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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 25801-25900   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremtrkgdist 25801 The measure of a distance in a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       (𝐷𝑉𝐷 = (dist‘𝑊))

Theoremtrkgitv 25802 The congruence relation in a Tarski geometry. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
𝑊 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), 𝑈⟩, ⟨(dist‘ndx), 𝐷⟩, ⟨(Itv‘ndx), 𝐼⟩}       (𝐼𝑉𝐼 = (Itv‘𝑊))

Definitiondf-trkgc 25803* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the congruence axioms of reflexivity, identity and transitivity. These are axioms A1 to A3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. With our distance based notation for congruence, transitivity of congruence boils down to transitivity of equality and is already given by eqtr 2799, so it is not listed in this definition. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
TarskiGC = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑓) / 𝑑](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝 (𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑦𝑑𝑥) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝 ((𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑧𝑑𝑧) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))}

Definitiondf-trkgb 25804* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the 3 betweenness axioms in Tarski's Axiomatization of Geometry: identity, Axiom A6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11, axiom of Pasch, Axiom A7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 12, and continuity, Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.)
TarskiGB = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑥) → 𝑥 = 𝑦) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑣𝑝 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑦𝑖𝑧)) → ∃𝑎𝑝 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑢𝑖𝑦) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑣𝑖𝑥))) ∧ ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝑝𝑡 ∈ 𝒫 𝑝(∃𝑎𝑝𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑝𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦)))}

Definitiondf-trkgcb 25805* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the five segment axiom, Axiom A5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11, and segment construction axiom, Axiom A4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
TarskiGCB = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑓) / 𝑑][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝𝑐𝑝𝑣𝑝 (((𝑥𝑦𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑐)) ∧ (((𝑥𝑑𝑦) = (𝑎𝑑𝑏) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑧) = (𝑏𝑑𝑐)) ∧ ((𝑥𝑑𝑢) = (𝑎𝑑𝑣) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑢) = (𝑏𝑑𝑣)))) → (𝑧𝑑𝑢) = (𝑐𝑑𝑣)) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝𝑧𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧) ∧ (𝑦𝑑𝑧) = (𝑎𝑑𝑏)))}

Definitiondf-trkge 25806* Define the class of geometries fulfilling Euclid's axiom, Axiom A10 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
TarskiGE = {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖]𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝𝑢𝑝𝑣𝑝 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑣) ∧ 𝑢 ∈ (𝑦𝑖𝑧) ∧ 𝑥𝑢) → ∃𝑎𝑝𝑏𝑝 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑎) ∧ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑏) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑎𝑖𝑏)))}

Definitiondf-trkgld 25807* Define the class of geometries fulfilling the lower dimension axiom for dimension 𝑛. For such geometries, there are three non-colinear points that are equidistant from 𝑛 − 1 distinct points. Derived from remarks in Tarski's System of Geometry, Alfred Tarski and Steven Givant, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, Volume 5, Number 2 (1999), 175-214. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 22-Apr-2013.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Nov-2019.)
DimTarskiG≥ = {⟨𝑔, 𝑛⟩ ∣ [(Base‘𝑔) / 𝑝][(dist‘𝑔) / 𝑑][(Itv‘𝑔) / 𝑖]𝑓(𝑓:(1..^𝑛)–1-1𝑝 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑝𝑦𝑝𝑧𝑝 (∀𝑗 ∈ (2..^𝑛)(((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑥) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑥) ∧ ((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑦) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑦) ∧ ((𝑓‘1)𝑑𝑧) = ((𝑓𝑗)𝑑𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))))}

Definitiondf-trkg 25808* Define the class of Tarski geometries. A Tarski geometry is a set of points, equipped with a betweenness relation (denoting that a point lies on a line segment between two other points) and a congruence relation (denoting equality of line segment lengths). Here, we are using the following:
• for congruence, (𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑧 𝑤) where = (dist‘𝑊)
• for betweenness, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧), where 𝐼 = (Itv‘𝑊)
With this definition, the axiom A2 is actually equivalent to the transitivity of addition, eqtrd 2814.

