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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 27601-27700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Definitiondf-eupth 27601* Define the set of all Eulerian paths on an arbitrary graph. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
EulerPaths = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {⟨𝑓, 𝑝⟩ ∣ (𝑓(Trails‘𝑔)𝑝𝑓:(0..^(♯‘𝑓))–onto→dom (iEdg‘𝑔))})

Theoremreleupth 27602 The set (EulerPaths‘𝐺) of all Eulerian paths on 𝐺 is a set of pairs by our definition of an Eulerian path, and so is a relation. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
Rel (EulerPaths‘𝐺)

Theoremeupths 27603* The Eulerian paths on the graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 29-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (EulerPaths‘𝐺) = {⟨𝑓, 𝑝⟩ ∣ (𝑓(Trails‘𝐺)𝑝𝑓:(0..^(♯‘𝑓))–onto→dom 𝐼)}

Theoremiseupth 27604 The property "𝐹, 𝑃 is an Eulerian path on the graph 𝐺". An Eulerian path is defined as bijection 𝐹 from the edges to a set 0...(𝑁 − 1) and a function 𝑃:(0...𝑁)⟶𝑉 into the vertices such that for each 0 ≤ 𝑘 < 𝑁, 𝐹(𝑘) is an edge from 𝑃(𝑘) to 𝑃(𝑘 + 1). (Since the edges are undirected and there are possibly many edges between any two given vertices, we need to list both the edges and the vertices of the path separately.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–onto→dom 𝐼))

Theoremiseupthf1o 27605 The property "𝐹, 𝑃 is an Eulerian path on the graph 𝐺". An Eulerian path is defined as bijection 𝐹 from the edges to a set 0...(𝑁 − 1) and a function 𝑃:(0...𝑁)⟶𝑉 into the vertices such that for each 0 ≤ 𝑘 < 𝑁, 𝐹(𝑘) is an edge from 𝑃(𝑘) to 𝑃(𝑘 + 1). (Since the edges are undirected and there are possibly many edges between any two given vertices, we need to list both the edges and the vertices of the path separately.) (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹(Walks‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–1-1-onto→dom 𝐼))

Theoremeupthi 27606 Properties of an Eulerian path. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 → (𝐹(Walks‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–1-1-onto→dom 𝐼))

Theoremeupthf1o 27607 The 𝐹 function in an Eulerian path is a bijection from a half-open range of nonnegative integers to the set of edges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–1-1-onto→dom 𝐼)

Theoremeupthfi 27608 Any graph with an Eulerian path is of finite size, i.e. with a finite number of edges. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 → dom 𝐼 ∈ Fin)

Theoremeupthseg 27609 The 𝑁-th edge in an eulerian path is the edge having 𝑃(𝑁) and 𝑃(𝑁 + 1) as endpoints . (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹))) → {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))} ⊆ (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)))

Theoremupgriseupth 27610* The property "𝐹, 𝑃 is an Eulerian path on the pseudograph 𝐺". (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ UPGraph → (𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–1-1-onto→dom 𝐼𝑃:(0...(♯‘𝐹))⟶𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹))(𝐼‘(𝐹𝑘)) = {(𝑃𝑘), (𝑃‘(𝑘 + 1))})))

Theoremupgreupthi 27611* Properties of an Eulerian path in a pseudograph. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃) → (𝐹:(0..^(♯‘𝐹))–1-1-onto→dom 𝐼𝑃:(0...(♯‘𝐹))⟶𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑘 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹))(𝐼‘(𝐹𝑘)) = {(𝑃𝑘), (𝑃‘(𝑘 + 1))}))

Theoremupgreupthseg 27612 The 𝑁-th edge in an eulerian path is the edge from 𝑃(𝑁) to 𝑃(𝑁 + 1). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹))) → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})

Theoremeupthcl 27613 An Eulerian path has length ♯(𝐹), which is an integer. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
(𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃 → (♯‘𝐹) ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremeupthistrl 27614 An Eulerian path is a trail. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 24-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
(𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theoremeupthiswlk 27615 An Eulerian path is a walk. (Contributed by AV, 6-Apr-2021.)
(𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹(Walks‘𝐺)𝑃)

Theoremeupthpf 27616 The 𝑃 function in an Eulerian path is a function from a finite sequence of nonnegative integers to the vertices. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 18-Feb-2021.)
(𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝑃:(0...(♯‘𝐹))⟶(Vtx‘𝐺))

