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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 32901-33000   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Syntaxcrqp 32901 Equivalence relation representatives for df-qp 32911.
class /Qp

Syntaxcqp 32902 The set of 𝑝-adic rational numbers.
class Qp

Syntaxczp 32903 The set of 𝑝-adic integers. (Not to be confused with czn 20625.)
class Zp

Syntaxcqpa 32904 Algebraic completion of the 𝑝-adic rational numbers.
class _Qp

Syntaxccp 32905 Metric completion of _Qp.
class Cp

Definitiondf-zrng 32906 Define the subring of integral elements in a ring. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
ZRing = (𝑟 ∈ V ↦ (𝑟 IntgRing ran (ℤRHom‘𝑟)))

Definitiondf-gf 32907* Define the Galois finite field of order 𝑝𝑛. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
GF = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ, 𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑝) / 𝑟(1st ‘(𝑟 splitFld {(Poly1𝑟) / 𝑠(var1𝑟) / 𝑥(((𝑝𝑛)(.g‘(mulGrp‘𝑠))𝑥)(-g𝑠)𝑥)})))

Definitiondf-gfoo 32908* Define the Galois field of order 𝑝↑+∞, as a direct limit of the Galois finite fields. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
GF = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (ℤ/nℤ‘𝑝) / 𝑟(𝑟 polySplitLim (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ {(Poly1𝑟) / 𝑠(var1𝑟) / 𝑥(((𝑝𝑛)(.g‘(mulGrp‘𝑠))𝑥)(-g𝑠)𝑥)})))

Definitiondf-eqp 32909* Define an equivalence relation on -indexed sequences of integers such that two sequences are equivalent iff the difference is equivalent to zero, and a sequence is equivalent to zero iff the sum Σ𝑘𝑛𝑓(𝑘)(𝑝𝑘) is a multiple of 𝑝↑(𝑛 + 1) for every 𝑛. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
~Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ {⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ (ℤ ↑m ℤ) ∧ ∀𝑛 ∈ ℤ Σ𝑘 ∈ (ℤ‘-𝑛)(((𝑓‘-𝑘) − (𝑔‘-𝑘)) / (𝑝↑(𝑘 + (𝑛 + 1)))) ∈ ℤ)})

Definitiondf-rqp 32910* There is a unique element of (ℤ ↑m (0...(𝑝 − 1))) ~Qp -equivalent to any element of (ℤ ↑m ℤ), if the sequences are zero for sufficiently large negative values; this function selects that element. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
/Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (~Qp ∩ {𝑓 ∈ (ℤ ↑m ℤ) ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ ran ℤ(𝑓 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ 𝑥} / 𝑦(𝑦 × (𝑦 ∩ (ℤ ↑m (0...(𝑝 − 1)))))))

Definitiondf-qp 32911* Define the 𝑝-adic completion of the rational numbers, as a normed field structure with a total order (that is not compatible with the operations). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.) (Revised by AV, 10-Oct-2021.)
Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ { ∈ (ℤ ↑m (0...(𝑝 − 1))) ∣ ∃𝑥 ∈ ran ℤ( “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ 𝑥} / 𝑏(({⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑏⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑓f + 𝑔)))⟩, ⟨(.r‘ndx), (𝑓𝑏, 𝑔𝑏 ↦ ((/Qp‘𝑝)‘(𝑛 ∈ ℤ ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓𝑘) · (𝑔‘(𝑛𝑘))))))⟩} ∪ {⟨(le‘ndx), {⟨𝑓, 𝑔⟩ ∣ ({𝑓, 𝑔} ⊆ 𝑏 ∧ Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑓‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)) < Σ𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑔‘-𝑘) · ((𝑝 + 1)↑-𝑘)))}⟩}) toNrmGrp (𝑓𝑏 ↦ if(𝑓 = (ℤ × {0}), 0, (𝑝↑-inf((𝑓 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})), ℝ, < ))))))

Definitiondf-zp 32912 Define the 𝑝-adic integers, as a subset of the 𝑝-adic rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
Zp = (ZRing ∘ Qp)

