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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 10601-10700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement
 
Axiomax-mulass 10601 Multiplication of complex numbers is associative. Axiom 10 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axmulass 10577. Proofs should normally use mulass 10623 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐴 · 𝐵) · 𝐶) = (𝐴 · (𝐵 · 𝐶)))
 
Axiomax-distr 10602 Distributive law for complex numbers (left-distributivity). Axiom 11 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axdistr 10578. Proofs should normally use adddi 10624 instead. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 22-Nov-1994.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐴 · (𝐵 + 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + (𝐴 · 𝐶)))
 
Axiomax-i2m1 10603 i-squared equals -1 (expressed as i-squared plus 1 is 0). Axiom 12 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axi2m1 10579. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)
((i · i) + 1) = 0
 
Axiomax-1ne0 10604 1 and 0 are distinct. Axiom 13 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem ax1ne0 10580. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)
1 ≠ 0
 
Axiomax-1rid 10605 1 is an identity element for real multiplication. Axiom 14 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem ax1rid 10581. Weakened from the original axiom in the form of statement in mulid1 10637, based on ideas by Eric Schmidt. (Contributed by NM, 29-Jan-1995.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → (𝐴 · 1) = 𝐴)
 
Axiomax-rnegex 10606* Existence of negative of real number. Axiom 15 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axrnegex 10582. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 21-May-2007.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ (𝐴 + 𝑥) = 0)
 
Axiomax-rrecex 10607* Existence of reciprocal of nonzero real number. Axiom 16 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axrrecex 10583. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 11-Apr-2007.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 ≠ 0) → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ (𝐴 · 𝑥) = 1)
 
Axiomax-cnre 10608* A complex number can be expressed in terms of two reals. Definition 10-1.1(v) of [Gleason] p. 130. Axiom 17 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axcnre 10584. For naming consistency, use cnre 10636 for new proofs. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 9-May-1999.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ 𝐴 = (𝑥 + (i · 𝑦)))
 
Axiomax-pre-lttri 10609 Ordering on reals satisfies strict trichotomy. Axiom 18 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-lttri 10585. Note: The more general version for extended reals is axlttri 10710. Normally new proofs would use xrlttri 12529. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 < 𝐵 ↔ ¬ (𝐴 = 𝐵𝐵 < 𝐴)))
 
Axiomax-pre-lttrn 10610 Ordering on reals is transitive. Axiom 19 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-lttrn 10586. Note: The more general version for extended reals is axlttrn 10711. Normally new proofs would use lttr 10715. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐴 < 𝐵𝐵 < 𝐶) → 𝐴 < 𝐶))
 
Axiomax-pre-ltadd 10611 Ordering property of addition on reals. Axiom 20 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-ltadd 10587. Normally new proofs would use axltadd 10712. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 < 𝐵 → (𝐶 + 𝐴) < (𝐶 + 𝐵)))
 
Axiomax-pre-mulgt0 10612 The product of two positive reals is positive. Axiom 21 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-mulgt0 10588. Normally new proofs would use axmulgt0 10713. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → ((0 < 𝐴 ∧ 0 < 𝐵) → 0 < (𝐴 · 𝐵)))
 
Axiomax-pre-sup 10613* A nonempty, bounded-above set of reals has a supremum. Axiom 22 of 22 for real and complex numbers, justified by theorem axpre-sup 10589. Note: Normally new proofs would use axsup 10714. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
((𝐴 ⊆ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 ≠ ∅ ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑦𝐴 𝑦 < 𝑥) → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ (∀𝑦𝐴 ¬ 𝑥 < 𝑦 ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ ℝ (𝑦 < 𝑥 → ∃𝑧𝐴 𝑦 < 𝑧)))
 
Axiomax-addf 10614 Addition is an operation on the complex numbers. This deprecated axiom is provided for historical compatibility but is not a bona fide axiom for complex numbers (independent of set theory) since it cannot be interpreted as a first-order or second-order statement (see https://us.metamath.org/downloads/schmidt-cnaxioms.pdf). It may be deleted in the future and should be avoided for new theorems. Instead, the less specific addcl 10617 should be used. Note that uses of ax-addf 10614 can be eliminated by using the defined operation (𝑥 ∈ ℂ, 𝑦 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑥 + 𝑦)) in place of +, from which this axiom (with the defined operation in place of +) follows as a theorem.

This axiom is justified by theorem axaddf 10565. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 19-Oct-2004.)

