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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 42001-42100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Theoremlimsupequzmptlem 42001* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)    &   𝐾 = if(𝑀𝑁, 𝑁, 𝑀)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))
 
Theoremlimsupequzmpt 42002* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))
 
Theoremlimsupre2mpt 42003* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is smaller than the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually larger than the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝑦 < 𝐵) ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝐵 < 𝑦))))
 
Theoremlimsupequzmptf 42004* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑗𝐵    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))
 
Theoremlimsupre3lem 42005* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))))
 
Theoremlimsupre3 42006* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))))
 
Theoremlimsupre3mpt 42007* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝑦𝐵) ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝐵𝑦))))
 
Theoremlimsupre3uzlem 42008* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))
 
Theoremlimsupre3uz 42009* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))
 
Theoremlimsupreuz 42010* Given a function on the reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))
 
Theoremlimsupvaluz2 42011* The superior limit, when the domain of a real-valued function is a set of upper integers, and the superior limit is real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = inf(ran (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)), ℝ*, < )), ℝ, < ))
 
Theoremlimsupreuzmpt 42012* Given a function on the reals, defined on a set of upper integers, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥𝐵 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝐵𝑥)))
 
Theoremsupcnvlimsup 42013* If a function on a set of upper integers has a real superior limit, the supremum of the rightmost parts of the function, converges to that superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)), ℝ*, < )) ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremsupcnvlimsupmpt 42014* If a function on a set of upper integers has a real superior limit, the supremum of the rightmost parts of the function, converges to that superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘) ↦ 𝐵), ℝ*, < )) ⇝ (lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)))
 
Theorem0cnv 42015 If (/) is a complex number, then it converges to itself. (see 0ncn 10549 and its comment ; see also the comment in climlimsupcex 42042) (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(∅ ∈ ℂ → ∅ ⇝ ∅)
 
Theoremclimuzlem 42016* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)) < 𝑥)))
 
Theoremclimuz 42017* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)) < 𝑥)))
 
Theoremlmbr3v 42018* Express the binary relation "sequence 𝐹 converges to point 𝑃 " in a metric space using an arbitrary upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝐽 ∈ (TopOn‘𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹 ∈ (𝑋pm ℂ) ∧ 𝑃𝑋 ∧ ∀𝑢𝐽 (𝑃𝑢 → ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ∈ 𝑢)))))
 
Theoremclimisp 42019* If a sequence converges to an isolated point (w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers) then the sequence eventually becomes that point. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ≠ 𝐴) → 𝑋 ≤ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremlmbr3 42020* Express the binary relation "sequence 𝐹 converges to point 𝑃 " in a metric space using an arbitrary upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (TopOn‘𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹 ∈ (𝑋pm ℂ) ∧ 𝑃𝑋 ∧ ∀𝑢𝐽 (𝑃𝑢 → ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ∈ 𝑢)))))
 
Theoremclimrescn 42021* A sequence converging w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, eventually becomes a sequence of complex numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹 Fn 𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℂ)
 
Theoremclimxrrelem 42022* If a seqence ranging over the extended reals converges w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, then there exists an upper set of the integers over which the function is real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ +∞ ∈ ℂ) → 𝐷 ≤ (abs‘(+∞ − 𝐴)))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ -∞ ∈ ℂ) → 𝐷 ≤ (abs‘(-∞ − 𝐴)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℝ)
 
Theoremclimxrre 42023* If a sequence ranging over the extended reals converges w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, then there exists an upper set of the integers over which the function is real-valued (the weaker hypothesis 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ is probably not enough, since in principle we could have +∞ ∈ ℂ and -∞ ∈ ℂ). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℝ)
 
20.37.7.1  Inferior limit (lim inf)
 
Syntaxclsi 42024 Extend class notation to include the liminf function. (actually, it makes sense for any extended real function defined on a subset of RR which is not upper-bounded)
class lim inf
 
Definitiondf-liminf 42025* Define the inferior limit of a sequence of extended real numbers. (Contributed by GS, 2-Jan-2022.)
lim inf = (𝑥 ∈ V ↦ sup(ran (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝑥 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < )), ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremlimsuplt2 42026* The defining property of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) < 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ) < 𝐴))
 
Theoremliminfgord 42027 Ordering property of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → inf(((𝐹 “ (𝐴[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ) ≤ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝐵[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremlimsupvald 42028* The superior limit of a sequence 𝐹 of extended real numbers is the infimum of the set of suprema of all restrictions of 𝐹 to an upperset of reals . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = inf(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremlimsupresicompt 42029* The superior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to the upper part of the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = (lim sup‘(𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝑍) ↦ 𝐵)))
 
Theoremlimsupcli 42030 Closure of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹𝑉       (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*
 