Definitiondf-qpa 32913* Define the completion of the 𝑝-adic rationals. Here we simply define it as the splitting field of a dense sequence of polynomials (using as the 𝑛-th set the collection of polynomials with degree less than 𝑛 and with coefficients < (𝑝𝑛)). Krasner's lemma will then show that all monic polynomials have splitting fields isomorphic to a sufficiently close Eisenstein polynomial from the list, and unramified extensions are generated by the polynomial 𝑥↑(𝑝𝑛) − 𝑥, which is in the list. Thus, every finite extension of Qp is a subfield of this field extension, so it is algebraically closed. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
_Qp = (𝑝 ∈ ℙ ↦ (Qp‘𝑝) / 𝑟(𝑟 polySplitLim (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑓 ∈ (Poly1𝑟) ∣ ((𝑟 deg1 𝑓) ≤ 𝑛 ∧ ∀𝑑 ∈ ran (coe1𝑓)(𝑑 “ (ℤ ∖ {0})) ⊆ (0...𝑛))})))

Definitiondf-cp 32914 Define the metric completion of the algebraic completion of the 𝑝 -adic rationals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 2-Dec-2014.)
Cp = ( cplMetSp ∘ _Qp)

20.7  Mathbox for Filip Cernatescu

I hope someone will enjoy solving (proving) the simple equations, inequalities, and calculations from this mathbox. I have proved these problems (theorems) using the Milpgame proof assistant. (It can be downloaded from https://us.metamath.org/other/milpgame/milpgame.html.)

Theoremproblem1 32915 Practice problem 1. Clues: 5p4e9 11773 3p2e5 11766 eqtri 2844 oveq1i 7140. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((3 + 2) + 4) = 9

Theoremproblem2 32916 Practice problem 2. Clues: oveq12i 7142 adddiri 10631 add4i 10841 mulcli 10625 recni 10632 2re 11689 3eqtri 2848 10re 12095 5re 11702 1re 10618 4re 11699 eqcomi 2830 5p4e9 11773 oveq1i 7140 df-3 11679. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Revised by AV, 9-Sep-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((2 · 10) + 5) + ((1 · 10) + 4)) = ((3 · 10) + 9)

Theoremproblem3 32917 Practice problem 3. Clues: eqcomi 2830 eqtri 2844 subaddrii 10952 recni 10632 4re 11699 3re 11695 1re 10618 df-4 11680 addcomi 10808. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   (𝐴 + 3) = 4       𝐴 = 1

Theoremproblem4 32918 Practice problem 4. Clues: pm3.2i 474 eqcomi 2830 eqtri 2844 subaddrii 10952 recni 10632 7re 11708 6re 11705 ax-1cn 10572 df-7 11683 ax-mp 5 oveq1i 7140 3cn 11696 2cn 11690 df-3 11679 mulid2i 10623 subdiri 11067 mp3an 1458 mulcli 10625 subadd23 10875 oveq2i 7141 oveq12i 7142 3t2e6 11781 mulcomi 10626 subcli 10939 biimpri 231 subadd2i 10951. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   (𝐴 + 𝐵) = 3    &   ((3 · 𝐴) + (2 · 𝐵)) = 7       (𝐴 = 1 ∧ 𝐵 = 2)

Theoremproblem5 32919 Practice problem 5. Clues: 3brtr3i 5068 mpbi 233 breqtri 5064 ltaddsubi 11178 remulcli 10634 2re 11689 3re 11695 9re 11714 eqcomi 2830 mvlladdi 10881 3cn 6cn 11706 eqtr3i 2846 6p3e9 11775 addcomi 10808 ltdiv1ii 11546 6re 11705 nngt0i 11654 2nn 11688 divcan3i 11363 recni 10632 2cn 11690 2ne0 11719 mpbir 234 eqtri 2844 mulcomi 10626 3t2e6 11781 divmuli 11371. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 16-Mar-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   ((2 · 𝐴) + 3) < 9       𝐴 < 3

