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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 27701-27800   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremfrgrnbnb 27701 If two neighbors 𝑈 and 𝑊 of a vertex 𝑋 have a common neighbor 𝐴 in a friendship graph, then this common neighbor 𝐴 must be the vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 13-Feb-2022.)
𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝑈𝐷𝑊𝐷) ∧ 𝑈𝑊) → (({𝑈, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑊, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸) → 𝐴 = 𝑋))

Theoremfrgrconngr 27702 A friendship graph is connected, see remark 1 in [MertziosUnger] p. 153 (after Proposition 1): "An arbitrary friendship graph has to be connected, ... ". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 1-Apr-2021.)
(𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → 𝐺 ∈ ConnGraph)

Theoremvdgn0frgrv2 27703 A vertex in a friendship graph with more than one vertex cannot have degree 0. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 9-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (1 < (♯‘𝑉) → ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑁) ≠ 0))

Theoremvdgn1frgrv2 27704 Any vertex in a friendship graph does not have degree 1, see remark 2 in [MertziosUnger] p. 153 (after Proposition 1): "... no node v of it [a friendship graph] may have deg(v) = 1.". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (1 < (♯‘𝑉) → ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑁) ≠ 1))

Theoremvdgn1frgrv3 27705* Any vertex in a friendship graph does not have degree 1, see remark 2 in [MertziosUnger] p. 153 (after Proposition 1): "... no node v of it [a friendship graph] may have deg(v) = 1.". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝑉)) → ∀𝑣𝑉 ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑣) ≠ 1)

Theoremvdgfrgrgt2 27706 Any vertex in a friendship graph (with more than one vertex - then, actually, the graph must have at least three vertices, because otherwise, it would not be a friendship graph) has at least degree 2, see remark 3 in [MertziosUnger] p. 153 (after Proposition 1): "It follows that deg(v) >= 2 for every node v of a friendship graph". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 21-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 5-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (1 < (♯‘𝑉) → 2 ≤ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑁)))

16.5.4  Huneke's Proof of the Friendship Theorem

In this section, the friendship theorem friendship 27831 is proven by formalizing Huneke's proof, see [Huneke] pp. 1-2. The three claims (see frgrncvvdeq 27717, frgrregorufr 27733 and frrusgrord0 27748) and additional statements (numbered in the order of their occurence in the paper) in Huneke's proof are cited in the corresponding theorems.

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem1 27707 Lemma 1 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 8-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑𝑋𝑁)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem2 27708* Lemma 2 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. In a friendship graph, for each neighbor of a vertex there is exactly one neighbor of another vertex so that there is an edge between these two neighbors. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       ((𝜑𝑥𝐷) → ∃!𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem3 27709* Lemma 3 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. The unique neighbor of a vertex (expressed by a restricted iota) is the intersection of the corresponding neighborhoods. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       ((𝜑𝑥𝐷) → {(𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸)} = ((𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑥) ∩ 𝑁))

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem4 27710* Lemma 4 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. The mapping of neighbors to neighbors is a function. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑𝐴:𝐷𝑁)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem5 27711* Lemma 5 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. The mapping of neighbors to neighbors applied on a vertex is the intersection of the corresponding neighborhoods. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       ((𝜑𝑥𝐷) → {(𝐴𝑥)} = ((𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑥) ∩ 𝑁))

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem6 27712* Lemma 6 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       ((𝜑𝑥𝐷) → {𝑥, (𝐴𝑥)} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem7 27713* Lemma 7 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. This corresponds to statement 1 in [Huneke] p. 1: "This common neighbor cannot be x, as x and y are not adjacent.". This is only an observation, which is not required to proof the friendship theorem. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝐷 (𝐴𝑥) ≠ 𝑋)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem8 27714* Lemma 8 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. This corresponds to statement 2 in [Huneke] p. 1: "The map is one-to-one since z in N(x) is uniquely determined as the common neighbor of x and a(x)". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 23-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 30-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑𝐴:𝐷1-1𝑁)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem9 27715* Lemma 9 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. This corresponds to statement 3 in [Huneke] p. 1: "By symmetry the map is onto". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑𝐴:𝐷onto𝑁)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeqlem10 27716* Lemma 10 for frgrncvvdeq 27717. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)    &   𝑁 = (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )    &   𝐴 = (𝑥𝐷 ↦ (𝑦𝑁 {𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸))       (𝜑𝐴:𝐷1-1-onto𝑁)

