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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 27801-27900   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremclwwisshclwwsn 27801 Cyclically shifting a closed walk as word results in a closed walk as word (in an undirected graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
((𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑊))) → (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑁) ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))

Theoremerclwwlkrel 27802 is a relation. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       Rel

Theoremerclwwlkeq 27803* Two classes are equivalent regarding if both are words and one is the other cyclically shifted. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑈𝑋𝑊𝑌) → (𝑈 𝑊 ↔ (𝑈 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑊))𝑈 = (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑛))))

Theoremerclwwlkeqlen 27804* If two classes are equivalent regarding , then they are words of the same length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑈𝑋𝑊𝑌) → (𝑈 𝑊 → (♯‘𝑈) = (♯‘𝑊)))

Theoremerclwwlkref 27805* is a reflexive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ↔ 𝑥 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlksym 27806* is a symmetric relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlktr 27807* is a transitive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧) → 𝑥 𝑧)

Theoremerclwwlk 27808* is an equivalence relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
= {⟨𝑢, 𝑤⟩ ∣ (𝑢 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...(♯‘𝑤))𝑢 = (𝑤 cyclShift 𝑛))}        Er (ClWWalks‘𝐺)

16.3.10.2  Closed walks of a fixed length as words

Syntaxcclwwlkn 27809 Extend class notation with closed walks (in an undirected graph) of a fixed length as word over the set of vertices.
class ClWWalksN

Definitiondf-clwwlkn 27810* Define the set of all closed walks of a fixed length 𝑛 as words over the set of vertices in a graph 𝑔. If 0 < 𝑛, such a word corresponds to the sequence p(0) p(1) ... p(n-1) of the vertices in a closed walk p(0) e(f(1)) p(1) e(f(2)) ... p(n-1) e(f(n)) p(n)=p(0) as defined in df-clwlks 27560. For 𝑛 = 0, the set is empty, see clwwlkn0 27813. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
ClWWalksN = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0, 𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝑔) ∣ (♯‘𝑤) = 𝑛})

Theoremclwwlkn 27811* The set of closed walks of a fixed length 𝑁 as words over the set of vertices in a graph 𝐺. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘𝑤) = 𝑁}

Theoremisclwwlkn 27812 A word over the set of vertices representing a closed walk of a fixed length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁))

Theoremclwwlkn0 27813 There is no closed walk of length 0 (i.e. a closed walk without any edge) represented by a word of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.)
(0 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅

Theoremclwwlkneq0 27814 Sufficient conditions for ClWWalksN to be empty. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 24-Feb-2022.)
((𝐺 ∉ V ∨ 𝑁 ∉ ℕ) → (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = ∅)

Theoremclwwlkclwwlkn 27815 A closed walk of a fixed length as word is a closed walk (in an undirected graph) as word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺))

Theoremclwwlksclwwlkn 27816 The closed walks of a fixed length as words are closed walks (in an undirected graph) as words. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 12-Apr-2021.)
(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ⊆ (ClWWalks‘𝐺)

Theoremclwwlknlen 27817 The length of a word representing a closed walk of a fixed length is this fixed length. (Contributed by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁)

Theoremclwwlknnn 27818 The length of a closed walk of a fixed length as word is a positive integer. (Contributed by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑁 ∈ ℕ)

Theoremclwwlknwrd 27819 A closed walk of a fixed length as word is a word over the vertices. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉)

Theoremclwwlknbp 27820 Basic properties of a closed walk of a fixed length as word. (Contributed by AV, 30-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁))

Theoremisclwwlknx 27821* Characterization of a word representing a closed walk of a fixed length, definition of ClWWalks expanded. (Contributed by AV, 25-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {(lastS‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁)))