Theoremquad3 32920 Variant of quadratic equation with discriminant expanded. (Contributed by Filip Cernatescu, 19-Oct-2019.)
𝑋 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐴 ≠ 0    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ    &   ((𝐴 · (𝑋↑2)) + ((𝐵 · 𝑋) + 𝐶)) = 0       (𝑋 = ((-𝐵 + (√‘((𝐵↑2) − (4 · (𝐴 · 𝐶))))) / (2 · 𝐴)) ∨ 𝑋 = ((-𝐵 − (√‘((𝐵↑2) − (4 · (𝐴 · 𝐶))))) / (2 · 𝐴)))

20.8  Mathbox for Paul Chapman

20.8.1  Real and complex numbers (cont.)

Theoremclimuzcnv 32921* Utility lemma to convert between 𝑚𝑘 and 𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚) in limit theorems. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.)
(𝑚 ∈ ℕ → ((𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑚) → 𝜑) ↔ (𝑘 ∈ ℕ → (𝑚𝑘𝜑))))

Theoremsinccvglem 32922* ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥) ⇝ 1 as (real) 𝑥 ⇝ 0. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℕ⟶(ℝ ∖ {0}))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ 0)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (ℝ ∖ {0}) ↦ ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥))    &   𝐻 = (𝑥 ∈ ℂ ↦ (1 − ((𝑥↑2) / 3)))    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑀)) → (abs‘(𝐹𝑘)) < 1)       (𝜑 → (𝐺𝐹) ⇝ 1)

Theoremsinccvg 32923* ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥) ⇝ 1 as (real) 𝑥 ⇝ 0. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
((𝐹:ℕ⟶(ℝ ∖ {0}) ∧ 𝐹 ⇝ 0) → ((𝑥 ∈ (ℝ ∖ {0}) ↦ ((sin‘𝑥) / 𝑥)) ∘ 𝐹) ⇝ 1)

Theoremcircum 32924* The circumference of a circle of radius 𝑅, defined as the limit as 𝑛 ⇝ +∞ of the perimeter of an inscribed n-sided isogons, is ((2 · π) · 𝑅). (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 10-Nov-2012.) (Proof shortened by Mario Carneiro, 21-May-2014.)
𝐴 = ((2 · π) / 𝑛)    &   𝑃 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((2 · 𝑛) · (𝑅 · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))    &   𝑅 ∈ ℝ       𝑃 ⇝ ((2 · π) · 𝑅)

20.8.2  Miscellaneous theorems

Theoremelfzm12 32925 Membership in a curtailed finite sequence of integers. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 17-Nov-2012.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑀 ∈ (1...(𝑁 − 1)) → 𝑀 ∈ (1...𝑁)))

Theoremnn0seqcvg 32926* A strictly-decreasing nonnegative integer sequence with initial term 𝑁 reaches zero by the 𝑁 th term. Inference version. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 31-Mar-2011.)
𝐹:ℕ0⟶ℕ0    &   𝑁 = (𝐹‘0)    &   (𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 → ((𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)) ≠ 0 → (𝐹‘(𝑘 + 1)) < (𝐹𝑘)))       (𝐹𝑁) = 0

Theoremlediv2aALT 32927 Division of both sides of 'less than or equal to' by a nonnegative number. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 < 𝐴) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 < 𝐵) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ 0 ≤ 𝐶)) → (𝐴𝐵 → (𝐶 / 𝐵) ≤ (𝐶 / 𝐴)))

Theoremabs2sqlei 32928 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       ((abs‘𝐴) ≤ (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) ≤ ((abs‘𝐵)↑2))

Theoremabs2sqlti 32929 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       ((abs‘𝐴) < (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) < ((abs‘𝐵)↑2))

Theoremabs2sqle 32930 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((abs‘𝐴) ≤ (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) ≤ ((abs‘𝐵)↑2)))

Theoremabs2sqlt 32931 The absolute values of two numbers compare as their squares. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((abs‘𝐴) < (abs‘𝐵) ↔ ((abs‘𝐴)↑2) < ((abs‘𝐵)↑2)))

Theoremabs2difi 32932 Difference of absolute values. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       ((abs‘𝐴) − (abs‘𝐵)) ≤ (abs‘(𝐴𝐵))