Tarski originally had more axioms, but later reduced his list to 11:

• A1 A kind of reflexivity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
• A2 Transitivity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
• A3 Identity for the congruence relation (TarskiGC)
• A4 Axiom of segment construction (TarskiGCB)
• A5 5-segment axiom (TarskiGCB)
• A6 Identity for the betweenness relation (TarskiGB)
• A7 Axiom of Pasch (TarskiGB)
• A8 Lower dimension axiom (DimTarskiG≥‘2)
• A9 Upper dimension axiom (V ∖ (DimTarskiG≥‘3))
• A10 Euclid's axiom (TarskiGE)
• A11 Axiom of continuity (TarskiGB)
Our definition is split into 5 parts:
• congruence axioms TarskiGC (which metric spaces fulfill)
• betweenness axioms TarskiGB
• congruence and betweenness axioms TarskiGCB
• upper and lower dimension axioms DimTarskiG
• axiom of Euclid / parallel postulate TarskiGE

So our definition of a Tarskian Geometry includes the 3 axioms for the quaternary congruence relation (A1, A2, A3), the 3 axioms for the ternary betweenness relation (A6, A7, A11), and the 2 axioms of compatibility of the congruence and the betweenness relations (A4,A5).

It does not include Euclid's axiom A10, nor the 2-dimensional axioms A8 (Lower dimension axiom) and A9 (Upper dimension axiom) so the number of dimensions of the geometry it formalizes is not constrained.

Considering A2 as one of the 3 axioms for the quaternary congruence relation is somewhat conventional, because the transitivity of the congruence relation is automatically given by our choice to take the distance as this congruence relation in our definition of Tarski geometries. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Aug-2017.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)

TarskiG = ((TarskiGC ∩ TarskiGB) ∩ (TarskiGCB ∩ {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](LineG‘𝑓) = (𝑥𝑝, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑝 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑝 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))})}))

Theoremistrkgc 25809* Property of being a Tarski geometry - congruence part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGC ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 (𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑦 𝑥) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ((𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑧 𝑧) → 𝑥 = 𝑦))))

Theoremistrkgb 25810* Property of being a Tarski geometry - betweenness part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGB ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑥) → 𝑥 = 𝑦) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑦𝐼𝑧)) → ∃𝑎𝑃 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑢𝐼𝑦) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑣𝐼𝑥))) ∧ ∀𝑠 ∈ 𝒫 𝑃𝑡 ∈ 𝒫 𝑃(∃𝑎𝑃𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑠𝑦𝑡 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦)))))

Theoremistrkgcb 25811* Property of being a Tarski geometry - congruence and betweenness part. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGCB ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑐𝑃𝑣𝑃 (((𝑥𝑦𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑐)) ∧ (((𝑥 𝑦) = (𝑎 𝑏) ∧ (𝑦 𝑧) = (𝑏 𝑐)) ∧ ((𝑥 𝑢) = (𝑎 𝑣) ∧ (𝑦 𝑢) = (𝑏 𝑣)))) → (𝑧 𝑢) = (𝑐 𝑣)) ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃𝑧𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧) ∧ (𝑦 𝑧) = (𝑎 𝑏)))))

Theoremistrkge 25812* Property of fulfilling Euclid's axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiGE ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ ∀𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 ((𝑢 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑣) ∧ 𝑢 ∈ (𝑦𝐼𝑧) ∧ 𝑥𝑢) → ∃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃 (𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑎) ∧ 𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑏) ∧ 𝑣 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑏)))))

Theoremistrkgl 25813* Building lines from the segment property. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ {𝑓[(Base‘𝑓) / 𝑝][(Itv‘𝑓) / 𝑖](LineG‘𝑓) = (𝑥𝑝, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑝 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑝 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝑖𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝑖𝑧))})} ↔ (𝐺 ∈ V ∧ (LineG‘𝐺) = (𝑥𝑃, 𝑦 ∈ (𝑃 ∖ {𝑥}) ↦ {𝑧𝑃 ∣ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))})))

Theoremistrkgld 25814* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 𝑁 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       ((𝐺𝑉𝑁 ∈ (ℤ‘2)) → (𝐺DimTarskiG𝑁 ↔ ∃𝑓(𝑓:(1..^𝑁)–1-1𝑃 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (∀𝑗 ∈ (2..^𝑁)(((𝑓‘1) 𝑥) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑥) ∧ ((𝑓‘1) 𝑦) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑦) ∧ ((𝑓‘1) 𝑧) = ((𝑓𝑗) 𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))))

Theoremistrkg2ld 25815* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 2 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐺DimTarskiG≥2 ↔ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))

Theoremistrkg3ld 25816* Property of fulfilling the lower dimension 3 axiom. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Jul-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐺DimTarskiG≥3 ↔ ∃𝑢𝑃𝑣𝑃 (𝑢𝑣 ∧ ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (((𝑢 𝑥) = (𝑣 𝑥) ∧ (𝑢 𝑦) = (𝑣 𝑦) ∧ (𝑢 𝑧) = (𝑣 𝑧)) ∧ ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧))))))