Theoremclwwlknp 27822* Properties of a set being a closed walk (represented by a word). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(𝑁 − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {(lastS‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremclwwlknwwlksn 27823 A word representing a closed walk of length 𝑁 also represents a walk of length 𝑁 − 1. The walk is one edge shorter than the closed walk, because the last edge connecting the last with the first vertex is missing. For example, if ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∈ (3 ClWWalksN 𝐺) represents a closed walk "abca" of length 3, then ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐”⟩ ∈ (2 WWalksN 𝐺) represents a walk "abc" (not closed if 𝑎𝑐) of length 2, and ⟨“𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑎”⟩ ∈ (3 WWalksN 𝐺) represents also a closed walk "abca" of length 3. (Contributed by AV, 24-Jan-2022.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → 𝑊 ∈ ((𝑁 − 1) WWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlknlbonbgr1 27824 The last but one vertex in a closed walk is a neighbor of the first vertex of the closed walk. (Contributed by AV, 17-Feb-2022.)
((𝐺 ∈ USGraph ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) → (𝑊‘(𝑁 − 1)) ∈ (𝐺 NeighbVtx (𝑊‘0)))

Theoremclwwlkinwwlk 27825 If the initial vertex of a walk occurs another time in the walk, the walk starts with a closed walk. Since the walk is expressed as a word over vertices, the closed walk can be expressed as a subword of this word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 23-Jan-2022.) (Revised by AV, 30-Oct-2022.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑀 ∈ (ℤ𝑁)) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑀 WWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (𝑊𝑁) = (𝑊‘0)) → (𝑊 prefix 𝑁) ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlkn1 27826 A closed walk of length 1 represented as word is a word consisting of 1 symbol representing a vertex connected to itself by (at least) one edge, that is, a loop. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 11-Feb-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (1 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ((♯‘𝑊) = 1 ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ {(𝑊‘0)} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺)))

Theoremloopclwwlkn1b 27827 The singleton word consisting of a vertex 𝑉 represents a closed walk of length 1 iff there is a loop at vertex 𝑉. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.)
(𝑉 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) → ({𝑉} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺) ↔ ⟨“𝑉”⟩ ∈ (1 ClWWalksN 𝐺)))

Theoremclwwlkn1loopb 27828* A word represents a closed walk of length 1 iff this word is a singleton word consisting of a vertex with an attached loop. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (1 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ∃𝑣 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺)(𝑊 = ⟨“𝑣”⟩ ∧ {𝑣} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺)))

Theoremclwwlkn2 27829 A closed walk of length 2 represented as word is a word consisting of 2 symbols representing (not necessarily different) vertices connected by (at least) one edge. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Apr-2021.)
(𝑊 ∈ (2 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ((♯‘𝑊) = 2 ∧ 𝑊 ∈ Word (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ {(𝑊‘0), (𝑊‘1)} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺)))

Theoremclwwlknfi 27830 If there is only a finite number of vertices, the number of closed walks of fixed length (as words) is also finite. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by JJ, 18-Nov-2022.)
((Vtx‘𝐺) ∈ Fin → (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∈ Fin)

Theoremclwwlkel 27831* Obtaining a closed walk (as word) by appending the first symbol to the word representing a walk. (Contributed by AV, 28-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Apr-2021.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ Word (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ (♯‘𝑃) = 𝑁) ∧ (∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^(𝑁 − 1)){(𝑃𝑖), (𝑃‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺) ∧ {(lastS‘𝑃), (𝑃‘0)} ∈ (Edg‘𝐺))) → (𝑃 ++ ⟨“(𝑃‘0)”⟩) ∈ 𝐷)

Theoremclwwlkf 27832* Lemma 1 for clwwlkf1o 27836: F is a function. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 27-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐷 ↦ (𝑡 prefix 𝑁))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝐹:𝐷⟶(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlkfv 27833* Lemma 2 for clwwlkf1o 27836: the value of function F. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 28-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐷 ↦ (𝑡 prefix 𝑁))       (𝑊𝐷 → (𝐹𝑊) = (𝑊 prefix 𝑁))