Theoremabs2difabsi 32933 Absolute value of difference of absolute values. (Contributed by Paul Chapman, 7-Sep-2007.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (abs‘((abs‘𝐴) − (abs‘𝐵))) ≤ (abs‘(𝐴𝐵))

20.9  Mathbox for Scott Fenton

20.9.1  ZFC Axioms in primitive form

Theoremaxextprim 32934 ax-ext 2793 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ ((𝑥𝑦𝑥𝑧) → ((𝑥𝑧𝑥𝑦) → 𝑦 = 𝑧))

Theoremaxrepprim 32935 ax-rep 5163 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ (¬ ∀𝑦 ¬ ∀𝑧(𝜑𝑧 = 𝑦) → ∀𝑧 ¬ ((∀𝑦 𝑧𝑥 → ¬ ∀𝑥(∀𝑧 𝑥𝑦 → ¬ ∀𝑦𝜑)) → ¬ (¬ ∀𝑥(∀𝑧 𝑥𝑦 → ¬ ∀𝑦𝜑) → ∀𝑦 𝑧𝑥)))

Theoremaxunprim 32936 ax-un 7436 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ ∀𝑦(¬ ∀𝑥(𝑦𝑥 → ¬ 𝑥𝑧) → 𝑦𝑥)

Theoremaxpowprim 32937 ax-pow 5239 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
(∀𝑥 ¬ ∀𝑦(∀𝑥(¬ ∀𝑧 ¬ 𝑥𝑦 → ∀𝑦 𝑥𝑧) → 𝑦𝑥) → 𝑥 = 𝑦)

Theoremaxregprim 32938 ax-reg 9032 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
(𝑥𝑦 → ¬ ∀𝑥(𝑥𝑦 → ¬ ∀𝑧(𝑧𝑥 → ¬ 𝑧𝑦)))

Theoremaxinfprim 32939 ax-inf 9077 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Oct-2010.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ (𝑦𝑧 → ¬ (𝑦𝑥 → ¬ ∀𝑦(𝑦𝑥 → ¬ ∀𝑧(𝑦𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧𝑥))))

Theoremaxacprim 32940 ax-ac 9858 without distinct variable conditions or defined symbols. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Oct-2010.)
¬ ∀𝑥 ¬ ∀𝑦𝑧(∀𝑥 ¬ (𝑦𝑧 → ¬ 𝑧𝑤) → ¬ ∀𝑤 ¬ ∀𝑦 ¬ ((¬ ∀𝑤(𝑦𝑧 → (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑦𝑤 → ¬ 𝑤𝑥))) → 𝑦 = 𝑤) → ¬ (𝑦 = 𝑤 → ¬ ∀𝑤(𝑦𝑧 → (𝑧𝑤 → (𝑦𝑤 → ¬ 𝑤𝑥))))))

20.9.2  Untangled classes

Theoremuntelirr 32941* We call a class "untanged" if all its members are not members of themselves. The term originates from Isbell (see citation in dfon2 33044). Using this concept, we can avoid a lot of the uses of the Axiom of Regularity. Here, we prove a series of properties of untanged classes. First, we prove that an untangled class is not a member of itself. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Feb-2011.)
(∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝑥𝑥 → ¬ 𝐴𝐴)

Theoremuntuni 32942* The union of a class is untangled iff all its members are untangled. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Feb-2011.)
(∀𝑥 𝐴 ¬ 𝑥𝑥 ↔ ∀𝑦𝐴𝑥𝑦 ¬ 𝑥𝑥)

Theoremuntsucf 32943* If a class is untangled, then so is its successor. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Feb-2011.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 11-Dec-2016.)
𝑦𝐴       (∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝑥𝑥 → ∀𝑦 ∈ suc 𝐴 ¬ 𝑦𝑦)

Theoremunt0 32944 The null set is untangled. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 10-Mar-2011.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 27-Aug-2011.)
𝑥 ∈ ∅ ¬ 𝑥𝑥

Theoremuntint 32945* If there is an untangled element of a class, then the intersection of the class is untangled. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 1-Mar-2011.)
(∃𝑥𝐴𝑦𝑥 ¬ 𝑦𝑦 → ∀𝑦 𝐴 ¬ 𝑦𝑦)

