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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 33001-33100   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremdnibndlem12 33001* Lemma for dnibnd 33003. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ((⌊‘(𝐴 + (1 / 2))) + 2) ≤ (⌊‘(𝐵 + (1 / 2))))       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝑇𝐵) − (𝑇𝐴))) ≤ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremdnibndlem13 33002* Lemma for dnibnd 33003. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (⌊‘(𝐴 + (1 / 2))) ≤ (⌊‘(𝐵 + (1 / 2))))       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝑇𝐵) − (𝑇𝐴))) ≤ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremdnibnd 33003* The "distance to nearest integer" function is 1-Lipschitz continuous, i.e., is a short map. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝑇𝐵) − (𝑇𝐴))) ≤ (abs‘(𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremdnicn 33004 The "distance to nearest integer" function is continuous. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))       𝑇 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ)

Theoremknoppcnlem1 33005* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.)
𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑀) = ((𝐶𝑀) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑀) · 𝐴))))

Theoremknoppcnlem2 33006* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐶𝑀) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑀) · 𝐴))) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremknoppcnlem3 33007* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑀) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremknoppcnlem4 33008* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (abs‘((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑀)) ≤ ((𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((abs‘𝐶)↑𝑚))‘𝑀))

Theoremknoppcnlem5 33009* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚))):ℕ0⟶(ℂ ↑𝑚 ℝ))

Theoremknoppcnlem6 33010* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐶) < 1)       (𝜑 → seq0( ∘𝑓 + , (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚)))) ∈ dom (⇝𝑢‘ℝ))

Theoremknoppcnlem7 33011* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (seq0( ∘𝑓 + , (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚))))‘𝑀) = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ (seq0( + , (𝐹𝑤))‘𝑀)))

Theoremknoppcnlem8 33012* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → seq0( ∘𝑓 + , (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚)))):ℕ0⟶(ℂ ↑𝑚 ℝ))

Theoremknoppcnlem9 33013* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐶) < 1)       (𝜑 → seq0( ∘𝑓 + , (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚))))(⇝𝑢‘ℝ)𝑊)

Theoremknoppcnlem10 33014* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑀)) ∈ ((topGen‘ran (,)) Cn (TopOpen‘ℂfld)))

Theoremknoppcnlem11 33015* Lemma for knoppcn 33016. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → seq0( ∘𝑓 + , (𝑚 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (𝑧 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((𝐹𝑧)‘𝑚)))):ℕ0⟶(ℝ–cn→ℂ))

Theoremknoppcn 33016* The continuous nowhere differentiable function 𝑊 ( Knopp, K. (1918). Math. Z. 2, 1-26 ) is, in fact, continuous. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 4-Apr-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐶) < 1)       (𝜑𝑊 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℂ))

Theoremknoppcld 33017* Closure theorem for Knopp's function. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 26-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐶) < 1)       (𝜑 → (𝑊𝐴) ∈ ℂ)

Theoremunblimceq0lem 33018* Lemma for unblimceq0 33019. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑆⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑏 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝑆 ((abs‘(𝑥𝐴)) < 𝑑𝑏 ≤ (abs‘(𝐹𝑥))))       (𝜑 → ∀𝑐 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑦𝑆 (𝑦𝐴 ∧ (abs‘(𝑦𝐴)) < 𝑑𝑐 ≤ (abs‘(𝐹𝑦))))

Theoremunblimceq0 33019* If 𝐹 is unbounded near 𝐴 it has no limit at 𝐴. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
(𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑆⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑏 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝑆 ((abs‘(𝑥𝐴)) < 𝑑𝑏 ≤ (abs‘(𝐹𝑥))))       (𝜑 → (𝐹 lim 𝐴) = ∅)

Theoremunbdqndv1 33020* If the difference quotient (((𝐹𝑧) − (𝐹𝐴)) / (𝑧𝐴)) is unbounded near 𝐴 then 𝐹 is not differentiable at 𝐴. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
𝐺 = (𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝐴}) ↦ (((𝐹𝑧) − (𝐹𝐴)) / (𝑧𝐴)))    &   (𝜑𝑆 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑆)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑏 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑥 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝐴})((abs‘(𝑥𝐴)) < 𝑑𝑏 ≤ (abs‘(𝐺𝑥))))       (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐴 ∈ dom (𝑆 D 𝐹))