Theoremclwwlkf1 27834* Lemma 3 for clwwlkf1o 27836: F is a 1-1 function. (Contributed by AV, 28-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐷 ↦ (𝑡 prefix 𝑁))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝐹:𝐷1-1→(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlkfo 27835* Lemma 4 for clwwlkf1o 27836: F is an onto function. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 29-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐷 ↦ (𝑡 prefix 𝑁))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝐹:𝐷onto→(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlkf1o 27836* F is a 1-1 onto function, that means that there is a bijection between the set of closed walks of a fixed length represented by walks (as words) and the set of closed walks (as words) of the fixed length. The difference between these two representations is that in the first case the starting vertex is repeated at the end of the word, and in the second case it is not. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 29-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐷 = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)}    &   𝐹 = (𝑡𝐷 ↦ (𝑡 prefix 𝑁))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → 𝐹:𝐷1-1-onto→(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlken 27837* The set of closed walks of a fixed length represented by walks (as words) and the set of closed walks (as words) of the fixed length are equinumerous. (Contributed by AV, 5-Jun-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Nov-2022.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)} ≈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlknwwlkncl 27838* Obtaining a closed walk (as word) by appending the first symbol to the word representing a walk. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 29-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (𝑊 ++ ⟨“(𝑊‘0)”⟩) ∈ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0)})

Theoremclwwlkwwlksb 27839 A nonempty word over vertices represents a closed walk iff the word concatenated with its first symbol represents a walk. (Contributed by AV, 4-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑊 ≠ ∅) → (𝑊 ∈ (ClWWalks‘𝐺) ↔ (𝑊 ++ ⟨“(𝑊‘0)”⟩) ∈ (WWalks‘𝐺)))

Theoremclwwlknwwlksnb 27840 A word over vertices represents a closed walk of a fixed length 𝑁 greater than zero iff the word concatenated with its first symbol represents a walk of length 𝑁. This theorem would not hold for 𝑁 = 0 and 𝑊 = ∅, because (𝑊 ++ ⟨“(𝑊‘0)”⟩) = ⟨“∅”⟩ ∈ (0 WWalksN 𝐺) could be true, but not 𝑊 ∈ (0 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ ∅ ∈ ∅. (Contributed by AV, 4-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ↔ (𝑊 ++ ⟨“(𝑊‘0)”⟩) ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺)))

Theoremclwwlkext2edg 27841 If a word concatenated with a vertex represents a closed walk in (in a graph), there is an edge between this vertex and the last vertex of the word, and between this vertex and the first vertex of the word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 3-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑍𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) ∧ (𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑍”⟩) ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) → ({(lastS‘𝑊), 𝑍} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑍, (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremwwlksext2clwwlk 27842 If a word represents a walk in (in a graph) and there are edges between the last vertex of the word and another vertex and between this other vertex and the first vertex of the word, then the concatenation of the word representing the walk with this other vertex represents a closed walk. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 3-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 27-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 14-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∧ 𝑍𝑉) → (({(lastS‘𝑊), 𝑍} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {𝑍, (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) → (𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑍”⟩) ∈ ((𝑁 + 2) ClWWalksN 𝐺)))

Theoremwwlksubclwwlk 27843 Any prefix of a word representing a closed walk represents a walk. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
((𝑀 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘(𝑀 + 1))) → (𝑋 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) → (𝑋 prefix 𝑀) ∈ ((𝑀 − 1) WWalksN 𝐺)))

Theoremclwwnisshclwwsn 27844 Cyclically shifting a closed walk as word of fixed length results in a closed walk as word of the same length (in an undirected graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 29-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 22-Mar-2022.)
((𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ 𝑀 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑀) ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremeleclclwwlknlem1 27845* Lemma 1 for eleclclwwlkn 27861. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-May-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)       ((𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ (𝑋𝑊𝑌𝑊)) → ((𝑋 = (𝑌 cyclShift 𝐾) ∧ ∃𝑚 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑍 = (𝑌 cyclShift 𝑚)) → ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑍 = (𝑋 cyclShift 𝑛)))