Theoremefrunt 32946* If 𝐴 is well-founded by E, then it is untangled. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 1-Mar-2011.)
( E Fr 𝐴 → ∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝑥𝑥)

Theoremuntangtr 32947* A transitive class is untangled iff its elements are. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Mar-2011.)
(Tr 𝐴 → (∀𝑥𝐴 ¬ 𝑥𝑥 ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝑥 ¬ 𝑦𝑦))

20.9.3  Extra propositional calculus theorems

Theorem3orel2 32948 Partial elimination of a triple disjunction by denial of a disjunct. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Mar-2011.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 25-May-2011.)
𝜓 → ((𝜑𝜓𝜒) → (𝜑𝜒)))

Theorem3orel3 32949 Partial elimination of a triple disjunction by denial of a disjunct. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Mar-2011.)
𝜒 → ((𝜑𝜓𝜒) → (𝜑𝜓)))

Theorem3pm3.2ni 32950 Triple negated disjunction introduction. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 20-Apr-2011.)
¬ 𝜑    &    ¬ 𝜓    &    ¬ 𝜒        ¬ (𝜑𝜓𝜒)

Theorem3jaodd 32951 Double deduction form of 3jaoi 1424. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 20-Apr-2011.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒𝜂)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜃𝜂)))    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜏𝜂)))       (𝜑 → (𝜓 → ((𝜒𝜃𝜏) → 𝜂)))

Theorem3orit 32952 Closed form of 3ori 1421. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 20-Apr-2011.)
((𝜑𝜓𝜒) ↔ ((¬ 𝜑 ∧ ¬ 𝜓) → 𝜒))

Theorembiimpexp 32953 A biconditional in the antecedent is the same as two implications. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 12-Dec-2010.)
(((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒) ↔ ((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝜓𝜑) → 𝜒)))

Theorem3orel13 32954 Elimination of two disjuncts in a triple disjunction. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Jun-2011.)
((¬ 𝜑 ∧ ¬ 𝜒) → ((𝜑𝜓𝜒) → 𝜓))

20.9.4  Misc. Useful Theorems

Theoremnepss 32955 Two classes are unequal iff their intersection is a proper subset of one of them. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 23-Feb-2011.)
(𝐴𝐵 ↔ ((𝐴𝐵) ⊊ 𝐴 ∨ (𝐴𝐵) ⊊ 𝐵))

Theorem3ccased 32956 Triple disjunction form of ccased 1034. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 27-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑 → ((𝜒𝜂) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜒𝜁) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜒𝜎) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜃𝜂) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜃𝜁) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜃𝜎) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜏𝜂) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜏𝜁) → 𝜓))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝜏𝜎) → 𝜓))       (𝜑 → (((𝜒𝜃𝜏) ∧ (𝜂𝜁𝜎)) → 𝜓))

Theoremdfso3 32957* Expansion of the definition of a strict order. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 6-Jun-2016.)
(𝑅 Or 𝐴 ↔ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐴𝑧𝐴𝑥𝑅𝑥 ∧ ((𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑧) → 𝑥𝑅𝑧) ∧ (𝑥𝑅𝑦𝑥 = 𝑦𝑦𝑅𝑥)))

Theorembrtpid1 32958 A binary relation involving unordered triplets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Jun-2016.)
𝐴{⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, 𝐶, 𝐷}𝐵

Theorembrtpid2 32959 A binary relation involving unordered triplets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Jun-2016.)
𝐴{𝐶, ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, 𝐷}𝐵

Theorembrtpid3 32960 A binary relation involving unordered triplets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Jun-2016.)
𝐴{𝐶, 𝐷, ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩}𝐵

Theoremceqsrexv2 32961* Alternate elimitation of a restricted existential quantifier, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Sep-2017.)
(𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∃𝑥𝐵 (𝑥 = 𝐴𝜑) ↔ (𝐴𝐵𝜓))