Theoremunbdqndv2lem1 33021 Lemma for unbdqndv2 33023. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ≠ 0)    &   (𝜑 → (2 · 𝐸) ≤ (abs‘((𝐴𝐵) / 𝐷)))       (𝜑 → ((𝐸 · (abs‘𝐷)) ≤ (abs‘(𝐴𝐶)) ∨ (𝐸 · (abs‘𝐷)) ≤ (abs‘(𝐵𝐶))))

Theoremunbdqndv2lem2 33022* Lemma for unbdqndv2 33023. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
𝐺 = (𝑧 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝐴}) ↦ (((𝐹𝑧) − (𝐹𝐴)) / (𝑧𝐴)))    &   𝑊 = if((𝐵 · (𝑉𝑈)) ≤ (abs‘((𝐹𝑈) − (𝐹𝐴))), 𝑈, 𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑋)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑉𝑈) < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (2 · 𝐵) ≤ ((abs‘((𝐹𝑉) − (𝐹𝑈))) / (𝑉𝑈)))       (𝜑 → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋 ∖ {𝐴}) ∧ ((abs‘(𝑊𝐴)) < 𝐷𝐵 ≤ (abs‘(𝐺𝑊)))))

Theoremunbdqndv2 33023* Variant of unbdqndv1 33020 with the hypothesis that (((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥)) / (𝑦𝑥)) is unbounded where 𝑥𝐴 and 𝐴𝑦. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-May-2021.)
(𝜑𝑋 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑋⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑏 ∈ ℝ+𝑑 ∈ ℝ+𝑥𝑋𝑦𝑋 ((𝑥𝐴𝐴𝑦) ∧ ((𝑦𝑥) < 𝑑𝑥𝑦) ∧ 𝑏 ≤ ((abs‘((𝐹𝑦) − (𝐹𝑥))) / (𝑦𝑥))))       (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐴 ∈ dom (ℝ D 𝐹))

Theoremknoppndvlem1 33024 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)       (𝜑 → ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremknoppndvlem2 33025 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 < 𝐼)       (𝜑 → (((2 · 𝑁)↑𝐼) · ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)) ∈ ℤ)

Theoremknoppndvlem3 33026 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))       (𝜑 → (𝐶 ∈ ℝ ∧ (abs‘𝐶) < 1))

Theoremknoppndvlem4 33027* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → seq0( + , (𝐹𝐴)) ⇝ (𝑊𝐴))

Theoremknoppndvlem5 33028* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝐽)((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑖) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremknoppndvlem6 33029* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (𝑊𝐴) = Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...𝐽)((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑖))

Theoremknoppndvlem7 33030* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝐽) = ((𝐶𝐽) · (𝑇‘(𝑀 / 2))))

Theoremknoppndvlem8 33031* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ∥ 𝑀)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝐽) = 0)

Theoremknoppndvlem9 33032* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 2 ∥ 𝑀)       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝐽) = ((𝐶𝐽) / 2))

Theoremknoppndvlem10 33033* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 15-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑀 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (abs‘(((𝐹𝐵)‘𝐽) − ((𝐹𝐴)‘𝐽))) = (((abs‘𝐶)↑𝐽) / 2))

Theoremknoppndvlem11 33034* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 28-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (abs‘(Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...(𝐽 − 1))((𝐹𝐵)‘𝑖) − Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...(𝐽 − 1))((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑖))) ≤ ((abs‘(𝐵𝐴)) · Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...(𝐽 − 1))(((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶))↑𝑖)))

Theoremknoppndvlem12 33035 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 29-Jun-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) ≠ 1 ∧ 1 < (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1)))

Theoremknoppndvlem13 33036 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 1-Jul-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 5-Jul-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑𝐶 ≠ 0)

Theoremknoppndvlem14 33037* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 1-Jul-2021.) (Revised by Asger C. Ipsen, 7-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑀 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → (abs‘(Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...(𝐽 − 1))((𝐹𝐵)‘𝑖) − Σ𝑖 ∈ (0...(𝐽 − 1))((𝐹𝐴)‘𝑖))) ≤ ((((abs‘𝐶)↑𝐽) / 2) · (1 / (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1))))