Theoremfrgrncvvdeq 27717* In a friendship graph, two vertices which are not connected by an edge have the same degree. This corresponds to claim 1 in [Huneke] p. 1: "If x,y are elements of (the friendship graph) G and are not adjacent, then they have the same degree (i.e., the same number of adjacent vertices).". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑥𝑉𝑦 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑥})(𝑦 ∉ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑥) → (𝐷𝑥) = (𝐷𝑦)))

Theoremfrgrwopreglem4a 27718 In a friendship graph any two vertices with different degrees are connected. Alternate version of frgrwopreglem4 27723 without a fixed degree and without using the sets 𝐴 and 𝐵. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉) ∧ (𝐷𝑋) ≠ (𝐷𝑌)) → {𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopreglem5a 27719 If a friendship graph has two vertices with the same degree and two other vertices with different degrees, then there is a 4-cycle in the graph. Alternate version of frgrwopreglem5 27729 without a fixed degree and without using the sets 𝐴 and 𝐵. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ ((𝐴𝑉𝑋𝑉) ∧ (𝐵𝑉𝑌𝑉)) ∧ ((𝐷𝐴) = (𝐷𝑋) ∧ (𝐷𝐴) ≠ (𝐷𝐵) ∧ (𝐷𝑋) ≠ (𝐷𝑌))) → (({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝑋} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑌, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgrwopreglem1 27720* Lemma 1 for frgrwopreg 27731: the classes 𝐴 and 𝐵 are sets. The definition of 𝐴 and 𝐵 corresponds to definition 3 in [Huneke] p. 2: "Let A be the set of all vertices of degree k, let B be the set of all vertices of degree different from k, ..." (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)       (𝐴 ∈ V ∧ 𝐵 ∈ V)

Theoremfrgrwopreglem2 27721* Lemma 2 for frgrwopreg 27731. If the set 𝐴 of vertices of degree 𝐾 is not empty in a friendship graph with at least two vertices, then 𝐾 must be greater than 1 . This is only an observation, which is not required for the proof the friendship theorem. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝑉) ∧ 𝐴 ≠ ∅) → 2 ≤ 𝐾)

Theoremfrgrwopreglem3 27722* Lemma 3 for frgrwopreg 27731. The vertices in the sets 𝐴 and 𝐵 have different degrees. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)       ((𝑋𝐴𝑌𝐵) → (𝐷𝑋) ≠ (𝐷𝑌))

Theoremfrgrwopreglem4 27723* Lemma 4 for frgrwopreg 27731. In a friendship graph each vertex with degree 𝐾 is connected with any vertex with degree other than 𝐾. This corresponds to statement 4 in [Huneke] p. 2: "By the first claim, every vertex in A is adjacent to every vertex in B.". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑎𝐴𝑏𝐵 {𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopregasn 27724* According to statement 5 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If A ... is a singleton, then that singleton is a universal friend". This version of frgrwopreg1 27726 is stricter (claiming that the singleton itself is a universal friend instead of claiming the existence of a universal friend only) and therefore closer to Huneke's statement. This strict variant, however, is not required for the proof of the friendship theorem. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝐴 = {𝑋}) → ∀𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑋}){𝑋, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopregbsn 27725* According to statement 5 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If ... B is a singleton, then that singleton is a universal friend". This version of frgrwopreg2 27727 is stricter (claiming that the singleton itself is a universal friend instead of claiming the existence of a universal friend only) and therefore closer to Huneke's statement. This strict variant, however, is not required for the proof of the friendship theorem. (Contributed by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝐵 = {𝑋}) → ∀𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑋}){𝑋, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopreg1 27726* According to statement 5 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If A ... is a singleton, then that singleton is a universal friend". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (♯‘𝐴) = 1) → ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopreg2 27727* According to statement 5 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If ... B is a singleton, then that singleton is a universal friend". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (♯‘𝐵) = 1) → ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremfrgrwopreglem5lem 27728* Lemma for frgrwopreglem5 27729. (Contributed by AV, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝑎𝐴𝑥𝐴) ∧ (𝑏𝐵𝑦𝐵)) → ((𝐷𝑎) = (𝐷𝑥) ∧ (𝐷𝑎) ≠ (𝐷𝑏) ∧ (𝐷𝑥) ≠ (𝐷𝑦)))