Theoremaxtgcgrrflx 25817 Axiom of reflexivity of congruence, Axiom A1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝑌 𝑋))

Theoremaxtgcgrid 25818 Axiom of identity of congruence, Axiom A3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 10. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝑍 𝑍))       (𝜑𝑋 = 𝑌)

Theoremaxtgsegcon 25819* Axiom of segment construction, Axiom A4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. As discussed in Axiom 4 of [Tarski1999] p. 178, "The intuitive content [is that] given any line segment 𝐴𝐵, one can construct a line segment congruent to it, starting at any point 𝑌 and going in the direction of any ray containing 𝑌. The ray is determined by the point 𝑌 and a second point 𝑋, the endpoint of the ray. The other endpoint of the line segment to be constructed is just the point 𝑧 whose existence is asserted." (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑧𝑃 (𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑧) ∧ (𝑌 𝑧) = (𝐴 𝐵)))

Theoremaxtg5seg 25820 Five segments axiom, Axiom A5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. Take two triangles 𝑋𝑍𝑈 and 𝐴𝐶𝑉, a point 𝑌 on 𝑋𝑍, and a point 𝐵 on 𝐴𝐶. If all corresponding line segments except for 𝑍𝑈 and 𝐶𝑉 are congruent ( i.e., 𝑋𝑌 𝐴𝐵, 𝑌𝑍 𝐵𝐶, 𝑋𝑈 𝐴𝑉, and 𝑌𝑈 𝐵𝑉), then 𝑍𝑈 and 𝐶𝑉 are also congruent. As noted in Axiom 5 of [Tarski1999] p. 178, "this axiom is similar in character to the well-known theorems of Euclidean geometry that allow one to conclude, from hypotheses about the congruence of certain corresponding sides and angles in two triangles, the congruence of other corresponding sides and angles." (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 14-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑌) = (𝐴 𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 𝑍) = (𝐵 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 𝑈) = (𝐴 𝑉))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 𝑈) = (𝐵 𝑉))       (𝜑 → (𝑍 𝑈) = (𝐶 𝑉))

Theoremaxtgbtwnid 25821 Identity of Betweenness. Axiom A6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 11. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑋))       (𝜑𝑋 = 𝑌)

Theoremaxtgpasch 25822* Axiom of (Inner) Pasch, Axiom A7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 12. Given triangle 𝑋𝑌𝑍, point 𝑈 in segment 𝑋𝑍, and point 𝑉 in segment 𝑌𝑍, there exists a point 𝑎 on both the segment 𝑈𝑌 and the segment 𝑉𝑋. This axiom is essentially a subset of the general Pasch axiom. The general Pasch axiom asserts that on a plane "a line intersecting a triangle in one of its sides, and not intersecting any of the vertices, must intersect one of the other two sides" (per the discussion about Axiom 7 of [Tarski1999] p. 179). The (general) Pasch axiom was used implicitly by Euclid, but never stated; Moritz Pasch discovered its omission in 1882. As noted in the Metamath book, this means that the omission of Pasch's axiom from Euclid went unnoticed for 2000 years. Only the inner Pasch algorithm is included as an axiom; the "outer" form of the Pasch axiom can be proved using the inner form (see theorem 9.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 69 and the brief discussion in axiom 7.1 of [Tarski1999] p. 180). (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑌𝐼𝑍))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎𝑃 (𝑎 ∈ (𝑈𝐼𝑌) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝑉𝐼𝑋)))

Theoremaxtgcont1 25823* Axiom of Continuity. Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. This axiom (scheme) asserts that any two sets 𝑆 and 𝑇 (of points) such that the elements of 𝑆 precede the elements of 𝑇 with respect to some point 𝑎 (that is, 𝑥 is between 𝑎 and 𝑦 whenever 𝑥 is in 𝑋 and 𝑦 is in 𝑌) are separated by some point 𝑏; this is explained in Axiom 11 of [Tarski1999] p. 185. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑇𝑃)       (𝜑 → (∃𝑎𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑥 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑦) → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦)))

Theoremaxtgcont 25824* Axiom of Continuity. Axiom A11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. For more information see axtgcont1 25823. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝑆𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑇𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   ((𝜑𝑢𝑆𝑣𝑇) → 𝑢 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝑣))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑏𝑃𝑥𝑆𝑦𝑇 𝑏 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦))

Theoremaxtglowdim2 25825* Lower dimension axiom for dimension 2, Axiom A8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. There exist 3 non-colinear points. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 20-Nov-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐺DimTarskiG≥2)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 ¬ (𝑧 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑥 ∈ (𝑧𝐼𝑦) ∨ 𝑦 ∈ (𝑥𝐼𝑧)))