Theoremliminfgf 42031 Closure of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       𝐺:ℝ⟶ℝ*
 
Theoremliminfval 42032* The inferior limit of a set 𝐹. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝐹𝑉 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremclimlimsup 42033 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if it converges to its superior limit. The first hypothesis is needed (see climlimsupcex 42042 for a counterexample) (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹)))
 
Theoremlimsupge 42034* The defining property of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹) ↔ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ 𝐴 ≤ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < )))
 
Theoremliminfgval 42035* Value of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝑀 ∈ ℝ → (𝐺𝑀) = inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑀[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremliminfcl 42036 Closure of the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝐹𝑉 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*)
 
Theoremliminfvald 42037* The inferior limit of a set 𝐹. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremliminfval5 42038* The inferior limit of an infinite sequence 𝐹 of extended real numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremlimsupresxr 42039 The superior limit of a function only depends on the restriction of that function to the preimage of the set of extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)    &   𝐴 = (𝐹 “ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝐹𝐴)) = (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfresxr 42040 The inferior limit of a function only depends on the preimage of the extended real part. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)    &   𝐴 = (𝐹 “ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝐴)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfval2 42041* The superior limit, relativized to an unbounded set. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup((𝐺𝐴), ℝ*, < ))
 
Theoremclimlimsupcex 42042 Counterexample for climlimsup 42033, showing that the first hypothesis is needed, if the empty set is a complex number (see 0ncn 10549 and its comment) (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
¬ 𝑀 ∈ ℤ    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐹 = ∅       ((∅ ∈ ℂ ∧ ¬ -∞ ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ∧ ¬ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹)))
 
Theoremliminfcld 42043 Closure of the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*)
 
Theoremliminfresico 42044 The inferior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to an upperset of reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))
 
Theoremlimsup10exlem 42045* The range of the given function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 “ (𝐾[,)+∞)) = {0, 1})
 
Theoremlimsup10ex 42046 The superior limit of a function that alternates between two values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim sup‘𝐹) = 1
 
Theoremliminf10ex 42047 The inferior limit of a function that alternates between two values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim inf‘𝐹) = 0
 
Theoremliminflelimsuplem 42048* The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminflelimsup 42049* The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. The second hypothesis is needed (see liminflelimsupcex 42070 for a counterexample). The inequality can be strict, see liminfltlimsupex 42054. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremlimsupgtlem 42050* For any positive real, the superior limit of F is larger than any of its values at large enough arguments, up to that positive real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) − 𝑋) < (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremlimsupgt 42051* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's appxoximated from below by the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) − 𝑋) < (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfresre 42052 The inferior limit of a function only depends on the real part of its domain. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹 ↾ ℝ)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfresicompt 42053* The inferior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to the upper part of the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝑍) ↦ 𝐵)) = (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfltlimsupex 42054 An example where the lim inf is strictly smaller than the lim sup. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim inf‘𝐹) < (lim sup‘𝐹)
 
Theoremliminfgelimsup 42055* The inferior limit is greater than or equal to the superior limit if and only if they are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹) ↔ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹)))
 
Theoremliminfvalxr 42056* Alternate definition of lim inf when 𝐹 is an extended real-valued function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒(𝐹𝑥))))
 
Theoremliminfresuz 42057 If the real part of the domain of a function is a subset of the integers, the inferior limit doesn't change when the function is restricted to an upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → dom (𝐹 ↾ ℝ) ⊆ ℤ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminflelimsupuz 42058 The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfvalxrmpt 42059* Alternate definition of lim inf when 𝐹 is an extended real-valued function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfresuz2 42060 If the domain of a function is a subset of the integers, the inferior limit doesn't change when the function is restricted to an upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → dom 𝐹 ⊆ ℤ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfgelimsupuz 42061 The inferior limit is greater than or equal to the superior limit if and only if they are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹) ↔ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹)))
 
Theoremliminfval4 42062* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given function is eventually real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfval3 42063* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given function is eventually extended real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfequzmpt2 42064* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑗𝐵    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝐾)) → 𝐶𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim inf‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))
 
Theoremliminfvaluz 42065* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminf0 42066 The inferior limit of the empty set. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(lim inf‘∅) = +∞
 
Theoremlimsupval4 42067* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given a function is eventually extended real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfvaluz2 42068* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfvaluz3 42069* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒(𝐹𝑘))))
 
Theoremliminflelimsupcex 42070 A counterexample for liminflelimsup 42049, showing that the second hypothesis is needed. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(lim sup‘∅) < (lim inf‘∅)
 
Theoremlimsupvaluz3 42071* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))
 
Theoremliminfvaluz4 42072* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -(𝐹𝑘))))
 