Theoremeleclclwwlknlem2 27846* Lemma 2 for eleclclwwlkn 27861. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-May-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)       (((𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 = (𝑥 cyclShift 𝑘)) ∧ (𝑋𝑊𝑥𝑊)) → (∃𝑚 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑌 = (𝑥 cyclShift 𝑚) ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑌 = (𝑋 cyclShift 𝑛)))

Theoremclwwlknscsh 27847* The set of cyclical shifts of a word representing a closed walk is the set of closed walks represented by cyclical shifts of a word. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 15-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ0𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) → {𝑦 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑦 = (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑛)} = {𝑦 ∈ Word (Vtx‘𝐺) ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑦 = (𝑊 cyclShift 𝑛)})

Theoremclwwlknccat 27848 The concatenation of two words representing closed walks anchored at the same vertex represents a closed walk with a length which is the sum of the lengths of the two walks. The resulting walk is a "double loop", starting at the common vertex, coming back to the common vertex by the first walk, following the second walk and finally coming back to the common vertex again. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2022.)
((𝐴 ∈ (𝑀 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (𝐴‘0) = (𝐵‘0)) → (𝐴 ++ 𝐵) ∈ ((𝑀 + 𝑁) ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremumgr2cwwk2dif 27849 If a word represents a closed walk of length at least 2 in a multigraph, the first two symbols of the word must be different. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) → (𝑊‘1) ≠ (𝑊‘0))

Theoremumgr2cwwkdifex 27850* If a word represents a closed walk of length at least 2 in a undirected simple graph, the first two symbols of the word must be different. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2) ∧ 𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) → ∃𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑁)(𝑊𝑖) ≠ (𝑊‘0))

Theoremerclwwlknrel 27851 is a relation. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       Rel

Theoremerclwwlkneq 27852* Two classes are equivalent regarding if both are words of the same fixed length and one is the other cyclically shifted. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 25-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑇𝑋𝑈𝑌) → (𝑇 𝑈 ↔ (𝑇𝑊𝑈𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑇 = (𝑈 cyclShift 𝑛))))

Theoremerclwwlkneqlen 27853* If two classes are equivalent regarding , then they are words of the same length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 8-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑇𝑋𝑈𝑌) → (𝑇 𝑈 → (♯‘𝑇) = (♯‘𝑈)))

Theoremerclwwlknref 27854* is a reflexive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 26-Mar-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.) (Proof shortened by AV, 23-Mar-2022.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥𝑊𝑥 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlknsym 27855* is a symmetric relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑥)

Theoremerclwwlkntr 27856* is a transitive relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑥 𝑦𝑦 𝑧) → 𝑥 𝑧)

Theoremerclwwlkn 27857* is an equivalence relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}        Er 𝑊

Theoremqerclwwlknfi 27858* The quotient set of the set of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length according to the equivalence relation is finite. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((Vtx‘𝐺) ∈ Fin → (𝑊 / ) ∈ Fin)

Theoremhashclwwlkn0 27859* The number of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length is the sum of the sizes of all equivalence classes according to . (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 10-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((Vtx‘𝐺) ∈ Fin → (♯‘𝑊) = Σ𝑥 ∈ (𝑊 / )(♯‘𝑥))

Theoremeclclwwlkn1 27860* An equivalence class according to . (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 12-Apr-2018.) (Revised by AV, 30-Apr-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       (𝐵𝑋 → (𝐵 ∈ (𝑊 / ) ↔ ∃𝑥𝑊 𝐵 = {𝑦𝑊 ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑦 = (𝑥 cyclShift 𝑛)}))

Theoremeleclclwwlkn 27861* A member of an equivalence class according to . (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 11-May-2018.) (Revised by AV, 1-May-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝐵 ∈ (𝑊 / ) ∧ 𝑋𝐵) → (𝑌𝐵 ↔ (𝑌𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑌 = (𝑋 cyclShift 𝑛))))