Theoremeupth0 27617 There is an Eulerian path on an empty graph, i.e. a graph with at least one vertex, but without an edge. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 5-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)       ((𝐴𝑉𝐼 = ∅) → ∅(EulerPaths‘𝐺){⟨0, 𝐴⟩})

TheoremeupthresOLD 27618 Obsolete version of eupthres 27619 as of 30-Nov-2022. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 ↾ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ↾ (0...𝑁))    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeupthres 27619 The restriction 𝐻, 𝑄 of an Eulerian path 𝐹, 𝑃 to an initial segment of the path (of length 𝑁) forms an Eulerian path on the subgraph 𝑆 consisting of the edges in the initial segment. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 12-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 3-May-2015.) (Revised by AV, 6-Mar-2021.) Hypothesis revised using the prefix operation. (Revised by AV, 30-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 prefix 𝑁)    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ↾ (0...𝑁))    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeupthp1 27620 Append one path segment to an Eulerian path 𝐹, 𝑃 to become an Eulerian path 𝐻, 𝑄 of the supergraph 𝑆 obtained by adding the new edge to the graph 𝐺. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 7-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐵 ∈ dom 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   𝑁 = (♯‘𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (Edg‘𝐺))    &   (𝜑 → {(𝑃𝑁), 𝐶} ⊆ 𝐸)    &   (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ∪ {⟨𝐵, 𝐸⟩})    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 ∪ {⟨𝑁, 𝐵⟩})    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ∪ {⟨(𝑁 + 1), 𝐶⟩})    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   ((𝜑𝐶 = (𝑃𝑁)) → 𝐸 = {𝐶})       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeupth2eucrct 27621 Append one path segment to an Eulerian path 𝐹, 𝑃 which may not be an (Eulerian) circuit to become an Eulerian circuit 𝐻, 𝑄 of the supergraph 𝑆 obtained by adding the new edge to the graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 11-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ V)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐵 ∈ dom 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   𝑁 = (♯‘𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (Edg‘𝐺))    &   (𝜑 → {(𝑃𝑁), 𝐶} ⊆ 𝐸)    &   (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ∪ {⟨𝐵, 𝐸⟩})    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 ∪ {⟨𝑁, 𝐵⟩})    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ∪ {⟨(𝑁 + 1), 𝐶⟩})    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   ((𝜑𝐶 = (𝑃𝑁)) → 𝐸 = {𝐶})    &   (𝜑𝐶 = (𝑃‘0))       (𝜑 → (𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄𝐻(Circuits‘𝑆)𝑄))

Theoremeupth2lem1 27622 Lemma for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.)
(𝑈𝑉 → (𝑈 ∈ if(𝐴 = 𝐵, ∅, {𝐴, 𝐵}) ↔ (𝐴𝐵 ∧ (𝑈 = 𝐴𝑈 = 𝐵))))

Theoremeupth2lem2 27623 Lemma for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.)
𝐵 ∈ V       ((𝐵𝐶𝐵 = 𝑈) → (¬ 𝑈 ∈ if(𝐴 = 𝐵, ∅, {𝐴, 𝐵}) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if(𝐴 = 𝐶, ∅, {𝐴, 𝐶})))

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem1 27624 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 20-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)       (𝜑 → ((𝑃𝑁) ∈ 𝑉 ∧ (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)) ∈ 𝑉))

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem2 27625 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 20-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → Fun (iEdg‘𝑋))

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem3 27626 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 20-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → Fun (iEdg‘𝑌))

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem4 27627 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → dom (iEdg‘𝑋) = ((𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁)) ∩ dom 𝐼))

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem5 27628 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → dom (iEdg‘𝑌) = {(𝐹𝑁)})

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem6 27629 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → dom (iEdg‘𝑋) ∈ Fin)

Theoremtrlsegvdeglem7 27630 Lemma for trlsegvdeg 27631. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → dom (iEdg‘𝑌) ∈ Fin)