Theoremaxtgupdim2 25826 Upper dimension axiom for dimension 2, Axiom A9 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. Three points 𝑋, 𝑌 and 𝑍 equidistant to two given two points 𝑈 and 𝑉 must be colinear. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 29-May-2019.) (Revised by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Jul-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑋) = (𝑉 𝑋))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑌) = (𝑉 𝑌))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑈 𝑍) = (𝑉 𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐺DimTarskiG≥3)       (𝜑 → (𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑋 ∈ (𝑍𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍)))

Theoremaxtgeucl 25827* Euclid's Axiom. Axiom A10 of [Schwabhauser] p. 13. This is equivalent to Euclid's parallel postulate when combined with other axioms. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiGE)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑉𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑉))    &   (𝜑𝑈 ∈ (𝑌𝐼𝑍))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑈)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃 (𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑎) ∧ 𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑏) ∧ 𝑉 ∈ (𝑎𝐼𝑏)))

15.1.1  Justification for the congruence notation

Theoremtgjustf 25828* Given any function 𝐹, equality of the image by 𝐹 is an equivalence relation. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2023.)
(𝐴𝑉 → ∃𝑟(𝑟 Er 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐴 (𝑥𝑟𝑦 ↔ (𝐹𝑥) = (𝐹𝑦))))

Theoremtgjustr 25829* Given any equivalence relation 𝑅, one can define a function 𝑓 such that all elements of an equivalence classe of 𝑅 have the same image by 𝑓. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 25-Jan-2023.)
((𝐴𝑉𝑅 Er 𝐴) → ∃𝑓(𝑓 Fn 𝐴 ∧ ∀𝑥𝐴𝑦𝐴 (𝑥𝑅𝑦 ↔ (𝑓𝑥) = (𝑓𝑦))))

Theoremtgjustc1 25830* A justification for using distance equality instead of the textbook relation on pairs of points for congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 29-Jan-2023.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)       𝑟(𝑟 Er (𝑃 × 𝑃) ∧ ∀𝑤𝑃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (⟨𝑤, 𝑥𝑟𝑦, 𝑧⟩ ↔ (𝑤 𝑥) = (𝑦 𝑧)))

Theoremtgjustc2 25831* A justification for using distance equality instead of the textbook relation on pairs of points for congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 29-Jan-2023.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝑅 Er (𝑃 × 𝑃)       𝑑(𝑑 Fn (𝑃 × 𝑃) ∧ ∀𝑤𝑃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃𝑧𝑃 (⟨𝑤, 𝑥𝑅𝑦, 𝑧⟩ ↔ (𝑤𝑑𝑥) = (𝑦𝑑𝑧)))

15.2  Tarskian Geometry

15.2.1  Congruence

Theoremtgcgrcomimp 25832 Congruence commutes on the RHS. Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → ((𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷) → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐶)))

Theoremtgcgrcomr 25833 Congruence commutes on the RHS. Variant of Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27, but in a convenient form for a common case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐶))

Theoremtgcgrcoml 25834 Congruence commutes on the LHS. Variant of Theorem 2.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 27, but in a convenient form for a common case. (Contributed by David A. Wheeler, 29-Jun-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐴) = (𝐶 𝐷))

Theoremtgcgrcomlr 25835 Congruence commutes on both sides. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐴) = (𝐷 𝐶))

Theoremtgcgreqb 25836 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 = 𝐵𝐶 = 𝐷))

Theoremtgcgreq 25837 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)       (𝜑𝐶 = 𝐷)

Theoremtgcgrneq 25838 Congruence and equality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)       (𝜑𝐶𝐷)

Theoremtgcgrtriv 25839 Degenerate segments are congruent. Theorem 2.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 28. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐴) = (𝐵 𝐵))

Theoremtgcgrextend 25840 Link congruence over a pair of line segments. Theorem 2.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 29. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.) (Shortened by David A. Wheeler and Thierry Arnoux, 22-Apr-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐷 𝐹))

Theoremtgsegconeq 25841 Two points that satisfy the conclusion of axtgsegcon 25819 are identical. Uniqueness portion of Theorem 2.12 of [Schwabhauser] p. 29. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐸))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐸) = (𝐵 𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐹) = (𝐵 𝐶))       (𝜑𝐸 = 𝐹)

15.2.2  Betweenness

Theoremtgbtwntriv2 25842 Betweenness always holds for the second endpoint. Theorem 3.1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐵))

Theoremtgbtwncom 25843 Betweenness commutes. Theorem 3.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐴))