Theoremhashecclwwlkn1 27862* The size of every equivalence class of the equivalence relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length which is a prime number is 1 or equals this length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 1-May-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝑁 ∈ ℙ ∧ 𝑈 ∈ (𝑊 / )) → ((♯‘𝑈) = 1 ∨ (♯‘𝑈) = 𝑁))

Theoremumgrhashecclwwlk 27863* The size of every equivalence class of the equivalence relation over the set of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length which is a prime number equals this length (in an undirected simple graph). (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 1-May-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝐺 ∈ UMGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℙ) → (𝑈 ∈ (𝑊 / ) → (♯‘𝑈) = 𝑁))

Theoremfusgrhashclwwlkn 27864* The size of the set of closed walks (defined as words) with a fixed length which is a prime number is the product of the number of equivalence classes for over the set of closed walks and the fixed length. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 1-May-2021.)
𝑊 = (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)    &    = {⟨𝑡, 𝑢⟩ ∣ (𝑡𝑊𝑢𝑊 ∧ ∃𝑛 ∈ (0...𝑁)𝑡 = (𝑢 cyclShift 𝑛))}       ((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℙ) → (♯‘𝑊) = ((♯‘(𝑊 / )) · 𝑁))

Theoremclwwlkndivn 27865 The size of the set of closed walks (defined as words) of length 𝑁 is divisible by 𝑁 if 𝑁 is a prime number. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 17-Jun-2018.) (Revised by AV, 2-May-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℙ) → 𝑁 ∥ (♯‘(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)))

Theoremclwlknf1oclwwlknlem1 27866 Lemma 1 for clwlknf1oclwwlkn 27869. (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
((𝐶 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∧ 1 ≤ (♯‘(1st𝐶))) → (♯‘((2nd𝐶) prefix ((♯‘(2nd𝐶)) − 1))) = (♯‘(1st𝐶)))

Theoremclwlknf1oclwwlknlem2 27867* Lemma 2 for clwlknf1oclwwlkn 27869: The closed walks of a positive length are nonempty closed walks of this length. (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2022.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁} = {𝑐 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (1 ≤ (♯‘(1st𝑐)) ∧ (♯‘(1st𝑐)) = 𝑁)})

Theoremclwlknf1oclwwlknlem3 27868* Lemma 3 for clwlknf1oclwwlkn 27869: The bijective function of clwlknf1oclwwlkn 27869 is the bijective function of clwlkclwwlkf1o 27796 restricted to the closed walks with a fixed positive length. (Contributed by AV, 26-May-2022.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐴 = (1st𝑐)    &   𝐵 = (2nd𝑐)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝐶 ↦ (𝐵 prefix (♯‘𝐴)))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → 𝐹 = ((𝑐 ∈ {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ 1 ≤ (♯‘(1st𝑤))} ↦ (𝐵 prefix (♯‘𝐴))) ↾ 𝐶))

Theoremclwlknf1oclwwlkn 27869* There is a one-to-one onto function between the set of closed walks as words of length 𝑁 and the set of closed walks of length 𝑁 in a simple pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 5-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 3-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 1-Nov-2022.)
𝐴 = (1st𝑐)    &   𝐵 = (2nd𝑐)    &   𝐶 = {𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁}    &   𝐹 = (𝑐𝐶 ↦ (𝐵 prefix (♯‘𝐴)))       ((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → 𝐹:𝐶1-1-onto→(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwlkssizeeq 27870* The size of the set of closed walks as words of length 𝑁 corresponds to the size of the set of closed walks of length 𝑁 in a simple pseudograph. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 4-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 26-May-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 3-Nov-2022.)
((𝐺 ∈ USPGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (♯‘(𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺)) = (♯‘{𝑤 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘(1st𝑤)) = 𝑁}))

Theoremclwlksndivn 27871* The size of the set of closed walks of prime length 𝑁 is divisible by 𝑁. This corresponds to statement 9 in [Huneke] p. 2: "It follows that, if p is a prime number, then the number of closed walks of length p is divisible by p". (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 6-Jul-2018.) (Revised by AV, 4-May-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ FinUSGraph ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℙ) → 𝑁 ∥ (♯‘{𝑐 ∈ (ClWalks‘𝐺) ∣ (♯‘(1st𝑐)) = 𝑁}))