Theoremtrlsegvdeg 27631 Formerly part of proof of eupth2lem3 27640: If a trail in a graph 𝐺 induces a subgraph 𝑍 with the vertices 𝑉 of 𝐺 and the edges being the edges of the walk, and a subgraph 𝑋 with the vertices 𝑉 of 𝐺 and the edges being the edges of the walk except the last one, and a subgraph 𝑌 with the vertices 𝑉 of 𝐺 and one edges being the last edge of the walk, then the vertex degree of any vertex 𝑈 of 𝐺 within 𝑍 is the sum of the vertex degree of 𝑈 within 𝑋 and the vertex degree of 𝑈 within 𝑌. Note that this theorem would not hold for arbitrary walks (if the last edge was identical with a previous edge, the degree of the vertices incident with this edge would not be increased because of this edge). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 20-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → ((VtxDeg‘𝑍)‘𝑈) = (((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) + ((VtxDeg‘𝑌)‘𝑈)))

Theoremeupth2lem3lem1 27632 Lemma for eupth2lem3 27640. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremeupth2lem3lem2 27633 Lemma for eupth2lem3 27640. (Contributed by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))       (𝜑 → ((VtxDeg‘𝑌)‘𝑈) ∈ ℕ0)

Theoremeupth2lem3lem3 27634* Lemma for eupth2lem3 27640, formerly part of proof of eupth2lem3 27640: If a loop {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))} is added to a trail, the degree of the vertices with odd degree remains odd (regarding the subgraphs induced by the involved trails). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 21-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))    &   (𝜑 → if-((𝑃𝑁) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁)}, {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))} ⊆ (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))))       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑃𝑁) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))) → (¬ 2 ∥ (((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) + ((VtxDeg‘𝑌)‘𝑈)) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})))

Theoremeupth2lem3lem4 27635* Lemma for eupth2lem3 27640, formerly part of proof of eupth2lem3 27640: If an edge (not a loop) is added to a trail, the degree of the end vertices of this edge remains odd if it was odd before (regarding the subgraphs induced by the involved trails). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))    &   (𝜑 → if-((𝑃𝑁) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁)}, {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))} ⊆ (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) ∈ 𝒫 𝑉)       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑃𝑁) ≠ (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)) ∧ (𝑈 = (𝑃𝑁) ∨ 𝑈 = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)))) → (¬ 2 ∥ (((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) + ((VtxDeg‘𝑌)‘𝑈)) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})))

Theoremeupth2lem3lem5 27636* Lemma for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by AV, 25-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})       (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) ∈ 𝒫 𝑉)

Theoremeupth2lem3lem6 27637* Formerly part of proof of eupth2lem3 27640: If an edge (not a loop) is added to a trail, the degree of vertices not being end vertices of this edge remains odd if it was odd before (regarding the subgraphs induced by the involved trails). Remark: This seems to be not valid for hyperedges joining more vertices than (𝑃‘0) and (𝑃𝑁): if there is a third vertex in the edge, and this vertex is already contained in the trail, then the degree of this vertex could be affected by this edge! (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})       ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑃𝑁) ≠ (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)) ∧ (𝑈 ≠ (𝑃𝑁) ∧ 𝑈 ≠ (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)))) → (¬ 2 ∥ (((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) + ((VtxDeg‘𝑌)‘𝑈)) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})))

Theoremeupth2lem3lem7 27638* Lemma for eupth2lem3 27640: Combining trlsegvdeg 27631, eupth2lem3lem3 27634, eupth2lem3lem4 27635 and eupth2lem3lem6 27637. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 27-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ (0..^(♯‘𝐹)))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Trails‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑋) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑌) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (Vtx‘𝑍) = 𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑋) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑌) = {⟨(𝐹𝑁), (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁))⟩})    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑍) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0...𝑁))))    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) = {(𝑃𝑁), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})       (𝜑 → (¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑍)‘𝑈) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})))

Theoremeupthvdres 27639 Formerly part of proof of eupth2 27643: The vertex degree remains the same for all vertices if the edges are restricted to the edges of an Eulerian path. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑊)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   𝐻 = ⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^(♯‘𝐹))))⟩       (𝜑 → (VtxDeg‘𝐻) = (VtxDeg‘𝐺))

Theoremeupth2lem3 27640* Lemma for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UPGraph)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   𝐻 = ⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁)))⟩    &   𝑋 = ⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^(𝑁 + 1))))⟩    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑁 + 1) ≤ (♯‘𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐻)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑁), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑁)}))       (𝜑 → (¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝑋)‘𝑈) ↔ 𝑈 ∈ if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑁 + 1))})))

Theoremeupth2lemb 27641* Lemma for eupth2 27643 (induction basis): There are no vertices of odd degree in an Eulerian path of length 0, having no edge and identical endpoints (the single vertex of the Eulerian path). Formerly part of proof for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UPGraph)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)       (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^0)))⟩)‘𝑥)} = ∅)

Theoremeupth2lems 27642* Lemma for eupth2 27643 (induction step): The only vertices of odd degree in a graph with an Eulerian path are the endpoints, and then only if the endpoints are distinct, if the Eulerian path shortened by one edge has this property. Formerly part of proof for eupth2 27643. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UPGraph)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)       ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℕ0) → ((𝑛 ≤ (♯‘𝐹) → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑛)))⟩)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃𝑛), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃𝑛)})) → ((𝑛 + 1) ≤ (♯‘𝐹) → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘⟨𝑉, (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^(𝑛 + 1))))⟩)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(𝑛 + 1)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(𝑛 + 1))}))))

Theoremeupth2 27643* The only vertices of odd degree in a graph with an Eulerian path are the endpoints, and then only if the endpoints are distinct. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 8-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ UPGraph)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐼)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)       (𝜑 → {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥)} = if((𝑃‘0) = (𝑃‘(♯‘𝐹)), ∅, {(𝑃‘0), (𝑃‘(♯‘𝐹))}))

Theoremeulerpathpr 27644* A graph with an Eulerian path has either zero or two vertices of odd degree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃) → (♯‘{𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥)}) ∈ {0, 2})

Theoremeulerpath 27645* A pseudograph with an Eulerian path has either zero or two vertices of odd degree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 7-Apr-2015.) (Revised by AV, 26-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ (EulerPaths‘𝐺) ≠ ∅) → (♯‘{𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥)}) ∈ {0, 2})

Theoremeulercrct 27646* A pseudograph with an Eulerian circuit 𝐹, 𝑃 (an "Eulerian pseudograph") has only vertices of even degree. (Contributed by AV, 12-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ UPGraph ∧ 𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃) → ∀𝑥𝑉 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥))

Theoremeucrctshift 27647* Cyclically shifting the indices of an Eulerian circuit 𝐹, 𝑃 results in an Eulerian circuit 𝐻, 𝑄. (Contributed by AV, 15-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Oct-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   𝑁 = (♯‘𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝑆 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 cyclShift 𝑆)    &   𝑄 = (𝑥 ∈ (0...𝑁) ↦ if(𝑥 ≤ (𝑁𝑆), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 𝑆)), (𝑃‘((𝑥 + 𝑆) − 𝑁))))    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑄𝐻(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑄))

Theoremeucrct2eupth1 27648 Removing one edge (𝐼‘(𝐹𝑁)) from a nonempty graph 𝐺 with an Eulerian circuit 𝐹, 𝑃 results in a graph 𝑆 with an Eulerian path 𝐻, 𝑄. This is the special case of eucrct2eupth 27651 (with 𝐽 = (𝑁 − 1)) where the last segment/edge of the circuit is removed. (Contributed by AV, 11-Mar-2021.) Hypothesis revised using the prefix operation. (Revised by AV, 30-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   (𝜑 → 0 < (♯‘𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐹) − 1))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 prefix 𝑁)    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ↾ (0...𝑁))       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeucrct2eupth1OLD 27649 Obsolete version of eucrct2eupth1 27648 as of 30-Nov-2022. (Contributed by AV, 11-Mar-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   (𝜑 → 0 < (♯‘𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐹) − 1))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ (0..^𝑁))))    &   𝐻 = (𝐹 ↾ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝑄 = (𝑃 ↾ (0...𝑁))       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeucrct2eupthOLD 27650* Obsolete version of eucrct2eupth 27651 as of 30-Nov-2022. (Contributed by AV, 17-Mar-2021.) (New usage is discouraged.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   (𝜑𝑁 = (♯‘𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ ((0..^𝑁) ∖ {𝐽}))))    &   𝐾 = (𝐽 + 1)    &   𝐻 = ((𝐹 cyclShift 𝐾) ↾ (0..^(𝑁 − 1)))    &   𝑄 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ↦ if(𝑥 ≤ (𝑁𝐾), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 𝐾)), (𝑃‘((𝑥 + 𝐾) − 𝑁))))       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