Theoremknoppndvlem15 33038* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 6-Jul-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑀 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → ((((abs‘𝐶)↑𝐽) / 2) · (1 − (1 / (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1)))) ≤ (abs‘((𝑊𝐵) − (𝑊𝐴))))

Theoremknoppndvlem16 33039 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 19-Jul-2021.)
𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑀 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (𝐵𝐴) = (((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2))

Theoremknoppndvlem17 33040* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 12-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑀)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑀 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → ((((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶))↑𝐽) · (1 − (1 / (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1)))) ≤ ((abs‘((𝑊𝐵) − (𝑊𝐴))) / (𝐵𝐴)))

Theoremknoppndvlem18 33041* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 14-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝑗) / 2) < 𝐷𝐸 ≤ ((((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶))↑𝑗) · 𝐺)))

Theoremknoppndvlem19 33042* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 17-Aug-2021.)
𝐴 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · 𝑚)    &   𝐵 = ((((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) · (𝑚 + 1))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℤ (𝐴𝐻𝐻𝐵))

Theoremknoppndvlem20 33043 Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 18-Aug-2021.)
(𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → (1 − (1 / (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1))) ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremknoppndvlem21 33044* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 18-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   𝐺 = (1 − (1 / (((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶)) − 1)))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))    &   (𝜑 → (((2 · 𝑁)↑-𝐽) / 2) < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ≤ ((((2 · 𝑁) · (abs‘𝐶))↑𝐽) · 𝐺))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑏 ∈ ℝ ((𝑎𝐻𝐻𝑏) ∧ ((𝑏𝑎) < 𝐷𝑎𝑏) ∧ 𝐸 ≤ ((abs‘((𝑊𝑏) − (𝑊𝑎))) / (𝑏𝑎))))

Theoremknoppndvlem22 33045* Lemma for knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 19-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑏 ∈ ℝ ((𝑎𝐻𝐻𝑏) ∧ ((𝑏𝑎) < 𝐷𝑎𝑏) ∧ 𝐸 ≤ ((abs‘((𝑊𝑏) − (𝑊𝑎))) / (𝑏𝑎))))

Theoremknoppndv 33046* The continuous nowhere differentiable function 𝑊 ( Knopp, K. (1918). Math. Z. 2, 1-26 ) is, in fact, nowhere differentiable. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 19-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑 → 1 < (𝑁 · (abs‘𝐶)))       (𝜑 → dom (ℝ D 𝑊) = ∅)

Theoremknoppf 33047* Knopp's function is a function. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 25-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑𝑊:ℝ⟶ℝ)

Theoremknoppcn2 33048* Variant of knoppcn 33016 with different codomain. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 25-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((𝐶𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 𝑁)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (-1(,)1))       (𝜑𝑊 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ))

Theoremcnndvlem1 33049* Lemma for cnndv 33051. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 25-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (((1 / 2)↑𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 3)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))       (𝑊 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ) ∧ dom (ℝ D 𝑊) = ∅)

Theoremcnndvlem2 33050* Lemma for cnndv 33051. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 26-Aug-2021.)
𝑇 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (abs‘((⌊‘(𝑥 + (1 / 2))) − 𝑥)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (((1 / 2)↑𝑛) · (𝑇‘(((2 · 3)↑𝑛) · 𝑦)))))    &   𝑊 = (𝑤 ∈ ℝ ↦ Σ𝑖 ∈ ℕ0 ((𝐹𝑤)‘𝑖))       𝑓(𝑓 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ) ∧ dom (ℝ D 𝑓) = ∅)

Theoremcnndv 33051 There exists a continuous nowhere differentiable function. The result follows directly from knoppcn 33016 and knoppndv 33046. (Contributed by Asger C. Ipsen, 26-Aug-2021.)
𝑓(𝑓 ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ) ∧ dom (ℝ D 𝑓) = ∅)

20.14  Mathbox for BJ

In this mathbox, we try to respect the ordering of the sections of the main part. There are strengthenings of theorems of the main part, as well as work on reducing axiom dependencies.

20.14.1  Propositional calculus

Miscellaneous utility theorems of propositional calculus.