16.3.10.3  Closed walks on a vertex of a fixed length as words

Syntaxcclwwlknon 27872 Extend class notation with closed walks (in an undirected graph) anchored at a fixed vertex and of a fixed length as word over the set of vertices.
class ClWWalksNOn

Definitiondf-clwwlknon 27873* Define the set of all closed walks a graph 𝑔, anchored at a fixed vertex 𝑣 (i.e., a walk starting and ending at the fixed vertex 𝑣, also called "a closed walk on vertex 𝑣") and having a fixed length 𝑛 as words over the set of vertices. Such a word corresponds to the sequence v=p(0) p(1) ... p(n-1) of the vertices in a closed walk p(0) e(f(1)) p(1) e(f(2)) ... p(n-1) e(f(n)) p(n)=p(0)=v as defined in df-clwlks 27560. The set ((𝑣(ClWWalksNOn‘𝑔)𝑛) corresponds to the set of "walks from v to v of length n" in a statement of [Huneke] p. 2. (Contributed by AV, 24-Feb-2022.)
ClWWalksNOn = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ (𝑣 ∈ (Vtx‘𝑔), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 ClWWalksN 𝑔) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣}))

Theoremclwwlknonmpo 27874* (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺) is an operator mapping a vertex 𝑣 and a nonnegative integer 𝑛 to the set of closed walks on 𝑣 of length 𝑛 as words over the set of vertices in a graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Mar-2024.)
(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺) = (𝑣 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺), 𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ {𝑤 ∈ (𝑛 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑣})

Theoremclwwlknon 27875* The set of closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 𝑁 in a graph 𝐺 as words over the set of vertices. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 14-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2022.)
(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) = {𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋}

Theoremisclwwlknon 27876 A word over the set of vertices representing a closed walk on vertex 𝑋 of length 𝑁 in a graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2022.)
(𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ↔ (𝑊 ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∧ (𝑊‘0) = 𝑋))

Theoremclwwlk0on0 27877 There is no word over the set of vertices representing a closed walk on vertex 𝑋 of length 0 in a graph 𝐺. (Contributed by AV, 17-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.)
(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)0) = ∅

Theoremclwwlknon0 27878 Sufficient conditions for ClWWalksNOn to be empty. (Contributed by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
(¬ (𝑋 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺) ∧ 𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) = ∅)

Theoremclwwlknonfin 27879 In a finite graph 𝐺, the set of closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 𝑁 is also finite. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 26-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 24-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝑉 ∈ Fin → (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ∈ Fin)

Theoremclwwlknonel 27880* Characterization of a word over the set of vertices representing a closed walk on vertex 𝑋 of (nonzero) length 𝑁 in a graph 𝐺. This theorem would not hold for 𝑁 = 0 if 𝑊 = 𝑋 = ∅. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 20-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 24-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑁 ≠ 0 → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ↔ ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {(lastS‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = 𝑁 ∧ (𝑊‘0) = 𝑋)))

Theoremclwwlknonccat 27881 The concatenation of two words representing closed walks on a vertex 𝑋 represents a closed walk on vertex 𝑋. The resulting walk is a "double loop", starting at vertex 𝑋, coming back to 𝑋 by the first walk, following the second walk and finally coming back to 𝑋 again. (Contributed by AV, 24-Apr-2022.)
((𝐴 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑀) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁)) → (𝐴 ++ 𝐵) ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑀 + 𝑁)))

Theoremclwwlknon1 27882* The set of closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 1 in a graph 𝐺 as words over the set of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 24-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑋𝑉 → (𝑋𝐶1) = {𝑤 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∣ (𝑤 = ⟨“𝑋”⟩ ∧ {𝑋} ∈ 𝐸)})