Theoremfrgrwopreglem5 27729* Lemma 5 for frgrwopreg 27731. If 𝐴 as well as 𝐵 contain at least two vertices, there is a 4-cycle in a friendship graph. This corresponds to statement 6 in [Huneke] p. 2: "... otherwise, there are two different vertices in A, and they have two common neighbors in B, ...". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Dec-2017.) (Proof shortened by AV, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝐴) ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝐵)) → ∃𝑎𝐴𝑥𝐴𝑏𝐵𝑦𝐵 ((𝑎𝑥𝑏𝑦) ∧ ({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑥} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑦, 𝑎} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgrwopreglem5ALT 27730* Alternate direct proof of frgrwopreglem5 27729, not using frgrwopreglem5a 27719. This proof would be even a little bit shorter than the proof of frgrwopreglem5 27729 without using frgrwopreglem5lem 27728. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 3-Jan-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 5-Feb-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝐴) ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝐵)) → ∃𝑎𝐴𝑥𝐴𝑏𝐵𝑦𝐵 ((𝑎𝑥𝑏𝑦) ∧ ({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑥} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝑥, 𝑦} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑦, 𝑎} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgrwopreg 27731* In a friendship graph there are either no vertices (𝐴 = ∅) or exactly one vertex ((♯‘𝐴) = 1) having degree 𝐾, or all (𝐵 = ∅) or all except one vertices ((♯‘𝐵) = 1) have degree 𝐾. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 31-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)    &   𝐴 = {𝑥𝑉 ∣ (𝐷𝑥) = 𝐾}    &   𝐵 = (𝑉𝐴)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → (((♯‘𝐴) = 1 ∨ 𝐴 = ∅) ∨ ((♯‘𝐵) = 1 ∨ 𝐵 = ∅)))

Theoremfrgrregorufr0 27732* In a friendship graph there are either no vertices having degree 𝐾, or all vertices have degree 𝐾 for any (nonnegative integer) 𝐾, unless there is a universal friend. This corresponds to claim 2 in [Huneke] p. 2: "... all vertices have degree k, unless there is a universal friend." (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.) (Revised by AV, 11-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → (∀𝑣𝑉 (𝐷𝑣) = 𝐾 ∨ ∀𝑣𝑉 (𝐷𝑣) ≠ 𝐾 ∨ ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremfrgrregorufr 27733* If there is a vertex having degree 𝐾 for each (nonnegative integer) 𝐾 in a friendship graph, then either all vertices have degree 𝐾 or there is a universal friend. This corresponds to claim 2 in [Huneke] p. 2: "Suppose there is a vertex of degree k > 1. ... all vertices have degree k, unless there is a universal friend. ... It follows that G is k-regular, i.e., the degree of every vertex is k". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 1-Jan-2018.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)    &   𝐷 = (VtxDeg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → (∃𝑎𝑉 (𝐷𝑎) = 𝐾 → (∀𝑣𝑉 (𝐷𝑣) = 𝐾 ∨ ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgrregorufrg 27734* If there is a vertex having degree 𝑘 for each nonnegative integer 𝑘 in a friendship graph, then there is a universal friend. This corresponds to claim 2 in [Huneke] p. 2: "Suppose there is a vertex of degree k > 1. ... all vertices have degree k, unless there is a universal friend. ... It follows that G is k-regular, i.e., the degree of every vertex is k". Variant of frgrregorufr 27733 with generalization. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 (∃𝑎𝑉 ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑎) = 𝑘 → (𝐺RegUSGraph𝑘 ∨ ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgr2wwlkeu 27735* For two different vertices in a friendship graph, there is exactly one third vertex being the middle vertex of a (simple) path/walk of length 2 between the two vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → ∃!𝑐𝑉 ⟨“𝐴𝑐𝐵”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵))

Theoremfrgr2wwlkn0 27736 In a friendship graph, there is always a path/walk of length 2 between two different vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵) ≠ ∅)

Theoremfrgr2wwlk1 27737 In a friendship graph, there is exactly one walk of length 2 between two different vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 13-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (♯‘(𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵)) = 1)

Theoremfrgr2wsp1 27738 In a friendship graph, there is exactly one simple path of length 2 between two different vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 3-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 13-May-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐵𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → (♯‘(𝐴(2 WSPathsNOn 𝐺)𝐵)) = 1)

