ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ On (𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐴)) → 𝐴 = On)
 
Theoremtfis 4360* Transfinite Induction Schema. If all ordinal numbers less than a given number 𝑥 have a property (induction hypothesis), then all ordinal numbers have the property (conclusion). Exercise 25 of [Enderton] p. 200. (Contributed by NM, 1-Aug-1994.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 20-Nov-2016.)
(𝑥 ∈ On → (∀𝑦𝑥 [𝑦 / 𝑥]𝜑𝜑))       (𝑥 ∈ On → 𝜑)
 
Theoremtfis2f 4361* Transfinite Induction Schema, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1994.)
𝑥𝜓    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 ∈ On → (∀𝑦𝑥 𝜓𝜑))       (𝑥 ∈ On → 𝜑)
 
Theoremtfis2 4362* Transfinite Induction Schema, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 18-Aug-1994.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 ∈ On → (∀𝑦𝑥 𝜓𝜑))       (𝑥 ∈ On → 𝜑)
 
Theoremtfis3 4363* Transfinite Induction Schema, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by NM, 4-Nov-2003.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑥 ∈ On → (∀𝑦𝑥 𝜓𝜑))       (𝐴 ∈ On → 𝜒)
 
Theoremtfisi 4364* A transfinite induction scheme in "implicit" form where the induction is done on an object derived from the object of interest. (Contributed by Stefan O'Rear, 24-Aug-2015.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ On)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑅 ∈ On ∧ 𝑅𝑇) ∧ ∀𝑦(𝑆𝑅𝜒)) → 𝜓)    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜓𝜒))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜓𝜃))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦𝑅 = 𝑆)    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴𝑅 = 𝑇)       (𝜑𝜃)
 
2.6  IZF Set Theory - add the Axiom of Infinity
 
2.6.1  Introduce the Axiom of Infinity
 
Axiomax-iinf 4365* Axiom of Infinity. Axiom 5 of [Crosilla] p. "Axioms of CZF and IZF". (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 16-Nov-2018.)
𝑥(∅ ∈ 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦(𝑦𝑥 → suc 𝑦𝑥))
 
Theoremzfinf2 4366* A standard version of the Axiom of Infinity, using definitions to abbreviate. Axiom Inf of [BellMachover] p. 472. (Contributed by NM, 30-Aug-1993.)
𝑥(∅ ∈ 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 suc 𝑦𝑥)
 
2.6.2  The natural numbers (i.e. finite ordinals)
 
Syntaxcom 4367 Extend class notation to include the class of natural numbers.
class ω
 
Definitiondf-iom 4368* Define the class of natural numbers as the smallest inductive set, which is valid provided we assume the Axiom of Infinity. Definition 6.3 of [Eisenberg] p. 82.

Note: the natural numbers ω are a subset of the ordinal numbers df-on 4158. Later, when we define complex numbers, we will be able to also define a subset of the complex numbers with analogous properties and operations, but they will be different sets. (Contributed by NM, 6-Aug-1994.) Use its alias dfom3 4369 instead for naming consistency with set.mm. (New usage is discouraged.)

ω = {𝑥 ∣ (∅ ∈ 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 suc 𝑦𝑥)}
 
Theoremdfom3 4369* Alias for df-iom 4368. Use it instead of df-iom 4368 for naming consistency with set.mm. (Contributed by NM, 6-Aug-1994.)
ω = {𝑥 ∣ (∅ ∈ 𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑦𝑥 suc 𝑦𝑥)}
 
Theoremomex 4370 The existence of omega (the class of natural numbers). Axiom 7 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 43. (Contributed by NM, 6-Aug-1994.)
ω ∈ V
 
2.6.3  Peano's postulates
 
Theorempeano1 4371 Zero is a natural number. One of Peano's five postulates for arithmetic. Proposition 7.30(1) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 42. (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1994.)
∅ ∈ ω
 
Theorempeano2 4372 The successor of any natural number is a natural number. One of Peano's five postulates for arithmetic. Proposition 7.30(2) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 42. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-2003.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → suc 𝐴 ∈ ω)
 