Theoremeucrct2eupth 27651* Removing one edge (𝐼‘(𝐹𝐽)) from a graph 𝐺 with an Eulerian circuit 𝐹, 𝑃 results in a graph 𝑆 with an Eulerian path 𝐻, 𝑄. (Contributed by AV, 17-Mar-2021.) Hypothesis revised using the prefix operation. (Revised by AV, 30-Nov-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (iEdg‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐹(EulerPaths‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹(Circuits‘𝐺)𝑃)    &   (Vtx‘𝑆) = 𝑉    &   (𝜑𝑁 = (♯‘𝐹))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   (𝜑 → (iEdg‘𝑆) = (𝐼 ↾ (𝐹 “ ((0..^𝑁) ∖ {𝐽}))))    &   𝐾 = (𝐽 + 1)    &   𝐻 = ((𝐹 cyclShift 𝐾) prefix (𝑁 − 1))    &   𝑄 = (𝑥 ∈ (0..^𝑁) ↦ if(𝑥 ≤ (𝑁𝐾), (𝑃‘(𝑥 + 𝐾)), (𝑃‘((𝑥 + 𝐾) − 𝑁))))       (𝜑𝐻(EulerPaths‘𝑆)𝑄)

16.4.2  The Königsberg Bridge problem

According to Wikipedia ("Seven Bridges of Königsberg", 9-Mar-2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Bridges_of_Koenigsberg): "The Seven Bridges of Königsberg is a historically notable problem in mathematics. Its negative resolution by Leonhard Euler in 1736 laid the foundations of graph theory and prefigured the idea of topology. The city of Königsberg in [East] Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia) was set on both sides of the Pregel River, and included two large islands - Kneiphof and Lomse - which were connected to each other, or to the two mainland portions of the city, by seven bridges. The problem was to devise a walk through the city that would cross each of those bridges once and only once.". Euler proved that the problem has no solution by applying Euler's theorem to the Königsberg graph, which is obtained by replacing each land mass with an abstract "vertex" or node, and each bridge with an abstract connection, an "edge", which connects two land masses/vertices. The Königsberg graph 𝐺 is a multigraph consisting of 4 vertices and 7 edges, represented by the following ordered pair: 𝐺 = ⟨(0...3), ⟨“{0, 1}{0, 2} {0, 3}{1, 2}{1, 2}{2, 3}{2, 3}”⟩⟩, see konigsbergumgr 27657. konigsberg 27663 shows that the Königsberg graph has no Eulerian path, thus the Königsberg Bridge problem has no solution.

Theoremkonigsbergvtx 27652 The set of vertices of the Königsberg graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       (Vtx‘𝐺) = (0...3)

Theoremkonigsbergiedg 27653 The indexed edges of the Königsberg graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       (iEdg‘𝐺) = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩

Theoremkonigsbergiedgw 27654* The indexed edges of the Königsberg graph 𝐺 is a word over the pairs of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       𝐸 ∈ Word {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (♯‘𝑥) = 2}

Theoremkonigsbergssiedgwpr 27655* Each subset of the indexed edges of the Königsberg graph 𝐺 is a word over the pairs of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((𝐴 ∈ Word V ∧ 𝐵 ∈ Word V ∧ 𝐸 = (𝐴 ++ 𝐵)) → 𝐴 ∈ Word {𝑥 ∈ 𝒫 𝑉 ∣ (♯‘𝑥) = 2})

Theoremkonigsbergssiedgw 27656* Each subset of the indexed edges of the Königsberg graph 𝐺 is a word over the pairs of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((𝐴 ∈ Word V ∧ 𝐵 ∈ Word V ∧ 𝐸 = (𝐴 ++ 𝐵)) → 𝐴 ∈ Word {𝑥 ∈ (𝒫 𝑉 ∖ {∅}) ∣ (♯‘𝑥) ≤ 2})

Theoremkonigsbergumgr 27657 The Königsberg graph 𝐺 is a multigraph. (Contributed by AV, 28-Feb-2021.) (Revised by AV, 9-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       𝐺 ∈ UMGraph

Theoremkonigsberglem1 27658 Lemma 1 for konigsberg 27663: Vertex 0 has degree three. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Feb-2016.) (Revised by AV, 4-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘0) = 3

Theoremkonigsberglem2 27659 Lemma 2 for konigsberg 27663: Vertex 1 has degree three. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Feb-2016.) (Revised by AV, 4-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘1) = 3

Theoremkonigsberglem3 27660 Lemma 3 for konigsberg 27663: Vertex 3 has degree three. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Feb-2016.) (Revised by AV, 4-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘3) = 3