Theoremfrgr2wwlkeqm 27739 If there is a (simple) path of length 2 from one vertex to another vertex and a (simple) path of length 2 from the other vertex back to the first vertex in a friendship graph, then the middle vertex is the same. This is only an observation, which is not required to proof the friendship theorem. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 13-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 7-Jan-2022.)
((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝐴𝐵 ∧ (𝑃𝑋𝑄𝑌)) → ((⟨“𝐴𝑃𝐵”⟩ ∈ (𝐴(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐵) ∧ ⟨“𝐵𝑄𝐴”⟩ ∈ (𝐵(2 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝐴)) → 𝑄 = 𝑃))

Theoremfrgrhash2wsp 27740 The number of simple paths of length 2 is n*(n-1) in a friendship graph with n vertices. This corresponds to the proof of claim 3 in [Huneke] p. 2: "... the paths of length two in G: by assumption there are ( n 2 ) such paths.". However, Huneke counts undirected paths, so obtains the result ((𝑛C2) = ((𝑛 · (𝑛 − 1)) / 2)), whereas we count directed paths, obtaining twice that number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 10-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin) → (♯‘(2 WSPathsN 𝐺)) = ((♯‘𝑉) · ((♯‘𝑉) − 1)))

Theoremfusgreg2wsplem 27741* Lemma for fusgreg2wsp 27744 and related theorems. (Contributed by AV, 8-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑀 = (𝑎𝑉 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘1) = 𝑎})       (𝑁𝑉 → (𝑝 ∈ (𝑀𝑁) ↔ (𝑝 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∧ (𝑝‘1) = 𝑁)))

Theoremfusgr2wsp2nb 27742* The set of paths of length 2 with a given vertex in the middle for a finite simple graph is the union of all paths of length 2 from one neighbor to another neighbor of this vertex via this vertex. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 9-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 16-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑀 = (𝑎𝑉 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘1) = 𝑎})       ((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁𝑉) → (𝑀𝑁) = 𝑥 ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑁) 𝑦 ∈ ((𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑁) ∖ {𝑥}){⟨“𝑥𝑁𝑦”⟩})

Theoremfusgreghash2wspv 27743* According to statement 7 in [Huneke] p. 2: "For each vertex v, there are exactly ( k 2 ) paths with length two having v in the middle, ..." in a finite k-regular graph. For directed simple paths of length 2 represented by length 3 strings, we have again k*(k-1) such paths, see also comment of frgrhash2wsp 27740. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 17-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑀 = (𝑎𝑉 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘1) = 𝑎})       (𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph → ∀𝑣𝑉 (((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑣) = 𝐾 → (♯‘(𝑀𝑣)) = (𝐾 · (𝐾 − 1))))

Theoremfusgreg2wsp 27744* In a finite simple graph, the set of all paths of length 2 is the union of all the paths of length 2 over the vertices which are in the middle of such a path. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 10-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑀 = (𝑎𝑉 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘1) = 𝑎})       (𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph → (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) = 𝑥𝑉 (𝑀𝑥))

Theorem2wspmdisj 27745* The sets of paths of length 2 with a given vertex in the middle are distinct for different vertices in the middle. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 18-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 10-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑀 = (𝑎𝑉 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (2 WSPathsN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘1) = 𝑎})       Disj 𝑥𝑉 (𝑀𝑥)

Theoremfusgreghash2wsp 27746* In a finite k-regular graph with N vertices there are N times "k choose 2" paths with length 2, according to statement 8 in [Huneke] p. 2: "... giving n * ( k 2 ) total paths of length two.", if the direction of traversing the path is not respected. For simple paths of length 2 represented by length 3 strings, however, we have again n*k*(k-1) such paths. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 19-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑉 ≠ ∅) → (∀𝑣𝑉 ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑣) = 𝐾 → (♯‘(2 WSPathsN 𝐺)) = ((♯‘𝑉) · (𝐾 · (𝐾 − 1)))))

Theoremfrrusgrord0lem 27747* Lemma for frrusgrord0 27748. (Contributed by AV, 12-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑉 ≠ ∅) ∧ ∀𝑣𝑉 ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑣) = 𝐾) → (𝐾 ∈ ℂ ∧ (♯‘𝑉) ∈ ℂ ∧ (♯‘𝑉) ≠ 0))