20.14.1.1  Derived rules of inference

In this section, we prove a few rules of inference derived from modus ponens ax-mp 5, and which do not depend on any other axioms.

Theorembj-mp2c 33052 A double modus ponens inference. Inference associated with mpd 15. (Contributed by BJ, 24-Sep-2019.)
𝜑    &   (𝜑𝜓)    &   (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       𝜒

Theorembj-mp2d 33053 A double modus ponens inference. Inference associated with mpcom 38. (Contributed by BJ, 24-Sep-2019.)
𝜑    &   (𝜑𝜓)    &   (𝜓 → (𝜑𝜒))       𝜒

20.14.1.2  A syntactic theorem

In this section, we prove a syntactic theorem (bj-0 33054) asserting that some formula is well-formed. Then, we use this syntactic theorem to shorten the proof of a "usual" theorem (bj-1 33055) and explain in the comment of that theorem why this phenomenon is unusual.

Theorembj-0 33054 A syntactic theorem. See the section comment and the comment of bj-1 33055. The full proof (that is, with the syntactic, non-essential steps) does not appear on this webpage. It has five steps and reads \$= wph wps wi wch wi \$. The only other syntactic theorems in the main part of set.mm are wel 2165 and weq 2061. (Contributed by BJ, 24-Sep-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
wff ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒)

Theorembj-1 33055 In this proof, the use of the syntactic theorem bj-0 33054 allows to reduce the total length by one (non-essential) step. See also the section comment and the comment of bj-0 33054. Since bj-0 33054 is used in a non-essential step, this use does not appear on this webpage (but the present theorem appears on the webpage for bj-0 33054 as a theorem referencing it). The full proof reads \$= wph wps wch bj-0 id \$. (while, without using bj-0 33054, it would read \$= wph wps wi wch wi id \$.).

Now we explain why syntactic theorems are not useful in set.mm. Suppose that the syntactic theorem thm-0 proves that PHI is a well-formed formula, and that thm-0 is used to shorten the proof of thm-1. Assume that PHI does have proper non-atomic subformulas (which is not the case of the formula proved by weq 2061 or wel 2165). Then, the proof of thm-1 does not construct all the proper non-atomic subformulas of PHI (if it did, then using thm-0 would not shorten it). Therefore, thm-1 is a special instance of a more general theorem with essentially the same proof. In the present case, bj-1 33055 is a special instance of id 22. (Contributed by BJ, 24-Sep-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)

(((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒) → ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒))

20.14.1.3  Minimal implicational calculus

Theorembj-a1k 33056 Weakening of ax-1 6. This shortens the proofs of dfwe2 7242 (937>925), ordunisuc2 7305 (789>777), r111 8915 (558>545), smo11 7727 (1176>1164). (Contributed by BJ, 11-Aug-2020.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓 → (𝜒𝜓)))

Theorembj-jarrii 33057 Inference associated with jarri 107. (Contributed by BJ, 29-Mar-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜒)    &   𝜓       𝜒

Theorembj-imim21 33058 The propositional function (𝜒 → (. → 𝜃)) is decreasing. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Jul-2019.)
((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝜒 → (𝜓𝜃)) → (𝜒 → (𝜑𝜃))))

Theorembj-imim21i 33059 Inference associated with bj-imim21 33058. Its associated inference is syl5 34. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Jul-2019.)
(𝜑𝜓)       ((𝜒 → (𝜓𝜃)) → (𝜒 → (𝜑𝜃)))

20.14.1.4  Positive calculus

Theorembj-syl66ib 33060 A mixed syllogism inference derived from syl6ib 243. In addition to bj-dvelimdv1 33351, it can also shorten alexsubALTlem4 22224 (4821>4812), supsrlem 10248 (2868>2863). (Contributed by BJ, 20-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜃))    &   (𝜃𝜏)    &   (𝜏𝜒)       (𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))

Theorembj-orim2 33061 Proof of orim2 995 from the axiomatic definition of disjunction (olc 899, orc 898, jao 988) and minimal implicational calculus. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((𝜑𝜓) → ((𝜒𝜑) → (𝜒𝜓)))

Theorembj-peirce 33062 Proof of peirce 194 from minimal implicational calculus, the axiomatic definition of disjunction (olc 899, orc 898, jao 988), and Curry's axiom curryax 922. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Apr-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜑) → 𝜑)

Theorembj-currypeirce 33063 Curry's axiom (a non-intuitionistic statement sometimes called a paradox of material implication) implies Peirce's axiom peirce 194 over minimal implicational calculus and the axiomatic definition of disjunction (olc 899, orc 898, jao 988). A shorter proof from bj-orim2 33061, pm1.2 932, syl6com 37 is possible if we accept to use pm1.2 932, itself a direct consequence of jao 988. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Jun-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((𝜑 ∨ (𝜑𝜓)) → (((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜑) → 𝜑))

Theorembj-peircecurry 33064 Peirce's axiom peirce 194 implies Curry's axiom over minimal implicational calculus and the axiomatic definition of disjunction (olc 899, orc 898, jao 988). See comment of bj-currypeirce 33063. (Contributed by BJ, 15-Jun-2021.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(𝜑 ∨ (𝜑𝜓))

20.14.1.5  Implication and negation

Theorembj-con2com 33065 A commuted form of the contrapositive, true in minimal calculus. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2020.)
(𝜑 → ((𝜓 → ¬ 𝜑) → ¬ 𝜓))

Theorembj-con2comi 33066 Inference associated with bj-con2com 33065. Its associated inference is mt2 192. TODO: when in the main part, add to mt2 192 that it is the inference associated with bj-con2comi 33066. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2020.)
𝜑       ((𝜓 → ¬ 𝜑) → ¬ 𝜓)

Theorembj-pm2.01i 33067 Inference associated with the weak Clavius law pm2.01 181. (Contributed by BJ, 30-Mar-2020.)
(𝜑 → ¬ 𝜑)        ¬ 𝜑

Theorembj-nimn 33068 If a formula is true, then it does not imply its negation. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2020.) A shorter proof is possible using id 22 and jc 161, however, the present proof uses theorems that are more basic than jc 161. (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑 → ¬ (𝜑 → ¬ 𝜑))

Theorembj-nimni 33069 Inference associated with bj-nimn 33068. (Contributed by BJ, 19-Mar-2020.)
𝜑        ¬ (𝜑 → ¬ 𝜑)

Theorembj-peircei 33070 Inference associated with peirce 194. (Contributed by BJ, 30-Mar-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜑)       𝜑

Theorembj-looinvi 33071 Inference associated with looinv 195. Its associated inference is bj-looinvii 33072. (Contributed by BJ, 30-Mar-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜓)       ((𝜓𝜑) → 𝜑)

Theorembj-looinvii 33072 Inference associated with bj-looinvi 33071. (Contributed by BJ, 30-Mar-2020.)
((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜓)    &   (𝜓𝜑)       𝜑

20.14.1.6  Disjunction

A few lemmas about disjunction. The fundamental theorems in this family are the dual statements pm4.71 553 and pm4.72 977. See also biort 964 and biorf 965.

Theorembj-jaoi1 33073 Shortens orfa2 34422 (58>53), pm1.2 932 (20>18), pm1.2 932 (20>18), pm2.4 935 (31>25), pm2.41 936 (31>25), pm2.42 971 (38>32), pm3.2ni 909 (43>39), pm4.44 1024 (55>51). (Contributed by BJ, 30-Sep-2019.)
(𝜑𝜓)       ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝜓)

Theorembj-jaoi2 33074 Shortens consensus 1079 (110>106), elnn0z 11717 (336>329), pm1.2 932 (20>19), pm3.2ni 909 (43>39), pm4.44 1024 (55>51). (Contributed by BJ, 30-Sep-2019.)
(𝜑𝜓)       ((𝜓𝜑) → 𝜓)

20.14.1.7  Logical equivalence

A few other characterizations of the bicondional. The inter-definability of logical connectives offers many ways to express a given statement. Some useful theorems in this regard are df-or 879, df-an 387, pm4.64 880, imor 884, pm4.62 887 through pm4.67 389, and, for the De Morgan laws, ianor 1009 through pm4.57 1018.