Theoremkonigsberglem4 27661* Lemma 4 for konigsberg 27663: Vertices 0, 1, 3 are vertices of odd degree. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       {0, 1, 3} ⊆ {𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥)}

Theoremkonigsberglem5 27662* Lemma 5 for konigsberg 27663: The set of vertices of odd degree is greater than 2. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by AV, 28-Feb-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       2 < (♯‘{𝑥𝑉 ∣ ¬ 2 ∥ ((VtxDeg‘𝐺)‘𝑥)})

Theoremkonigsberg 27663 The Königsberg Bridge problem. If 𝐺 is the Königsberg graph, i.e. a graph on four vertices 0, 1, 2, 3, with edges {0, 1}, {0, 2}, {0, 3}, {1, 2}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}, {2, 3}, then vertices 0, 1, 3 each have degree three, and 2 has degree five, so there are four vertices of odd degree and thus by eulerpath 27645 the graph cannot have an Eulerian path. It is sufficient to show that there are 3 vertices of odd degree, since a graph having an Eulerian path can only have 0 or 2 vertices of odd degree. This is Metamath 100 proof #54. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 11-Mar-2015.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 28-Feb-2016.) (Revised by AV, 9-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (0...3)    &   𝐸 = ⟨“{0, 1} {0, 2} {0, 3} {1, 2} {1, 2} {2, 3} {2, 3}”⟩    &   𝐺 = ⟨𝑉, 𝐸       (EulerPaths‘𝐺) = ∅

16.5  The Friendship Theorem

16.5.1  Friendship graphs - basics

Syntaxcfrgr 27664 Extend class notation with friendship graphs.
class FriendGraph

Definitiondf-frgr 27665* Define the class of all friendship graphs: a simple graph is called a friendship graph if every pair of its vertices has exactly one common neighbor. This condition is called the friendship condition , see definition in [MertziosUnger] p. 152. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens and Mario Carneiro, 2-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
FriendGraph = {𝑔 ∣ (𝑔 ∈ USGraph ∧ [(Vtx‘𝑔) / 𝑣][(Edg‘𝑔) / 𝑒]𝑘𝑣𝑙 ∈ (𝑣 ∖ {𝑘})∃!𝑥𝑣 {{𝑥, 𝑘}, {𝑥, 𝑙}} ⊆ 𝑒)}

Theoremisfrgr 27666* The property of being a friendship graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑈 → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ↔ (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ ∀𝑘𝑉𝑙 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑘})∃!𝑥𝑉 {{𝑥, 𝑘}, {𝑥, 𝑙}} ⊆ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgrusgrfrcond 27667* A friendship graph is a simple graph which fulfils the friendship condition. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ↔ (𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ ∀𝑘𝑉𝑙 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑘})∃!𝑥𝑉 {{𝑥, 𝑘}, {𝑥, 𝑙}} ⊆ 𝐸))

Theoremfrgrusgr 27668 A friendship graph is a simple graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
(𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → 𝐺 ∈ USGraph)

Theoremfrgr0v 27669 Any null graph (set with no vertices) is a friendship graph iff its edge function is empty. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ↔ (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅))

Theoremfrgr0vb 27670 Any null graph (without vertices and edges) is a friendship graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
((𝐺𝑊 ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅ ∧ (iEdg‘𝐺) = ∅) → 𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )

Theoremfrgruhgr0v 27671 Any null graph (without vertices) represented as hypergraph is a friendship graph. (Contributed by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ UHGraph ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = ∅) → 𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )

Theoremfrgr0 27672 The null graph (graph without vertices) is a friendship graph. (Contributed by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
∅ ∈ FriendGraph

Theoremrspc2vd 27673* Deduction version of 2-variable restricted specialization, using implicit substitution. Notice that the class 𝐷 for the second set variable 𝑦 may depend on the first set variable 𝑥. (Contributed by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
(𝑥 = 𝐴 → (𝜃𝜒))    &   (𝑦 = 𝐵 → (𝜒𝜓))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 = 𝐴) → 𝐷 = 𝐸)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐸)       (𝜑 → (∀𝑥𝐶𝑦𝐷 𝜃𝜓))

Theoremfrcond1 27674* The friendship condition: any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph have a unique common neighbor. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ((𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉𝐴𝐶) → ∃!𝑏𝑉 {{𝐴, 𝑏}, {𝑏, 𝐶}} ⊆ 𝐸))