+ :(ℂ × ℂ)⟶ℂ
 
Axiomax-mulf 10615 Multiplication is an operation on the complex numbers. This deprecated axiom is provided for historical compatibility but is not a bona fide axiom for complex numbers (independent of set theory) since it cannot be interpreted as a first-order or second-order statement (see https://us.metamath.org/downloads/schmidt-cnaxioms.pdf). It may be deleted in the future and should be avoided for new theorems. Instead, the less specific ax-mulcl 10597 should be used. Note that uses of ax-mulf 10615 can be eliminated by using the defined operation (𝑥 ∈ ℂ, 𝑦 ∈ ℂ ↦ (𝑥 · 𝑦)) in place of ·, from which this axiom (with the defined operation in place of ·) follows as a theorem.

This axiom is justified by theorem axmulf 10566. (New usage is discouraged.) (Contributed by NM, 19-Oct-2004.)

· :(ℂ × ℂ)⟶ℂ
 
5.2  Derive the basic properties from the field axioms
 
5.2.1  Some deductions from the field axioms for complex numbers
 
Theoremcnex 10616 Alias for ax-cnex 10591. See also cnexALT 12382. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
ℂ ∈ V
 
Theoremaddcl 10617 Alias for ax-addcl 10595, for naming consistency with addcli 10645. Use this theorem instead of ax-addcl 10595 or axaddcl 10571. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremreaddcl 10618 Alias for ax-addrcl 10596, for naming consistency with readdcli 10654. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremmulcl 10619 Alias for ax-mulcl 10597, for naming consistency with mulcli 10646. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremremulcl 10620 Alias for ax-mulrcl 10598, for naming consistency with remulcli 10655. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ) → (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremmulcom 10621 Alias for ax-mulcom 10599, for naming consistency with mulcomi 10647. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐴 · 𝐵) = (𝐵 · 𝐴))
 
Theoremaddass 10622 Alias for ax-addass 10600, for naming consistency with addassi 10649. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐴 + 𝐵) + 𝐶) = (𝐴 + (𝐵 + 𝐶)))
 
Theoremmulass 10623 Alias for ax-mulass 10601, for naming consistency with mulassi 10650. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐴 · 𝐵) · 𝐶) = (𝐴 · (𝐵 · 𝐶)))
 
Theoremadddi 10624 Alias for ax-distr 10602, for naming consistency with adddii 10651. (Contributed by NM, 10-Mar-2008.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → (𝐴 · (𝐵 + 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + (𝐴 · 𝐶)))
 
Theoremrecn 10625 A real number is a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 10-Aug-1999.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 𝐴 ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremreex 10626 The real numbers form a set. See also reexALT 12380. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 17-Nov-2014.)
ℝ ∈ V
 
Theoremreelprrecn 10627 Reals are a subset of the pair of real and complex numbers. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.)
ℝ ∈ {ℝ, ℂ}
 
Theoremcnelprrecn 10628 Complex numbers are a subset of the pair of real and complex numbers . (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.)
ℂ ∈ {ℝ, ℂ}
 
Theoremelimne0 10629 Hypothesis for weak deduction theorem to eliminate 𝐴 ≠ 0. (Contributed by NM, 15-May-1999.)
if(𝐴 ≠ 0, 𝐴, 1) ≠ 0
 
Theoremadddir 10630 Distributive law for complex numbers (right-distributivity). (Contributed by NM, 10-Oct-2004.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℂ ∧ 𝐶 ∈ ℂ) → ((𝐴 + 𝐵) · 𝐶) = ((𝐴 · 𝐶) + (𝐵 · 𝐶)))
 
Theorem0cn 10631 Zero is a complex number. See also 0cnALT 10872. (Contributed by NM, 19-Feb-2005.)
0 ∈ ℂ
 
Theorem0cnd 10632 Zero is a complex number, deduction form. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.)
(𝜑 → 0 ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremc0ex 10633 Zero is a set. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 7-Jul-2016.)
0 ∈ V
 
Theorem1cnd 10634 One is a complex number, deduction form. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 6-Dec-2018.)
(𝜑 → 1 ∈ ℂ)
 
Theorem1ex 10635 One is a set. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 7-Jul-2016.)
1 ∈ V
 
Theoremcnre 10636* Alias for ax-cnre 10608, for naming consistency. (Contributed by NM, 3-Jan-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ 𝐴 = (𝑥 + (i · 𝑦)))
 
Theoremmulid1 10637 The number 1 is an identity element for multiplication. Based on ideas by Eric Schmidt. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (𝐴 · 1) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremmulid2 10638 Identity law for multiplication. See mulid1 10637 for commuted version. (Contributed by NM, 8-Oct-1999.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℂ → (1 · 𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theorem1re 10639 The number 1 is real. This used to be one of our postulates for complex numbers, but Eric Schmidt discovered that it could be derived from a weaker postulate, ax-1cn 10593, by exploiting properties of the imaginary unit i. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 11-Apr-2007.) (Revised by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.)
1 ∈ ℝ
 