Theoremlimsupvaluz4 42073* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝐵)))
 
Theoremclimliminflimsupd 42074 If a sequence of real numbers converges, its inferior limit and its superior limit are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))
 
Theoremliminfreuzlem 42075* Given a function on the reals, its inferior limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is smaller than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗))))
 
Theoremliminfreuz 42076* Given a function on the reals, its inferior limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is smaller than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗))))
 
Theoremliminfltlem 42077* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's approximated from above by the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(lim inf‘𝐹) < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑋))
 
Theoremliminflt 42078* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's approximated from above by the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(lim inf‘𝐹) < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑋))
 
Theoremclimliminf 42079 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if it converges to its inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim inf‘𝐹)))
 
Theoremliminflimsupclim 42080 A sequence of real numbers converges if its inferior limit is real, and it is greater than or equal to the superior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminflelimsupuz 42058). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )
 
Theoremclimliminflimsup 42081 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its inferior limit is real and it is greater than or equal to its superior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminfgelimsupuz 42061). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))))
 
Theoremclimliminflimsup2 42082 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its superior limit is real and it is less than or equal to its inferior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminfgelimsupuz 42061). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))))
 
Theoremclimliminflimsup3 42083 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its inferior limit is real and equal to its superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))))
 
Theoremclimliminflimsup4 42084 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its superior limit is real and equal to its inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))))
 
Theoremlimsupub2 42085* A extended real valued function, with limsup that is not +∞, is eventually less than +∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) < +∞))
 
Theoremlimsupubuz2 42086* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with limsup that is not +∞, is eventually less than +∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) < +∞)
 
Theoremxlimpnfxnegmnf 42087* A sequence converges to +∞ if and only if its negation converges to -∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)-𝑒(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))
 
Theoremliminflbuz2 42088* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with liminf that is not -∞, is eventually greater than -∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≠ -∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)-∞ < (𝐹𝑗))
 
Theoremliminfpnfuz 42089* The inferior limit of a function is +∞ if and only if every real number is the lower bound of the restriction of the function to a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) = +∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)))
 
Theoremliminflimsupxrre 42090* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with real liminf and limsup, is eventually real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≠ -∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)):(ℤ𝑘)⟶ℝ)
 
20.37.7.2  Limits for sequences of extended real numbers

Textbooks generally use a single symbol to denote the limit of a sequence of real numbers. But then, three distinct definitions are usually given: one for the case of convergence to a real number, one for the case of limit to +∞ and one for the case of limit to -∞. It turns out that these three definitions can be expressed as the limit w.r.t. to the standard topology on the extended reals. In this section, a relation ~~>* is defined that captures all three definitions (and can be applied to sequences of extended reals, also), see dfxlim2 42121.

 
Syntaxclsxlim 42091 Extend class notation with convergence relation for limits in the extended real numbers.
class ~~>*
 
Definitiondf-xlim 42092 Define the convergence relation for extended real sequences. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
~~>* = (⇝𝑡‘(ordTop‘ ≤ ))
 
Theoremxlimrel 42093 The limit on extended reals is a relation. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
Rel ~~>*
 
Theoremxlimres 42094 A function converges iff its restriction to an upper integers set converges. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (ℝ*pm ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹~~>*𝐴 ↔ (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑀))~~>*𝐴))
 
Theoremxlimcl 42095 The limit of a sequence of extended real numbers is an extended real number. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝐹~~>*𝐴𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)
 
Theoremrexlimddv2 42096* Restricted existential elimination rule of natural deduction. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝐴 𝜓)    &   (((𝜑𝑥𝐴) ∧ 𝜓) → 𝜒)       (𝜑𝜒)
 
Theoremxlimclim 42097 Given a sequence of reals, it converges to a real number 𝐴 w.r.t. the standard topology on the reals, if and only if it converges to 𝐴 w.r.t. to the standard topology on the extended reals (see climreeq 41886). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹~~>*𝐴𝐹𝐴))
 
Theoremxlimconst 42098* A constant sequence converges to its value, w.r.t. the standard topology on the extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹 Fn 𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)       (𝜑𝐹~~>*𝐴)
 
Theoremclimxlim 42099 A converging sequence in the reals is a converging sequence in the extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)       (𝜑𝐹~~>*𝐴)
 
Theoremxlimbr 42100* Express the binary relation "sequence 𝐹 converges to point 𝑃 " w.r.t. the standard topology on the extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   𝐽 = (ordTop‘ ≤ )       (𝜑 → (𝐹~~>*𝑃 ↔ (𝑃 ∈ ℝ* ∧ ∀𝑢𝐽 (𝑃𝑢 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ∈ 𝑢)))))
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