Theorembj-dfbi4 33075 Alternate definition of the biconditional. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Oct-2019.)
((𝜑𝜓) ↔ ((𝜑𝜓) ∨ ¬ (𝜑𝜓)))

Theorembj-dfbi5 33076 Alternate definition of the biconditional. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Oct-2019.)
((𝜑𝜓) ↔ ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝜑𝜓)))

Theorembj-dfbi6 33077 Alternate definition of the biconditional. (Contributed by BJ, 4-Oct-2019.)
((𝜑𝜓) ↔ ((𝜑𝜓) ↔ (𝜑𝜓)))

Theorembj-bijust0ALT 33078 Alternate proof of bijust0 196; shorter but using additional intermediate results. (Contributed by NM, 11-May-1999.) (Proof shortened by Josh Purinton, 29-Dec-2000.) (Revised by BJ, 19-Mar-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
¬ ((𝜑𝜑) → ¬ (𝜑𝜑))

Theorembj-bijust00 33079 A self-implication does not imply the negation of a self-implication. Most general theorem of which bijust 197 is an instance (bijust0 196 and bj-bijust0ALT 33078 are therefore also instances of it). (Contributed by BJ, 7-Sep-2022.)
¬ ((𝜑𝜑) → ¬ (𝜓𝜓))

20.14.1.8  The conditional operator for propositions

Theorembj-consensus 33080 Version of consensus 1079 expressed using the conditional operator. (Remark: it may be better to express it as consensus 1079, using only binary connectives, and hinting at the fact that it is a Boolean algebra identity, like the absorption identities.) (Contributed by BJ, 30-Sep-2019.)
((if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒) ∨ (𝜓𝜒)) ↔ if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒))

Theorembj-consensusALT 33081 Alternate proof of bj-consensus 33080. (Contributed by BJ, 30-Sep-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒) ∨ (𝜓𝜒)) ↔ if-(𝜑, 𝜓, 𝜒))

Theorembj-dfifc2 33082* This should be the alternate definition of "ifc" if "if-" enters the main part. (Contributed by BJ, 20-Sep-2019.)
if(𝜑, 𝐴, 𝐵) = {𝑥 ∣ ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) ∨ (¬ 𝜑𝑥𝐵))}

Theorembj-df-ifc 33083* The definition of "ifc" if "if-" enters the main part. This is in line with the definition of a class as the extension of a predicate in df-clab 2812. (Contributed by BJ, 20-Sep-2019.)
if(𝜑, 𝐴, 𝐵) = {𝑥 ∣ if-(𝜑, 𝑥𝐴, 𝑥𝐵)}

Theorembj-ififc 33084* A theorem linking if- and if. (Contributed by BJ, 24-Sep-2019.)
(𝑥 ∈ if(𝜑, 𝐴, 𝐵) ↔ if-(𝜑, 𝑥𝐴, 𝑥𝐵))

20.14.1.9  Propositional calculus: miscellaneous

Miscellaneous theorems of propositional calculus.

Theorembj-imbi12 33085 Uncurried (imported) form of imbi12 338. (Contributed by BJ, 6-May-2019.)
(((𝜑𝜓) ∧ (𝜒𝜃)) → ((𝜑𝜒) ↔ (𝜓𝜃)))

Theorembj-biorfi 33086 This should be labeled "biorfi" while the current biorfi 967 should be labeled "biorfri". The dual of biorf 965 is not biantr 840 but iba 523 (and ibar 524). So there should also be a "biorfr". (Note that these four statements can actually be strengthened to biconditionals.) (Contributed by BJ, 26-Oct-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
¬ 𝜑       (𝜓 ↔ (𝜑𝜓))

Theorembj-falor 33087 Dual of truan 1668 (which has biconditional reversed). (Contributed by BJ, 26-Oct-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑 ↔ (⊥ ∨ 𝜑))

Theorembj-falor2 33088 Dual of truan 1668. (Contributed by BJ, 26-Oct-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
((⊥ ∨ 𝜑) ↔ 𝜑)

Theorembj-bibibi 33089 A property of the biconditional. (Contributed by BJ, 26-Oct-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
(𝜑 ↔ (𝜓 ↔ (𝜑𝜓)))