Theorem1red 10640 The number 1 is real, deduction form. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 6-Dec-2018.)
(𝜑 → 1 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theorem0re 10641 The number 0 is real. Remark: the first step could also be ax-icn 10594. See also 0reALT 10981. (Contributed by Eric Schmidt, 21-May-2007.) (Revised by Scott Fenton, 3-Jan-2013.) Reduce dependencies on axioms. (Revised by Steven Nguyen, 11-Oct-2022.)
0 ∈ ℝ
 
Theorem0red 10642 The number 0 is real, deduction form. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 6-Dec-2018.)
(𝜑 → 0 ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremmulid1i 10643 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 14-Feb-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · 1) = 𝐴
 
Theoremmulid2i 10644 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 14-Feb-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ       (1 · 𝐴) = 𝐴
 
Theoremaddcli 10645 Closure law for addition. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℂ
 
Theoremmulcli 10646 Closure law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℂ
 
Theoremmulcomi 10647 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · 𝐵) = (𝐵 · 𝐴)
 
Theoremmulcomli 10648 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   (𝐴 · 𝐵) = 𝐶       (𝐵 · 𝐴) = 𝐶
 
Theoremaddassi 10649 Associative law for addition. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ       ((𝐴 + 𝐵) + 𝐶) = (𝐴 + (𝐵 + 𝐶))
 
Theoremmulassi 10650 Associative law for multiplication. (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ       ((𝐴 · 𝐵) · 𝐶) = (𝐴 · (𝐵 · 𝐶))
 
Theoremadddii 10651 Distributive law (left-distributivity). (Contributed by NM, 23-Nov-1994.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ       (𝐴 · (𝐵 + 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + (𝐴 · 𝐶))
 
Theoremadddiri 10652 Distributive law (right-distributivity). (Contributed by NM, 16-Feb-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℂ    &   𝐶 ∈ ℂ       ((𝐴 + 𝐵) · 𝐶) = ((𝐴 · 𝐶) + (𝐵 · 𝐶))
 
Theoremrecni 10653 A real number is a complex number. (Contributed by NM, 1-Mar-1995.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ       𝐴 ∈ ℂ
 
Theoremreaddcli 10654 Closure law for addition of reals. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jan-1997.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℝ
 
Theoremremulcli 10655 Closure law for multiplication of reals. (Contributed by NM, 17-Jan-1997.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ    &   𝐵 ∈ ℝ       (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℝ
 
Theoremmulid1d 10656 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · 1) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremmulid2d 10657 Identity law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (1 · 𝐴) = 𝐴)
 
Theoremaddcld 10658 Closure law for addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremmulcld 10659 Closure law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremmulcomd 10660 Commutative law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · 𝐵) = (𝐵 · 𝐴))
 
Theoremaddassd 10661 Associative law for addition. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 + 𝐵) + 𝐶) = (𝐴 + (𝐵 + 𝐶)))
 
Theoremmulassd 10662 Associative law for multiplication. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 · 𝐵) · 𝐶) = (𝐴 · (𝐵 · 𝐶)))
 
Theoremadddid 10663 Distributive law (left-distributivity). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · (𝐵 + 𝐶)) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + (𝐴 · 𝐶)))
 
Theoremadddird 10664 Distributive law (right-distributivity). (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 + 𝐵) · 𝐶) = ((𝐴 · 𝐶) + (𝐵 · 𝐶)))
 
Theoremadddirp1d 10665 Distributive law, plus 1 version. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 + 1) · 𝐵) = ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + 𝐵))
 
Theoremjoinlmuladdmuld 10666 Join AB+CB into (A+C) on LHS. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 26-Oct-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → ((𝐴 · 𝐵) + (𝐶 · 𝐵)) = 𝐷)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 + 𝐶) · 𝐵) = 𝐷)
 
Theoremrecnd 10667 Deduction from real number to complex number. (Contributed by NM, 26-Oct-1999.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)
 
Theoremreaddcld 10668 Closure law for addition of reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 + 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)
 
Theoremremulcld 10669 Closure law for multiplication of reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 27-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 · 𝐵) ∈ ℝ)
 
5.2.2  Infinity and the extended real number system
 
Syntaxcpnf 10670 Plus infinity.
class +∞
 
Syntaxcmnf 10671 Minus infinity.
class -∞
 
Syntaxcxr 10672 The set of extended reals (includes plus and minus infinity).
class *
 
Syntaxclt 10673 'Less than' predicate (extended to include the extended reals).
class <
 
Syntaxcle 10674 Extend wff notation to include the 'less than or equal to' relation.
class
 
Definitiondf-pnf 10675 Define plus infinity. Note that the definition is arbitrary, requiring only that +∞ be a set not in and different from -∞ (df-mnf 10676). We use 𝒫 to make it independent of the construction of , and Cantor's Theorem will show that it is different from any member of and therefore . See pnfnre 10680, mnfnre 10682, and pnfnemnf 10694.