Theoremfrcond2 27675* The friendship condition: any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph have a unique common neighbor. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ((𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉𝐴𝐶) → ∃!𝑏𝑉 ({𝐴, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrgreu 27676* Variant of frcond2 27675: Any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph have a unique common neighbor. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 18-Feb-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-May-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 4-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ((𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉𝐴𝐶) → ∃!𝑏({𝐴, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theoremfrcond3 27677* The friendship condition, expressed by neighborhoods: in a friendship graph, the neighborhood of a vertex and the neighborhood of a second, different vertex have exactly one vertex in common. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 30-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ((𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉𝐴𝐶) → ∃𝑥𝑉 ((𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝐴) ∩ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝐶)) = {𝑥}))

Theoremfrcond4 27678* The friendship condition, alternatively expressed by neighborhoods: in a friendship graph, the neighborhoods of two different vertices have exactly one vertex in common. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 30-Dec-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑘𝑉𝑙 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑘})∃𝑥𝑉 ((𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑘) ∩ (𝐺 NeighbVtx 𝑙)) = {𝑥})

16.5.2  The friendship theorem for small graphs

Theoremfrgr1v 27679 Any graph with (at most) one vertex is a friendship graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = {𝑁}) → 𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph )

Theoremnfrgr2v 27680 Any graph with two (different) vertices is not a friendship graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 30-Sep-2017.) (Proof shortened by Alexander van der Vekens, 13-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
(((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐴𝐵) ∧ (Vtx‘𝐺) = {𝐴, 𝐵}) → 𝐺 ∉ FriendGraph )

Theoremfrgr3vlem1 27681* Lemma 1 for frgr3v 27683. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐶𝑍) ∧ (𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ 𝐺 ∈ USGraph)) → ∀𝑥𝑦(((𝑥 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ {{𝑥, 𝐴}, {𝑥, 𝐵}} ⊆ 𝐸) ∧ (𝑦 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ {{𝑦, 𝐴}, {𝑦, 𝐵}} ⊆ 𝐸)) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))

Theoremfrgr3vlem2 27682* Lemma 2 for frgr3v 27683. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 4-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐶𝑍) ∧ (𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐶)) → ((𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ 𝐺 ∈ USGraph) → (∃!𝑥 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} {{𝑥, 𝐴}, {𝑥, 𝐵}} ⊆ 𝐸 ↔ ({𝐶, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐶, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸))))

Theoremfrgr3v 27683 Any graph with three vertices which are completely connected with each other is a friendship graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 29-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐶𝑍) ∧ (𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐶)) → ((𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ 𝐺 ∈ USGraph) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ↔ ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐶, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸))))

Theorem1vwmgr 27684* Every graph with one vertex (which may be connect with itself by (multiple) loops!) is a windmill graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
((𝐴𝑋𝑉 = {𝐴}) → ∃𝑉𝑣 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {})({𝑣, } ∈ 𝐸 ∧ ∃!𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸))

Theorem3vfriswmgrlem 27685* Lemma for 3vfriswmgr 27686. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐴𝐵) ∧ (𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶} ∧ 𝐺 ∈ USGraph)) → ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 → ∃!𝑤 ∈ {𝐴, 𝐵} {𝐴, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸))

Theorem3vfriswmgr 27686* Every friendship graph with three (different) vertices is a windmill graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝐴𝑋𝐵𝑌𝐶𝑍) ∧ (𝐴𝐵𝐴𝐶𝐵𝐶) ∧ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶}) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∃𝑉𝑣 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {})({𝑣, } ∈ 𝐸 ∧ ∃!𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theorem1to2vfriswmgr 27687* Every friendship graph with one or two vertices is a windmill graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐴𝑋 ∧ (𝑉 = {𝐴} ∨ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵})) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∃𝑉𝑣 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {})({𝑣, } ∈ 𝐸 ∧ ∃!𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theorem1to3vfriswmgr 27688* Every friendship graph with one, two or three vertices is a windmill graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐴𝑋 ∧ (𝑉 = {𝐴} ∨ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵} ∨ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶})) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∃𝑉𝑣 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {})({𝑣, } ∈ 𝐸 ∧ ∃!𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theorem1to3vfriendship 27689* The friendship theorem for small graphs: In every friendship graph with one, two or three vertices, there is a vertex which is adjacent to all other vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Oct-2017.) (Revised by AV, 31-Mar-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐴𝑋 ∧ (𝑉 = {𝐴} ∨ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵} ∨ 𝑉 = {𝐴, 𝐵, 𝐶})) → (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∃𝑣𝑉𝑤 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑣}){𝑣, 𝑤} ∈ 𝐸))