Theoremiota5f 32962* A method for computing iota. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Dec-2017.)
𝑥𝜑    &   𝑥𝐴    &   ((𝜑𝐴𝑉) → (𝜓𝑥 = 𝐴))       ((𝜑𝐴𝑉) → (℩𝑥𝜓) = 𝐴)

Theoremceqsralv2 32963* Alternate elimination of a restricted universal quantifier, using implicit substitution. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Dec-2020.)
(𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))       (∀𝑥𝐵 (𝑥 = 𝐴𝜑) ↔ (𝐴𝐵𝜓))

Theoremdford5 32964 A class is ordinal iff it is a subclass of On and transitive. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Nov-2021.)
(Ord 𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ⊆ On ∧ Tr 𝐴))

Theoremjath 32965 Closed form of ja 189. Proved using the completeness script. (Proof modification is discouraged.) (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Dec-2021.)
((¬ 𝜑𝜒) → ((𝜓𝜒) → ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒)))

20.9.5  Properties of real and complex numbers

Theoremsqdivzi 32966 Distribution of square over division. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Jun-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐵 ≠ 0 → ((𝐴 / 𝐵)↑2) = ((𝐴↑2) / (𝐵↑2)))

Theoremsupfz 32967 The supremum of a finite sequence of integers. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Aug-2013.)
(𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀) → sup((𝑀...𝑁), ℤ, < ) = 𝑁)

Theoreminffz 32968 The infimum of a finite sequence of integers. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Aug-2013.) (Revised by AV, 10-Oct-2021.)
(𝑁 ∈ (ℤ𝑀) → inf((𝑀...𝑁), ℤ, < ) = 𝑀)

Theoremfz0n 32969 The sequence (0...(𝑁 − 1)) is empty iff 𝑁 is zero. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-May-2014.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → ((0...(𝑁 − 1)) = ∅ ↔ 𝑁 = 0))

Theoremshftvalg 32970 Value of a sequence shifted by 𝐴. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Dec-2017.)
((𝐹𝑉𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐹 shift 𝐴)‘𝐵) = (𝐹‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremdivcnvlin 32971* Limit of the ratio of two linear functions. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Dec-2017.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = ((𝑘 + 𝐴) / (𝑘 + 𝐵)))       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ 1)

Theoremclimlec3 32972* Comparison of a constant to the limit of a sequence. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Jan-2018.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) ≤ 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐴𝐵)

Theoremlogi 32973 Calculate the logarithm of i. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Apr-2020.)
(log‘i) = (i · (π / 2))

Theoremiexpire 32974 i raised to itself is real. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 13-Apr-2020.)
(i↑𝑐i) ∈ ℝ

Theorembcneg1 32975 The binomial coefficent over negative one is zero. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-May-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝑁C-1) = 0)

Theorembcm1nt 32976 The proportion of one bionmial coefficient to another with 𝑁 decreased by 1. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 23-Jun-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐾 ∈ (0...(𝑁 − 1))) → (𝑁C𝐾) = (((𝑁 − 1)C𝐾) · (𝑁 / (𝑁𝐾))))

Theorembcprod 32977* A product identity for binomial coefficents. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 23-Jun-2020.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ∏𝑘 ∈ (1...(𝑁 − 1))((𝑁 − 1)C𝑘) = ∏𝑘 ∈ (1...(𝑁 − 1))(𝑘↑((2 · 𝑘) − 𝑁)))

Theorembccolsum 32978* A column-sum rule for binomial coefficents. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 24-Jun-2020.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝐶 ∈ ℕ0) → Σ𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁)(𝑘C𝐶) = ((𝑁 + 1)C(𝐶 + 1)))

20.9.6  Infinite products

Theoremiprodefisumlem 32979 Lemma for iprodefisum 32980. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Feb-2018.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → seq𝑀( · , (exp ∘ 𝐹)) = (exp ∘ seq𝑀( + , 𝐹)))

Theoremiprodefisum 32980* Applying the exponential function to an infinite sum yields an infinite product. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Feb-2018.)
𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → (𝐹𝑘) = 𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → seq𝑀( + , 𝐹) ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → ∏𝑘𝑍 (exp‘𝐵) = (exp‘Σ𝑘𝑍 𝐵))