Theoremfrrusgrord0 27748* If a nonempty finite friendship graph is k-regular, its order is k(k-1)+1. This corresponds to claim 3 in [Huneke] p. 2: "Next we claim that the number n of vertices in G is exactly k(k-1)+1.". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑉 ≠ ∅) → (∀𝑣𝑉 ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑣) = 𝐾 → (♯‘𝑉) = ((𝐾 · (𝐾 − 1)) + 1)))

Theoremfrrusgrord 27749 If a nonempty finite friendship graph is k-regular, its order is k(k-1)+1. This corresponds to claim 3 in [Huneke] p. 2: "Next we claim that the number n of vertices in G is exactly k(k-1)+1.". Variant of frrusgrord0 27748, using the definition RegUSGraph (df-rusgr 26906). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Aug-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 12-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝑉 ≠ ∅) → ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾) → (♯‘𝑉) = ((𝐾 · (𝐾 − 1)) + 1)))

Theoremnumclwwlk2lem1lem 27750 Lemma for numclwwlk2lem1 27804. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 3-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 27-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 15-Mar-2022.)
((𝑋 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (lastS‘𝑊) ≠ (𝑊‘0)) → (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩)‘0) = (𝑊‘0) ∧ ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩)‘𝑁) ≠ (𝑊‘0)))

Theorem2clwwlklem 27751 Lemma for clwwnonrepclwwnon 27755 and extwwlkfab 27765. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2022.)
((𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((𝑊 prefix (𝑁 − 2))‘0) = (𝑊‘0))

Theorem2clwwlklemOLD 27752 Obsolete version of 2clwwlklem 27751 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((𝑊 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩)‘0) = (𝑊‘0))

Theoremclwwnrepclwwn 27753 If the initial vertex of a closed walk occurs another time in the walk, the walk starts with a closed walk. Notice that 3 ≤ 𝑁 is required, because for 𝑁 = 2, (𝑤 prefix (𝑁 − 2)) = (𝑤 prefix 0) = ∅, but (and anything else) is not a representation of an empty closed walk as word, see clwwlkn0 27417. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2022.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = (𝑊‘0)) → (𝑊 prefix (𝑁 − 2)) ∈ ((𝑁 − 2) ClWWalksN 𝐺))

TheoremclwwnrepclwwnOLD 27754 Obsolete version of clwwnrepclwwn 27753 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 13-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 10-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = (𝑊‘0)) → (𝑊 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩) ∈ ((𝑁 − 2) ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwnonrepclwwnon 27755 If the initial vertex of a closed walk occurs another time in the walk, the walk starts with a closed walk on this vertex. See also the remarks in clwwnrepclwwn 27753. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2022.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2022.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋) → (𝑊 prefix (𝑁 − 2)) ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2)))

TheoremclwwnonrepclwwnonOLD 27756 Obsolete version of clwwnonrepclwwnon 27755 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2022.) (Revised by AV, 10-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋) → (𝑊 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩) ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2)))

Theorem2clwwlk2clwwlklem 27757 Lemma for 2clwwlk2clwwlk 27761. (Contributed by AV, 27-Apr-2022.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = (𝑊‘0)) → (𝑊 substr ⟨(𝑁 − 2), 𝑁⟩) ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)2))

Theorem2clwwlk 27758* Value of operation 𝐶, mapping a vertex v and an integer n greater than 1 to the "closed n-walks v(0) ... v(n-2) v(n-1) v(n) from v = v(0) = v(n) with v(n-2) = v" according to definition 6 in [Huneke] p. 2. Such closed walks are "double loops" consisting of a closed (n-2)-walk v = v(0) ... v(n-2) = v and a closed 2-walk v = v(n-2) v(n-1) v(n) = v, see 2clwwlk2clwwlk 27761. (𝑋𝐶𝑁) is called the "set of double loops of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 " in the following. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 14-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 20-Apr-2022.)
𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})       ((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝑋𝐶𝑁) = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋})

Theorem2clwwlk2 27759* The set (𝑋𝐶2) of double loops of length 2 on a vertex 𝑋 is equal to the set of closed walks with length 2 on 𝑋. Considered as "double loops", the first of the two closed walks/loops is degenerated, i.e., has length 0. (Contributed by AV, 18-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 20-Apr-2022.)
𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})       (𝑋𝑉 → (𝑋𝐶2) = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)2))