Theorempeano3 4373 The successor of any natural number is not zero. One of Peano's five postulates for arithmetic. Proposition 7.30(3) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 42. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-2003.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → suc 𝐴 ≠ ∅)
 
Theorempeano4 4374 Two natural numbers are equal iff their successors are equal, i.e. the successor function is one-to-one. One of Peano's five postulates for arithmetic. Proposition 7.30(4) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 43. (Contributed by NM, 3-Sep-2003.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ω) → (suc 𝐴 = suc 𝐵𝐴 = 𝐵))
 
Theorempeano5 4375* The induction postulate: any class containing zero and closed under the successor operation contains all natural numbers. One of Peano's five postulates for arithmetic. Proposition 7.30(5) of [TakeutiZaring] p. 43. The more traditional statement of mathematical induction as a theorem schema, with a basis and an induction step, is derived from this theorem as theorem findes 4380. (Contributed by NM, 18-Feb-2004.)
((∅ ∈ 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ω (𝑥𝐴 → suc 𝑥𝐴)) → ω ⊆ 𝐴)
 
2.6.4  Finite induction (for finite ordinals)
 
Theoremfind 4376* The Principle of Finite Induction (mathematical induction). Corollary 7.31 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 43. The simpler hypothesis shown here was suggested in an email from "Colin" on 1-Oct-2001. The hypothesis states that 𝐴 is a set of natural numbers, zero belongs to 𝐴, and given any member of 𝐴 the member's successor also belongs to 𝐴. The conclusion is that every natural number is in 𝐴. (Contributed by NM, 22-Feb-2004.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 27-Aug-2011.)
(𝐴 ⊆ ω ∧ ∅ ∈ 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴 suc 𝑥𝐴)       𝐴 = ω
 
Theoremfinds 4377* Principle of Finite Induction (inference schema), using implicit substitutions. The first four hypotheses establish the substitutions we need. The last two are the basis and the induction step. Theorem Schema 22 of [Suppes] p. 136. This is Metamath 100 proof #74. (Contributed by NM, 14-Apr-1995.)
(𝑥 = ∅ → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑥 = suc 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜏))    &   𝜓    &   (𝑦 ∈ ω → (𝜒𝜃))       (𝐴 ∈ ω → 𝜏)
 
Theoremfinds2 4378* Principle of Finite Induction (inference schema), using implicit substitutions. The first three hypotheses establish the substitutions we need. The last two are the basis and the induction step. Theorem Schema 22 of [Suppes] p. 136. (Contributed by NM, 29-Nov-2002.)
(𝑥 = ∅ → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑥 = suc 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   (𝜏𝜓)    &   (𝑦 ∈ ω → (𝜏 → (𝜒𝜃)))       (𝑥 ∈ ω → (𝜏𝜑))
 
Theoremfinds1 4379* Principle of Finite Induction (inference schema), using implicit substitutions. The first three hypotheses establish the substitutions we need. The last two are the basis and the induction step. Theorem Schema 22 of [Suppes] p. 136. (Contributed by NM, 22-Mar-2006.)
(𝑥 = ∅ → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑥 = suc 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜃))    &   𝜓    &   (𝑦 ∈ ω → (𝜒𝜃))       (𝑥 ∈ ω → 𝜑)
 
Theoremfindes 4380 Finite induction with explicit substitution. The first hypothesis is the basis and the second is the induction step. Theorem Schema 22 of [Suppes] p. 136. This is an alternative for Metamath 100 proof #74. (Contributed by Raph Levien, 9-Jul-2003.)
[∅ / 𝑥]𝜑    &   (𝑥 ∈ ω → (𝜑[suc 𝑥 / 𝑥]𝜑))       (𝑥 ∈ ω → 𝜑)
 
2.6.5  The Natural Numbers (continued)
 
Theoremnn0suc 4381* A natural number is either 0 or a successor. Similar theorems for arbitrary sets or real numbers will not be provable (without the law of the excluded middle), but equality of natural numbers is decidable. (Contributed by NM, 27-May-1998.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐴 = ∅ ∨ ∃𝑥 ∈ ω 𝐴 = suc 𝑥))
 