Theoremiprodgam 32981* An infinite product version of Euler's gamma function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 12-Feb-2018.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ (ℂ ∖ (ℤ ∖ ℕ)))       (𝜑 → (Γ‘𝐴) = (∏𝑘 ∈ ℕ (((1 + (1 / 𝑘))↑𝑐𝐴) / (1 + (𝐴 / 𝑘))) / 𝐴))

20.9.7  Factorial limits

Theoremfaclimlem1 32982* Lemma for faclim 32985. Closed form for a particular sequence. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Dec-2017.)
(𝑀 ∈ ℕ0 → seq1( · , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((1 + (𝑀 / 𝑛)) · (1 + (1 / 𝑛))) / (1 + ((𝑀 + 1) / 𝑛))))) = (𝑥 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑀 + 1) · ((𝑥 + 1) / (𝑥 + (𝑀 + 1))))))

Theoremfaclimlem2 32983* Lemma for faclim 32985. Show a limit for the inductive step. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Dec-2017.)
(𝑀 ∈ ℕ0 → seq1( · , (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((1 + (𝑀 / 𝑛)) · (1 + (1 / 𝑛))) / (1 + ((𝑀 + 1) / 𝑛))))) ⇝ (𝑀 + 1))

Theoremfaclimlem3 32984 Lemma for faclim 32985. Algebraic manipulation for the final induction. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Dec-2017.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝐵 ∈ ℕ) → (((1 + (1 / 𝐵))↑(𝑀 + 1)) / (1 + ((𝑀 + 1) / 𝐵))) = ((((1 + (1 / 𝐵))↑𝑀) / (1 + (𝑀 / 𝐵))) · (((1 + (𝑀 / 𝐵)) · (1 + (1 / 𝐵))) / (1 + ((𝑀 + 1) / 𝐵)))))

Theoremfaclim 32985* An infinite product expression relating to factorials. Originally due to Euler. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 22-Nov-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((1 + (1 / 𝑛))↑𝐴) / (1 + (𝐴 / 𝑛))))       (𝐴 ∈ ℕ0 → seq1( · , 𝐹) ⇝ (!‘𝐴))

Theoremiprodfac 32986* An infinite product expression for factorial. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Dec-2017.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℕ0 → (!‘𝐴) = ∏𝑘 ∈ ℕ (((1 + (1 / 𝑘))↑𝐴) / (1 + (𝐴 / 𝑘))))

Theoremfaclim2 32987* Another factorial limit due to Euler. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Dec-2017.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((!‘𝑛) · ((𝑛 + 1)↑𝑀)) / (!‘(𝑛 + 𝑀))))       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ0𝐹 ⇝ 1)

20.9.8  Greatest common divisor and divisibility

Theorempdivsq 32988 Condition for a prime dividing a square. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑃 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑃𝑀𝑃 ∥ (𝑀↑2)))

Theoremdvdspw 32989 Exponentiation law for divisibility. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐾 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐾𝑀𝐾 ∥ (𝑀𝑁)))

Theoremgcd32 32990 Swap the second and third arguments of a gcd. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℤ) → ((𝐴 gcd 𝐵) gcd 𝐶) = ((𝐴 gcd 𝐶) gcd 𝐵))

Theoremgcdabsorb 32991 Absorption law for gcd. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Apr-2014.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℤ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℤ) → ((𝐴 gcd 𝐵) gcd 𝐵) = (𝐴 gcd 𝐵))

20.9.9  Properties of relationships

Theorembrtp 32992 A condition for a binary relation over an unordered triple. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Jun-2011.)
𝑋 ∈ V    &   𝑌 ∈ V       (𝑋{⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩, ⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩}𝑌 ↔ ((𝑋 = 𝐴𝑌 = 𝐵) ∨ (𝑋 = 𝐶𝑌 = 𝐷) ∨ (𝑋 = 𝐸𝑌 = 𝐹)))

Theoremdftr6 32993 A potential definition of transitivity for sets. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Mar-2012.)
𝐴 ∈ V       (Tr 𝐴𝐴 ∈ (V ∖ ran (( E ∘ E ) ∖ E )))