Theorem2clwwlkel 27760* Characterization of an element of the value of operation 𝐶, i.e., of a word being a double loop of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 20-Apr-2022.)
𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})       ((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)))

Theorem2clwwlk2clwwlk 27761* An element of the value of operation 𝐶, i.e., a word being a double loop of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋, is composed of two closed walks. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Nov-2022.)
𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})       ((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↔ ∃𝑎 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))∃𝑏 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)2)𝑊 = (𝑎 ++ 𝑏)))

Theorem2clwwlk2clwwlkOLD 27762* Obsolete proof of 2clwwlk2clwwlk 27761 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 28-Apr-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})       ((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↔ ∃𝑎 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))∃𝑏 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)2)𝑊 = (𝑎 ++ 𝑏)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2foalem 27763 Lemma for numclwwlk1lem2foa 27769. (Contributed by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
(((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = (𝑁 − 2)) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) prefix (𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑊 ∧ (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘(𝑁 − 1)) = 𝑌 ∧ (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2foalemOLD 27764 Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2foalem 27763 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 29-May-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = (𝑁 − 2)) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩) = 𝑊 ∧ (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘(𝑁 − 1)) = 𝑌 ∧ (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋))

Theoremextwwlkfab 27765* The set (𝑋𝐶𝑁) of double loops of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 can be constructed from the set 𝐹 of closed walks on 𝑋 with length smaller by 2 than the fixed length by appending a neighbor of the last vertex and afterwards the last vertex (which is the first vertex) itself ("walking forth and back" from the last vertex). 3 ≤ 𝑁 is required since for 𝑁 = 2: 𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)0) = ∅ (see clwwlk0on0 27494 stating that a closed walk of length 0 is not represented as word), which would result in an empty set on the right hand side, but (𝑋𝐶𝑁) needs not be empty, see 2clwwlk2 27759. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑋𝐶𝑁) = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤 prefix (𝑁 − 2)) ∈ 𝐹 ∧ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 1)) ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋) ∧ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)})

TheoremextwwlkfabOLD 27766* Obsolete version of extwwlkfab 27765 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 5-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 10-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑋𝐶𝑁) = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((𝑤 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩) ∈ 𝐹 ∧ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 1)) ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋) ∧ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)})

Theoremextwwlkfabel 27767* Characterization of an element of the set (𝑋𝐶𝑁), i.e., a double loop of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 with a construction from the set 𝐹 of closed walks on 𝑋 with length smaller by 2 than the fixed length by appending a neighbor of the last vertex and afterwards the last vertex (which is the first vertex) itself ("walking forth and back" from the last vertex). (Contributed by AV, 22-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ ((𝑊 prefix (𝑁 − 2)) ∈ 𝐹 ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 1)) ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋))))

TheoremextwwlkfabelOLD 27768* Obsolete version of extwwlkfabel 27767 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 22-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 5-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ ((𝑊 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩) ∈ 𝐹 ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 1)) ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋) ∧ (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋))))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2foa 27769* Going forth and back from the end of a (closed) walk: 𝑊 represents the closed walk p0, ..., p(n-2), p0 = p(n-2). With 𝑋 = p(n-2) = p0 and 𝑌 = p(n-1), ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) represents the closed walk p0, ..., p(n-2), p(n-1), pn = p0 which is a double loop of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 5-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((𝑊𝐹𝑌 ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)) → ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2foaOLD 27770* Obsolete proof of numclwwlk1lem2foa 27769 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 22-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 5-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 28-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ((𝑊𝐹𝑌 ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)) → ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2f 27771* 𝑇 is a function, mapping a double loop of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 to the ordered pair of the first loop and the successor of 𝑋 in the second loop, which must be a neighbor of 𝑋. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)⟶(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2fv 27772* Value of the function 𝑇. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) → (𝑇𝑊) = ⟨(𝑊 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2f1 27773* 𝑇 is a 1-1 function. (Contributed by AV, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–1-1→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2fo 27774* 𝑇 is an onto function. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 13-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 31-Oct-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–onto→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2f1o 27775* 𝑇 is a 1-1 onto function. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 prefix (𝑁 − 2)), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–1-1-onto→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2fOLD 27776* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2f 27771 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)⟶(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2fvOLD 27777* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2fv 27772 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) → (𝑇𝑊) = ⟨(𝑊 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2f1OLD 27778* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2f1 27773 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–1-1→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2foOLD 27779* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2f1 27773 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 20-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 13-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–onto→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2f1oOLD 27780* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2f1o 27775 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))    &   𝑇 = (𝑢 ∈ (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ↦ ⟨(𝑢 substr ⟨0, (𝑁 − 2)⟩), (𝑢‘(𝑁 − 1))⟩)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → 𝑇:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–1-1-onto→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2 27781* The set of double loops of length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 and the set of closed walks of length less by 2 on 𝑋 combined with the neighbors of 𝑋 are equinumerous. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 31-Jul-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ≈ (𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2OLD 27782* Obsolete proof of numclwwlk1lem2 27781 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 31-Jul-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → (𝑋𝐶𝑁) ≈ (𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1lem2OLDOLD 27783* Obsolete version of numclwwlk1lem2 27781 as of 31-Jul-2022. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) → ∃𝑓 𝑓:(𝑋𝐶𝑁)–1-1-onto→(𝐹 × (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑋)))