Theoremelnn 4382 A member of a natural number is a natural number. (Contributed by NM, 21-Jun-1998.)
((𝐴𝐵𝐵 ∈ ω) → 𝐴 ∈ ω)
 
Theoremordom 4383 Omega is ordinal. Theorem 7.32 of [TakeutiZaring] p. 43. (Contributed by NM, 18-Oct-1995.)
Ord ω
 
Theoremomelon2 4384 Omega is an ordinal number. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 30-Jan-2013.)
(ω ∈ V → ω ∈ On)
 
Theoremomelon 4385 Omega is an ordinal number. (Contributed by NM, 10-May-1998.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 30-Jan-2013.)
ω ∈ On
 
Theoremnnon 4386 A natural number is an ordinal number. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jun-1994.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → 𝐴 ∈ On)
 
Theoremnnoni 4387 A natural number is an ordinal number. (Contributed by NM, 27-Jun-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ω       𝐴 ∈ On
 
Theoremnnord 4388 A natural number is ordinal. (Contributed by NM, 17-Oct-1995.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → Ord 𝐴)
 
Theoremomsson 4389 Omega is a subset of On. (Contributed by NM, 13-Jun-1994.)
ω ⊆ On
 
Theoremlimom 4390 Omega is a limit ordinal. Theorem 2.8 of [BellMachover] p. 473. (Contributed by NM, 26-Mar-1995.) (Proof rewritten by Jim Kingdon, 5-Jan-2019.)
Lim ω
 
Theorempeano2b 4391 A class belongs to omega iff its successor does. (Contributed by NM, 3-Dec-1995.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω ↔ suc 𝐴 ∈ ω)
 
Theoremnnsuc 4392* A nonzero natural number is a successor. (Contributed by NM, 18-Feb-2004.)
((𝐴 ∈ ω ∧ 𝐴 ≠ ∅) → ∃𝑥 ∈ ω 𝐴 = suc 𝑥)
 
Theoremnndceq0 4393 A natural number is either zero or nonzero. Decidable equality for natural numbers is a special case of the law of the excluded middle which holds in most constructive set theories including ours. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 5-Jan-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → DECID 𝐴 = ∅)
 
Theorem0elnn 4394 A natural number is either the empty set or has the empty set as an element. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 23-Aug-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (𝐴 = ∅ ∨ ∅ ∈ 𝐴))
 
Theoremnn0eln0 4395 A natural number is nonempty iff it contains the empty set. Although in constructive mathematics it is generally more natural to work with inhabited sets and ignore the whole concept of nonempty sets, in the specific case of natural numbers this theorem may be helpful in converting proofs which were written assuming excluded middle. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 28-Aug-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ω → (∅ ∈ 𝐴𝐴 ≠ ∅))
 
Theoremnnregexmid 4396* If inhabited sets of natural numbers always have minimal elements, excluded middle follows. The argument is essentially the same as regexmid 4313 and the larger lesson is that although natural numbers may behave "non-constructively" even in a constructive set theory (for example see nndceq 6191 or nntri3or 6185), sets of natural numbers are a different animal. (Contributed by Jim Kingdon, 6-Sep-2019.)
((𝑥 ⊆ ω ∧ ∃𝑦 𝑦𝑥) → ∃𝑦(𝑦𝑥 ∧ ∀𝑧(𝑧𝑦 → ¬ 𝑧𝑥)))       (𝜑 ∨ ¬ 𝜑)
 
Theoremomsinds 4397* Strong (or "total") induction principle over ω. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Jul-2015.)
(𝑥 = 𝑦 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜒))    &   (𝑥 ∈ ω → (∀𝑦𝑥 𝜓𝜑))       (𝐴 ∈ ω → 𝜒)
 
2.6.6  Relations
 
Syntaxcxp 4398 Extend the definition of a class to include the cross product.
class (𝐴 × 𝐵)
 
Syntaxccnv 4399 Extend the definition of a class to include the converse of a class.
class 𝐴
 
Syntaxcdm 4400 Extend the definition of a class to include the domain of a class.
class dom 𝐴
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