16.5.3  Theorems according to Mertzios and Unger

Theorem2pthfrgrrn 27690* Between any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph is a 2-path (path of length 2), see Proposition 1(b) of [MertziosUnger] p. 153 : "A friendship graph G ..., as well as the distance between any two nodes in G is at most two". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 1-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑎𝑉𝑐 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑎})∃𝑏𝑉 ({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑐} ∈ 𝐸))

Theorem2pthfrgrrn2 27691* Between any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph is a 2-path (path of length 2), see Proposition 1(b) of [MertziosUnger] p. 153 : "A friendship graph G ..., as well as the distance between any two nodes in G is at most two". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 16-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 1-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑎𝑉𝑐 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑎})∃𝑏𝑉 (({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑐} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (𝑎𝑏𝑏𝑐)))

Theorem2pthfrgr 27692* Between any two (different) vertices in a friendship graph, tere is a 2-path (simple path of length 2), see Proposition 1(b) of [MertziosUnger] p. 153 : "A friendship graph G ..., as well as the distance between any two nodes in G is at most two". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 1-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph → ∀𝑎𝑉𝑏 ∈ (𝑉 ∖ {𝑎})∃𝑓𝑝(𝑓(𝑎(SPathsOn‘𝐺)𝑏)𝑝 ∧ (♯‘𝑓) = 2))

Theorem3cyclfrgrrn1 27693* Every vertex in a friendship graph (with more than 1 vertex) is part of a 3-cycle. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 16-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉) ∧ 𝐴𝐶) → ∃𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 ({𝐴, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑐} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑐, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸))

Theorem3cyclfrgrrn 27694* Every vertex in a friendship graph (with more than 1 vertex) is part of a 3-cycle. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 16-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝑉)) → ∀𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 ({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑐} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑐, 𝑎} ∈ 𝐸))

Theorem3cyclfrgrrn2 27695* Every vertex in a friendship graph (with more than 1 vertex) is part of a 3-cycle. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝑉)) → ∀𝑎𝑉𝑏𝑉𝑐𝑉 (𝑏𝑐 ∧ ({𝑎, 𝑏} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑏, 𝑐} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑐, 𝑎} ∈ 𝐸)))

Theorem3cyclfrgr 27696* Every vertex in a friendship graph (with more than 1 vertex) is part of a 3-cycle. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 1 < (♯‘𝑉)) → ∀𝑣𝑉𝑓𝑝(𝑓(Cycles‘𝐺)𝑝 ∧ (♯‘𝑓) = 3 ∧ (𝑝‘0) = 𝑣))

Theorem4cycl2v2nb 27697 In a (maybe degenerate) 4-cycle, two vertice have two (maybe not different) common neighbors. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
((({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐷, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸)) → ({{𝐴, 𝐵}, {𝐵, 𝐶}} ⊆ 𝐸 ∧ {{𝐴, 𝐷}, {𝐷, 𝐶}} ⊆ 𝐸))

Theorem4cycl2vnunb 27698* In a 4-cycle, two distinct vertices have not a unique common neighbor. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
((({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐷, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (𝐵𝑉𝐷𝑉𝐵𝐷)) → ¬ ∃!𝑥𝑉 {{𝐴, 𝑥}, {𝑥, 𝐶}} ⊆ 𝐸)

Theoremn4cyclfrgr 27699 There is no 4-cycle in a friendship graph, see Proposition 1(a) of [MertziosUnger] p. 153 : "A friendship graph G contains no C4 as a subgraph ...". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Nov-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ FriendGraph ∧ 𝐹(Cycles‘𝐺)𝑃) → (♯‘𝐹) ≠ 4)

Theorem4cyclusnfrgr 27700 A graph with a 4-cycle is not a friendhip graph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Dec-2017.) (Revised by AV, 2-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ (𝐴𝑉𝐶𝑉𝐴𝐶) ∧ (𝐵𝑉𝐷𝑉𝐵𝐷)) → ((({𝐴, 𝐵} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐵, 𝐶} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝐷, 𝐴} ∈ 𝐸)) → 𝐺 ∉ FriendGraph ))

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