Theoremclwwlknon1loop 27883 If there is a loop at vertex 𝑋, the set of (closed) walks on 𝑋 of length 1 as words over the set of vertices is a singleton containing the singleton word consisting of 𝑋. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝑋𝑉 ∧ {𝑋} ∈ 𝐸) → (𝑋𝐶1) = {⟨“𝑋”⟩})

Theoremclwwlknon1nloop 27884 If there is no loop at vertex 𝑋, the set of (closed) walks on 𝑋 of length 1 as words over the set of vertices is empty. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ({𝑋} ∉ 𝐸 → (𝑋𝐶1) = ∅)

Theoremclwwlknon1sn 27885 The set of (closed) walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 1 as words over the set of vertices is a singleton containing the singleton word consisting of 𝑋 iff there is a loop at 𝑋. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑋𝑉 → ((𝑋𝐶1) = {⟨“𝑋”⟩} ↔ {𝑋} ∈ 𝐸))

Theoremclwwlknon1le1 27886 There is at most one (closed) walk on vertex 𝑋 of length 1 as word over the set of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 11-Feb-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
(♯‘(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)1)) ≤ 1

Theoremclwwlknon2 27887* The set of closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 2 in a graph 𝐺 as words over the set of vertices. (Contributed by AV, 5-Mar-2022.) (Revised by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)       (𝑋𝐶2) = {𝑤 ∈ (2 ClWWalksN 𝐺) ∣ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋}

Theoremclwwlknon2x 27888* The set of closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 2 in a graph 𝐺 as words over the set of vertices, definition of ClWWalksN expanded. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (𝑋𝐶2) = {𝑤 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∣ ((♯‘𝑤) = 2 ∧ {(𝑤‘0), (𝑤‘1)} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋)}

Theorems2elclwwlknon2 27889 Sufficient conditions of a doubleton word to represent a closed walk on vertex 𝑋 of length 2. (Contributed by AV, 11-May-2022.)
𝐶 = (ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)    &   𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉 ∧ {𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸) → ⟨“𝑋𝑌”⟩ ∈ (𝑋𝐶2))

Theoremclwwlknon2num 27890 In a 𝐾-regular graph 𝐺, there are 𝐾 closed walks on vertex 𝑋 of length 2. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 19-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 25-Mar-2022.)
((𝐺 RegUSGraph 𝐾𝑋 ∈ (Vtx‘𝐺)) → (♯‘(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)2)) = 𝐾)

Theoremclwwlknonwwlknonb 27891 A word over vertices represents a closed walk of a fixed length 𝑁 on vertex 𝑋 iff the word concatenated with 𝑋 represents a walk of length 𝑁 on 𝑋 and 𝑋. This theorem would not hold for 𝑁 = 0 and 𝑊 = ∅, see clwwlknwwlksnb 27840. (Contributed by AV, 4-Mar-2022.) (Revised by AV, 27-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → (𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁) ↔ (𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ∈ (𝑋(𝑁 WWalksNOn 𝐺)𝑋)))

Theoremclwwlknonex2lem1 27892 Lemma 1 for clwwlknonex2 27894: Transformation of a special half-open integer range into a union of a smaller half-open integer range and an unordered pair. This Lemma would not hold for 𝑁 = 2, i.e., (♯‘𝑊) = 0, because (0..^(((♯‘𝑊) + 2) − 1)) = (0..^((0 + 2) − 1)) = (0..^1) = {0} ≠ {-1, 0} = (∅ ∪ {-1, 0}) = ((0..^(0 − 1)) ∪ {(0 − 1), 0}) = ((0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)) ∪ {((♯‘𝑊) − 1), (♯‘𝑊)}). (Contributed by AV, 22-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Jan-2022.)
((𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3) ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = (𝑁 − 2)) → (0..^(((♯‘𝑊) + 2) − 1)) = ((0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)) ∪ {((♯‘𝑊) − 1), (♯‘𝑊)}))