Theoremcoep 32994* Composition with the membership relation. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Feb-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐴( E ∘ 𝑅)𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑥𝐵 𝐴𝑅𝑥)

Theoremcoepr 32995* Composition with the converse membership relation. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Feb-2013.)
𝐴 ∈ V    &   𝐵 ∈ V       (𝐴(𝑅 E )𝐵 ↔ ∃𝑥𝐴 𝑥𝑅𝐵)

Theoremdffr5 32996 A quantifier free definition of a well-founded relationship. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Apr-2011.)
(𝑅 Fr 𝐴 ↔ (𝒫 𝐴 ∖ {∅}) ⊆ ran ( E ∖ ( E ∘ 𝑅)))

Theoremdfso2 32997 Quantifier free definition of a strict order. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 22-Feb-2013.)
(𝑅 Or 𝐴 ↔ (𝑅 Po 𝐴 ∧ (𝐴 × 𝐴) ⊆ (𝑅 ∪ ( I ∪ 𝑅))))

Theoremdfpo2 32998 Quantifier free definition of a partial ordering. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 22-Feb-2013.) (Proof shortened by Peter Mazsa, 2-Oct-2022.)
(𝑅 Po 𝐴 ↔ ((𝑅 ∩ ( I ↾ 𝐴)) = ∅ ∧ ((𝑅 ∩ (𝐴 × 𝐴)) ∘ (𝑅 ∩ (𝐴 × 𝐴))) ⊆ 𝑅))

Theorembr8 32999* Substitution for an eight-place predicate. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Sep-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.)
(𝑎 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑏 = 𝐵 → (𝜓𝜒))    &   (𝑐 = 𝐶 → (𝜒𝜃))    &   (𝑑 = 𝐷 → (𝜃𝜏))    &   (𝑒 = 𝐸 → (𝜏𝜂))    &   (𝑓 = 𝐹 → (𝜂𝜁))    &   (𝑔 = 𝐺 → (𝜁𝜎))    &   ( = 𝐻 → (𝜎𝜌))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝑃 = 𝑄)    &   𝑅 = {⟨𝑝, 𝑞⟩ ∣ ∃𝑥𝑆𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑐𝑃𝑑𝑃𝑒𝑃𝑓𝑃𝑔𝑃𝑃 (𝑝 = ⟨⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩, ⟨𝑐, 𝑑⟩⟩ ∧ 𝑞 = ⟨⟨𝑒, 𝑓⟩, ⟨𝑔, ⟩⟩ ∧ 𝜑)}       (((𝑋𝑆𝐴𝑄𝐵𝑄) ∧ (𝐶𝑄𝐷𝑄𝐸𝑄) ∧ (𝐹𝑄𝐺𝑄𝐻𝑄)) → (⟨⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩⟩𝑅⟨⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩, ⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩⟩ ↔ 𝜌))

Theorembr6 33000* Substitution for a six-place predicate. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 4-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.)
(𝑎 = 𝐴 → (𝜑𝜓))    &   (𝑏 = 𝐵 → (𝜓𝜒))    &   (𝑐 = 𝐶 → (𝜒𝜃))    &   (𝑑 = 𝐷 → (𝜃𝜏))    &   (𝑒 = 𝐸 → (𝜏𝜂))    &   (𝑓 = 𝐹 → (𝜂𝜁))    &   (𝑥 = 𝑋𝑃 = 𝑄)    &   𝑅 = {⟨𝑝, 𝑞⟩ ∣ ∃𝑥𝑆𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑐𝑃𝑑𝑃𝑒𝑃𝑓𝑃 (𝑝 = ⟨𝑎, ⟨𝑏, 𝑐⟩⟩ ∧ 𝑞 = ⟨𝑑, ⟨𝑒, 𝑓⟩⟩ ∧ 𝜑)}       ((𝑋𝑆 ∧ (𝐴𝑄𝐵𝑄𝐶𝑄) ∧ (𝐷𝑄𝐸𝑄𝐹𝑄)) → (⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩𝑅𝐷, ⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩⟩ ↔ 𝜁))

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206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 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