Theorembj-imn3ani 33090 Duplication of bnj1224 31407. Three-fold version of imnani 391. (Contributed by Jonathan Ben-Naim, 3-Jun-2011.) (Revised by BJ, 22-Oct-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.)
¬ (𝜑𝜓𝜒)       ((𝜑𝜓) → ¬ 𝜒)

Theorembj-andnotim 33091 Two ways of expressing a certain ternary connective. Note the respective positions of the three formulas on each side of the biconditional. (Contributed by BJ, 6-Oct-2018.)
(((𝜑 ∧ ¬ 𝜓) → 𝜒) ↔ ((𝜑𝜓) ∨ 𝜒))

Theorembj-bi3ant 33092 This used to be in the main part. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 14-May-2013.) (Revised by BJ, 14-Jun-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝜓𝜒))       (((𝜃𝜏) → 𝜑) → (((𝜏𝜃) → 𝜓) → ((𝜃𝜏) → 𝜒)))

Theorembj-bisym 33093 This used to be in the main part. (Contributed by Wolf Lammen, 14-May-2013.) (Revised by BJ, 14-Jun-2019.)
(((𝜑𝜓) → (𝜒𝜃)) → (((𝜓𝜑) → (𝜃𝜒)) → ((𝜑𝜓) → (𝜒𝜃))))

20.14.2  Modal logic

In this section, we prove some theorems related to modal logic. For modal logic, we refer to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kripke_semantics, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modal_logic and https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-modal/.

Monadic first-order logic (i.e., with quantification over only one variable) is bi-interpretable with modal logic, by mapping 𝑥 to "necessity" (generally denoted by a box) and 𝑥 to "possibility" (generally denoted by a diamond). Therefore, we use these quantifiers so as not to introduce new symbols. (To be strictly within modal logic, we should add disjoint variable conditions between 𝑥 and any other metavariables appearing in the statements.)

For instance, ax-gen 1894 corresponds to the necessitation rule of modal logic, and ax-4 1908 corresponds to the distributivity axiom (K) of modal logic, also called the Kripke scheme. Modal logics satisfying these rule and axiom are called "normal modal logics", of which the most important modal logics are.

The minimal normal modal logic is also denoted by (K). Here are a few normal modal logics with their axiomatizations (on top of (K)): (K) axiomatized by no supplementary axioms; (T) axiomatized by the axiom T; (K4) axiomatized by the axiom 4; (S4) axiomatized by the axioms T,4; (S5) axiomatized by the axioms T,5 or D,B,4; (GL) axiomatized by the axiom GL.

The last one, called Gödel–Löb logic or provability logic, is important because it describes exactly the properties of provability in Peano arithmetic, as proved by Robert Solovay. See for instance https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-provability/. A basic result in this logic is bj-gl4 33098.

Theorembj-axdd2 33094 This implication, proved using only ax-gen 1894 and ax-4 1908 on top of propositional calculus (hence holding, up to the standard interpretation, in any normal modal logic), shows that the axiom scheme 𝑥 implies the axiom scheme (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑). These correspond to the modal axiom (D), and in predicate calculus, they assert that the universe of discourse is nonempty. For the converse, see bj-axd2d 33095. (Contributed by BJ, 16-May-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∃𝑥𝜑 → (∀𝑥𝜓 → ∃𝑥𝜓))

Theorembj-axd2d 33095 This implication, proved using only ax-gen 1894 on top of propositional calculus (hence holding, up to the standard interpretation, in any modal logic), shows that the axiom scheme (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑) implies the axiom scheme 𝑥. These correspond to the modal axiom (D), and in predicate calculus, they assert that the universe of discourse is nonempty. For the converse, see bj-axdd2 33094. (Contributed by BJ, 16-May-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((∀𝑥⊤ → ∃𝑥⊤) → ∃𝑥⊤)

Theorembj-axtd 33096 This implication, proved from propositional calculus only (hence holding, up to the standard interpretation, in any modal logic), shows that the axiom scheme (∀𝑥𝜑𝜑) (modal T) implies the axiom scheme (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑) (modal D). See also bj-axdd2 33094 and bj-axd2d 33095. (Contributed by BJ, 16-May-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((∀𝑥 ¬ 𝜑 → ¬ 𝜑) → ((∀𝑥𝜑𝜑) → (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝜑)))