Theoremnumclwwlk1 27784* Statement 9 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If n > 1, then the number of closed n-walks v(0) ... v(n-2) v(n-1) v(n) from v = v(0) = v(n) with v(n-2) = v is kf(n-2)". Since 𝐺 is k-regular, the vertex v(n-2) = v has k neighbors v(n-1), so there are k walks from v(n-2) = v to v(n) = v (via each of v's neighbors) completing each of the f(n-2) walks from v=v(0) to v(n-2)=v. This theorem holds even for k=0, but not for n=2, since 𝐹 = ∅, but (𝑋𝐶2), the set of closed walks with length 2 on 𝑋, see 2clwwlk2 27759, needs not be in this case. This is because of the special definition of 𝐹 and the usage of words to represent (closed) walks, and does not contradict Huneke's statement, which would read "the number of closed 2-walks v(0) v(1) v(2) from v = v(0) = v(2) ... is kf(0)", where f(0)=1 is the number of empty closed walks on v, see numclwlk1lem1 27797. If the general representation of (closed) walk is used, Huneke's statement can be proven even for n = 2, see numclwlk1 27799. This case, however, is not required to prove the friendship theorem. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 31-Jul-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) = 𝑣})    &   𝐹 = (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))       (((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3))) → (♯‘(𝑋𝐶𝑁)) = (𝐾 · (♯‘𝐹)))

Theoremclwwlknonclwlknonf1o 27785* 𝐹 is a bijection between the two representations of closed walks of a fixed positive length on a fixed vertex. (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 7-Aug-2022.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝑊 ↦ ((2nd𝑐) prefix (♯‘(1st𝑐))))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → 𝐹:𝑊1-1-onto→(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

Theoremclwwlknonclwlknonf1oOLD 27786* Obsolete version of clwwlknonclwlknonf1o 27785 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 7-Aug-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝑊 ↦ ((2nd𝑐) substr ⟨0, (♯‘(1st𝑐))⟩))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → 𝐹:𝑊1-1-onto→(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

Theoremclwwlknonclwlknonen 27787* The sets of the two representations of closed walks of a fixed positive length on a fixed vertex are equinumerous. (Contributed by AV, 27-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Nov-2022.)
((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)} ≈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

TheoremclwwlknonclwlknonenOLD 27788* Obsolete proof of clwwlknonclwlknonen 27787 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 27-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 8-Aug-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)} ≈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

Theoremdlwwlknondlwlknonf1olem1 27789 Lemma 1 for dlwwlknondlwlknonf1o 27791. (Contributed by AV, 29-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
(((♯‘(1st𝑐)) = 𝑁𝑐 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (((2nd𝑐) prefix (♯‘(1st𝑐)))‘(𝑁 − 2)) = ((2nd𝑐)‘(𝑁 − 2)))

Theoremdlwwlknonclwlknonf1olem1OLD 27790 Obsolete version of dlwwlknondlwlknonf1olem1 27789 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 29-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((♯‘(1st𝑐)) = 𝑁𝑐 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (((2nd𝑐) substr ⟨0, (♯‘(1st𝑐))⟩)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = ((2nd𝑐)‘(𝑁 − 2)))