Theoremclwwlknonex2lem2 27893* Lemma 2 for clwwlknonex2 27894: Transformation of a walk and two edges into a walk extended by two vertices/edges. (Contributed by AV, 22-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 27-Jan-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       ((((𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) ∧ ((𝑊 ∈ Word 𝑉 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)){(𝑊𝑖), (𝑊‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸 ∧ {(lastS‘𝑊), (𝑊‘0)} ∈ 𝐸) ∧ (♯‘𝑊) = (𝑁 − 2) ∧ (𝑊‘0) = 𝑋)) ∧ {𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸) → ∀𝑖 ∈ ((0..^((♯‘𝑊) − 1)) ∪ {((♯‘𝑊) − 1), (♯‘𝑊)}){(((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘𝑖), (((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩)‘(𝑖 + 1))} ∈ 𝐸)

Theoremclwwlknonex2 27894 Extending a closed walk 𝑊 on vertex 𝑋 by an additional edge (forth and back) results in a closed walk. (Contributed by AV, 22-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 25-Feb-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 28-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) ∧ {𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))) → ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) ∈ (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺))

Theoremclwwlknonex2e 27895 Extending a closed walk 𝑊 on vertex 𝑋 by an additional edge (forth and back) results in a closed walk on vertex 𝑋. (Contributed by AV, 17-Apr-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)    &   𝐸 = (Edg‘𝐺)       (((𝑋𝑉𝑌𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘3)) ∧ {𝑋, 𝑌} ∈ 𝐸𝑊 ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)(𝑁 − 2))) → ((𝑊 ++ ⟨“𝑋”⟩) ++ ⟨“𝑌”⟩) ∈ (𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

Theoremclwwlknondisj 27896* The sets of closed walks on different vertices are disjunct. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 7-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 3-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 28-Mar-2022.)
Disj 𝑥𝑉 (𝑥(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁)

Theoremclwwlknun 27897* The set of closed walks of fixed length 𝑁 in a simple graph 𝐺 is the union of the closed walks of the fixed length 𝑁 on each of the vertices of graph 𝐺. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 7-Oct-2018.) (Revised by AV, 28-May-2021.) (Revised by AV, 3-Mar-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 28-Mar-2022.)
𝑉 = (Vtx‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ USGraph → (𝑁 ClWWalksN 𝐺) = 𝑥𝑉 (𝑥(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

Theoremclwwlkvbij 27898* There is a bijection between the set of closed walks of a fixed length 𝑁 on a fixed vertex 𝑋 represented by walks (as word) and the set of closed walks (as words) of the fixed length 𝑁 on the fixed vertex 𝑋. The difference between these two representations is that in the first case the fixed vertex is repeated at the end of the word, and in the second case it is not. (Contributed by Alexander van der Vekens, 29-Sep-2018.) (Revised by AV, 26-Apr-2021.) (Revised by AV, 7-Jul-2022.) (Proof shortened by AV, 2-Nov-2022.)
((𝑋𝑉𝑁 ∈ ℕ) → ∃𝑓 𝑓:{𝑤 ∈ (𝑁 WWalksN 𝐺) ∣ ((lastS‘𝑤) = (𝑤‘0) ∧ (𝑤‘0) = 𝑋)}–1-1-onto→(𝑋(ClWWalksNOn‘𝐺)𝑁))

16.3.11  Examples for walks, trails and paths

Theorem0ewlk 27899 The empty set (empty sequence of edges) is an s-walk of edges for all s. (Contributed by AV, 4-Jan-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ V ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℕ0*) → ∅ ∈ (𝐺 EdgWalks 𝑆))

Theorem1ewlk 27900 A sequence of 1 edge is an s-walk of edges for all s. (Contributed by AV, 5-Jan-2021.)
((𝐺 ∈ V ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℕ0*𝐼 ∈ dom (iEdg‘𝐺)) → ⟨“𝐼”⟩ ∈ (𝐺 EdgWalks 𝑆))

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