Theorembj-gl4lem 33097 Lemma for bj-gl4 33098. Note that this proof holds in the modal logic (K). (Contributed by BJ, 12-Dec-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
(∀𝑥𝜑 → ∀𝑥(∀𝑥(∀𝑥𝜑𝜑) → (∀𝑥𝜑𝜑)))

Theorembj-gl4 33098 In a normal modal logic, the modal axiom GL implies the modal axiom (4). Note that the antecedent of bj-gl4 33098 is an instance of the axiom GL, with 𝜑 replaced by (∀𝑥𝜑𝜑), sometimes called the "strong necessity" of 𝜑. (Contributed by BJ, 12-Dec-2019.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((∀𝑥(∀𝑥(∀𝑥𝜑𝜑) → (∀𝑥𝜑𝜑)) → ∀𝑥(∀𝑥𝜑𝜑)) → (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝑥𝜑))

Theorembj-axc4 33099 Over minimal calculus, the modal axiom (4) (hba1 2325) and the modal axiom (K) (ax-4 1908) together imply axc4 2352. (Contributed by BJ, 29-Nov-2020.) (Proof modification is discouraged.) (New usage is discouraged.)
((∀𝑥𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝑥𝜑) → ((∀𝑥(∀𝑥𝜑𝜓) → (∀𝑥𝑥𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝜓)) → (∀𝑥(∀𝑥𝜑𝜓) → (∀𝑥𝜑 → ∀𝑥𝜓))))

20.14.3  Provability logic

In this section, we assume that, on top of propositional calculus, there is given a provability predicate Prv satisfying the three axioms ax-prv1 33101 and ax-prv2 33102 and ax-prv3 33103. Note the similarity with ax-gen 1894, ax-4 1908 and hba1 2325 respectively. These three properties of Prv are often called the Hilbert–Bernays–Löb derivability conditions, or the Hilbert–Bernays provability conditions.

This corresponds to the modal logic (K4) (see previous section for modal logic). The interpretation of provability logic is the following: we are given a background first-order theory T, the wff Prv 𝜑 means "𝜑 is provable in T", and the turnstile indicates provability in T.

Beware that "provability logic" often means (K) augmented with the Gödel–Löb axiom GL, which we do not assume here (at least for the moment). See for instance https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-provability/.

Provability logic is worth studying because whenever T is a first-order theory containing Robinson arithmetic (a fragment of Peano arithmetic), one can prove (using Gödel numbering, and in the much weaker primitive recursive arithmetic) that there exists in T a provability predicate Prv satisfying the above three axioms. (We do not construct this predicate in this section; this is still a project.)

The main theorems of this section are the "easy parts" of the proofs of Gödel's second incompleteness theorem (bj-babygodel 33106) and Löb's theorem (bj-babylob 33107). See the comments of these theorems for details.

Syntaxcprvb 33100 Syntax for the provability predicate.
wff Prv 𝜑

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144 14301-14400 145 14401-14500 146 14501-14600 147 14601-14700 148 14701-14800 149 14801-14900 150 14901-15000 151 15001-15100 152 15101-15200 153 15201-15300 154 15301-15400 155 15401-15500 156 15501-15600 157 15601-15700 158 15701-15800 159 15801-15900 160 15901-16000 161 16001-16100 162 16101-16200 163 16201-16300 164 16301-16400 165 16401-16500 166 16501-16600 167 16601-16700 168 16701-16800 169 16801-16900 170 16901-17000 171 17001-17100 172 17101-17200 173 17201-17300 174 17301-17400 175 17401-17500 176 17501-17600 177 17601-17700 178 17701-17800 179 17801-17900 180 17901-18000 181 18001-18100 182 18101-18200 183 18201-18300 184 18301-18400 185 18401-18500 186 18501-18600 187 18601-18700 188 18701-18800 189 18801-18900 190 18901-19000 191 19001-19100 192 19101-19200 193 19201-19300 194 19301-19400 195 19401-19500 196 19501-19600 197 19601-19700 198 19701-19800 199 19801-19900 200 19901-20000 201 20001-20100 202 20101-20200 203 20201-20300 204 20301-20400 205 20401-20500 206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 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