Theoremdlwwlknondlwlknonf1o 27791* 𝐹 is a bijection between the two representations of double loops of a fixed positive length on a fixed vertex. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝑊 ↦ ((2nd𝑐) prefix (♯‘(1st𝑐))))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → 𝐹:𝑊1-1-onto𝐷)

Theoremdlwwlknondlwlknonf1oOLD 27792* Obsolete version of dlwwlknondlwlknonf1o 27791 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 8-Aug-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝑊 ↦ ((2nd𝑐) substr ⟨0, (♯‘(1st𝑐))⟩))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → 𝐹:𝑊1-1-onto𝐷)

Theoremdlwwlknondlwlknonen 27793* The sets of the two representations of double loops of a fixed length on a fixed vertex are equinumerous. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋}       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → 𝑊𝐷)

TheoremdlwwlknondlwlknonenOLD 27794* Obsolete proof of dlwwlknondlwlknonen 27793 as of 12-Oct-2022. (Contributed by AV, 30-May-2022.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝑊 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋}       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → 𝑊𝐷)

Theoremwlkl0 27795* There is exactly one walk of length 0 on each vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by AV, 4-Jun-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑋𝑉 → {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 0 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)} = {⟨∅, {⟨0, 𝑋⟩}⟩})

Theoremclwlknon2num 27796* There are k walks of length 2 on each vertex 𝑋 in a k-regular simple graph. Variant of clwwlknon2num 27507, using the general definition of walks instead of walks as words. (Contributed by AV, 4-Jun-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾𝑋𝑉) → (♯‘{𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 2 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}) = 𝐾)

Theoremnumclwlk1lem1 27797* Lemma 1 for numclwlk1 27799 (Statement 9 in [Huneke] p. 2 for n=2): "the number of closed 2-walks v(0) v(1) v(2) from v = v(0) = v(2) ... is kf(0)". (Contributed by AV, 23-May-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐹 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = (𝑁 − 2) ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}       (((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 = 2)) → (♯‘𝐶) = (𝐾 · (♯‘𝐹)))

Theoremnumclwlk1lem2 27798* Lemma 2 for numclwlk1 27799 (Statement 9 in [Huneke] p. 2 for n>2). This theorem corresponds to numclwwlk1 27784, using the general definition of walks instead of walks as words. (Contributed by AV, 4-Jun-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐹 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = (𝑁 − 2) ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}       (((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3))) → (♯‘𝐶) = (𝐾 · (♯‘𝐹)))

Theoremnumclwlk1 27799* Statement 9 in [Huneke] p. 2: "If n > 1, then the number of closed n-walks v(0) ... v(n-2) v(n-1) v(n) from v = v(0) = v(n) with v(n-2) = v is kf(n-2)". Since 𝐺 is k-regular, the vertex v(n-2) = v has k neighbors v(n-1), so there are k walks from v(n-2) = v to v(n) = v (via each of v's neighbors) completing each of the f(n-2) walks from v=v(0) to v(n-2)=v. This theorem holds even for k=0. (Contributed by AV, 23-May-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋 ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘(𝑁 − 2)) = 𝑋)}    &   𝐹 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ ((♯‘(1st𝑤)) = (𝑁 − 2) ∧ ((2nd𝑤)‘0) = 𝑋)}       (((𝑉 ∈ Fin ∧ 𝐺RegUSGraph𝐾) ∧ (𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2))) → (♯‘𝐶) = (𝐾 · (♯‘𝐹)))

Theoremnumclwwlkovh0 27800* Value of operation 𝐻, mapping a vertex 𝑣 and an integer 𝑛 greater than 1 to the "closed n-walks v(0) ... v(n-2) v(n-1) v(n) from v = v(0) = v(n) ... with v(n-2) =/= v" according to definition 7 in [Huneke] p. 2. (Contributed by AV, 1-May-2022.)
𝐻 = (𝑣𝑉, 𝑛 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑛) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑛 − 2)) ≠ 𝑣})       ((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝑋𝐻𝑁) = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∣ (𝑤‘(𝑁 − 2)) ≠ 𝑋})

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206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42900 430 42901-43000 431 43001-43100 432 43101-43200 433 43201-43300 434 43301-43400 435 43401-43500 436 43501-43600 437 43601-43657
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