A simpler possibility is to define +∞ as and -∞ as {ℂ}, but that approach requires the Axiom of Regularity to show that +∞ and -∞ are different from each other and from all members of . (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (New usage is discouraged.)

+∞ = 𝒫
 
Definitiondf-mnf 10676 Define minus infinity as the power set of plus infinity. Note that the definition is arbitrary, requiring only that -∞ be a set not in and different from +∞ (see mnfnre 10682 and pnfnemnf 10694). (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (New usage is discouraged.)
-∞ = 𝒫 +∞
 
Definitiondf-xr 10677 Define the set of extended reals that includes plus and minus infinity. Definition 12-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 173. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
* = (ℝ ∪ {+∞, -∞})
 
Definitiondf-ltxr 10678* Define 'less than' on the set of extended reals. Definition 12-3.1 of [Gleason] p. 173. Note that in our postulates for complex numbers, < is primitive and not necessarily a relation on . (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
< = ({⟨𝑥, 𝑦⟩ ∣ (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑥 < 𝑦)} ∪ (((ℝ ∪ {-∞}) × {+∞}) ∪ ({-∞} × ℝ)))
 
Definitiondf-le 10679 Define 'less than or equal to' on the extended real subset of complex numbers. Theorem leloe 10725 relates it to 'less than' for reals. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
≤ = ((ℝ* × ℝ*) ∖ < )
 
Theorempnfnre 10680 Plus infinity is not a real number. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
+∞ ∉ ℝ
 
Theorempnfnre2 10681 Plus infinity is not a real number. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
¬ +∞ ∈ ℝ
 
Theoremmnfnre 10682 Minus infinity is not a real number. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.)
-∞ ∉ ℝ
 
Theoremressxr 10683 The standard reals are a subset of the extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)
ℝ ⊆ ℝ*
 
Theoremrexpssxrxp 10684 The Cartesian product of standard reals are a subset of the Cartesian product of extended reals. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.)
(ℝ × ℝ) ⊆ (ℝ* × ℝ*)
 
Theoremrexr 10685 A standard real is an extended real. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)
 
Theorem0xr 10686 Zero is an extended real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 15-Jun-2014.)
0 ∈ ℝ*
 
Theoremrenepnf 10687 No (finite) real equals plus infinity. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 𝐴 ≠ +∞)
 
Theoremrenemnf 10688 No real equals minus infinity. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)
(𝐴 ∈ ℝ → 𝐴 ≠ -∞)
 
Theoremrexrd 10689 A standard real is an extended real. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)
 
Theoremrenepnfd 10690 No (finite) real equals plus infinity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑𝐴 ≠ +∞)
 
Theoremrenemnfd 10691 No real equals minus infinity. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-May-2016.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑𝐴 ≠ -∞)
 
Theorempnfex 10692 Plus infinity exists. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.) (Revised by Steven Nguyen, 7-Dec-2022.)
+∞ ∈ V
 
Theorempnfxr 10693 Plus infinity belongs to the set of extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Anthony Hart, 29-Aug-2011.)
+∞ ∈ ℝ*
 
Theorempnfnemnf 10694 Plus and minus infinity are different elements of *. (Contributed by NM, 14-Oct-2005.)
+∞ ≠ -∞
 
Theoremmnfnepnf 10695 Minus and plus infinity are different. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 8-Dec-2018.)
-∞ ≠ +∞
 
Theoremmnfxr 10696 Minus infinity belongs to the set of extended reals. (Contributed by NM, 13-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Anthony Hart, 29-Aug-2011.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)
-∞ ∈ ℝ*
 
Theoremrexri 10697 A standard real is an extended real (inference form.) (Contributed by David Moews, 28-Feb-2017.)
𝐴 ∈ ℝ       𝐴 ∈ ℝ*
 
Theorem1xr 10698 1 is an extended real number. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
1 ∈ ℝ*
 
Theoremrenfdisj 10699 The reals and the infinities are disjoint. (Contributed by NM, 25-Oct-2005.) (Proof shortened by Andrew Salmon, 19-Nov-2011.)
(ℝ ∩ {+∞, -∞}) = ∅
 
Theoremltrelxr 10700 "Less than" is a relation on extended reals. (Contributed by Mario Carneiro, 28-Apr-2015.)
< ⊆ (ℝ* × ℝ*)
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