Theoremtgbtwncomb 25844 Betweenness commutes, biconditional version. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶) ↔ 𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐴)))

Theoremtgbtwnne 25845 Betweenness and inequality. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐴)       (𝜑𝐴𝐶)

Theoremtgbtwntriv1 25846 Betweenness always holds for the first endpoint. Theorem 3.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐵))

Theoremtgbtwnswapid 25847 If you can swap the first two arguments of a betweenness statement, then those arguments are identical. Theorem 3.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 16-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))       (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremtgbtwnintr 25848 Inner transitivity law for betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐶𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))

Theoremtgbtwnexch3 25849 Exchange the first endpoint in betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))

Theoremtgbtwnouttr2 25850 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Left-hand side of Theorem 3.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 18-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))

Theoremtgbtwnexch2 25851 Exchange the outer point of two betweenness statements. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))

Theoremtgbtwnouttr 25852 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))

Theoremtgbtwnexch 25853 Outer transitivity law for betweenness. Right-hand side of Theorem 3.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 30. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))

Theoremtgtrisegint 25854* A line segment between two sides of a triange intersects a segment crossing from the remaining side to the opposite vertex. Theorem 3.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 33. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐷))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑞𝑃 (𝑞 ∈ (𝐹𝐼𝐶) ∧ 𝑞 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐸)))

15.2.3  Dimension

Theoremtglowdim1 25855* Lower dimension axiom for one dimension. In dimension at least 1, there are at least two distinct points. The condition "the space is of dimension 1 or more" is written here as 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃) to avoid a new definition, but a different convention could be chosen. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑥𝑃𝑦𝑃 𝑥𝑦)

Theoremtglowdim1i 25856* Lower dimension axiom for one dimension. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-May-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃))    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑦𝑃 𝑋𝑦)

Theoremtgldimor 25857 Excluded-middle like statement allowing to treat dimension zero as a special case. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝐸𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)       (𝜑 → ((♯‘𝑃) = 1 ∨ 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃)))

Theoremtgldim0eq 25858 In dimension zero, any two points are equal. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 11-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝐸𝐹)    &   (𝜑 → (♯‘𝑃) = 1)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)       (𝜑𝐴 = 𝐵)

Theoremtgldim0itv 25859 In dimension zero, any two points are equal. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (♯‘𝑃) = 1)       (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝐵𝐼𝐶))

Theoremtgldim0cgr 25860 In dimension zero, any two pairs of points are congruent. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 12-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (♯‘𝑃) = 1)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐶 𝐷))

Theoremtgbtwndiff 25861* There is always a 𝑐 distinct from 𝐵 such that 𝐵 lies between 𝐴 and 𝑐. Theorem 3.14 of [Schwabhauser] p. 32. The condition "the space is of dimension 1 or more" is written here as 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃) for simplicity. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 23-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → 2 ≤ (♯‘𝑃))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑐𝑃 (𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝑐) ∧ 𝐵𝑐))

Theoremtgdim01 25862 In geometries of dimension less than 2, all points are colinear. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Aug-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐺DimTarskiG≥2)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝑍 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑋 ∈ (𝑍𝐼𝑌) ∨ 𝑌 ∈ (𝑋𝐼𝑍)))

15.2.4  Betweenness and Congruence

Theoremtgifscgr 25863 Inner five segment congruence. Take two triangles, 𝐴𝐷𝐶 and 𝐸𝐻𝐾, with 𝐵 between 𝐴 and 𝐶 and 𝐹 between 𝐸 and 𝐾. If the other components of the triangles are congruent, then so are 𝐵𝐷 and 𝐹𝐻. Theorem 4.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 34. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 24-Mar-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐻𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐸𝐼𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐹 𝐾))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐷) = (𝐸 𝐻))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 𝐷) = (𝐾 𝐻))       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐷) = (𝐹 𝐻))

Theoremtgcgrsub 25864 Removing identical parts from the end of a line segment preserves congruence. Theorem 4.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐷 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))

15.2.5  Congruence of a series of points

Syntaxccgrg 25865 Declare the constant for the congruence between shapes relation.
class cgrG

Definitiondf-cgrg 25866* Define the relation of congruence between shapes. Definition 4.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. A "shape" is a finite sequence of points, and a triangle can be represented as a shape with three points. Two shapes are congruent if all corresponding segments between all corresponding points are congruent.

Many systems of geometry define triangle congruence as requiring both segment congruence and angle congruence. Such systems, such as Hilbert's axiomatic system, typically have a primitive notion of angle congruence in addition to segment congruence. Here, angle congruence is instead a derived notion, defined later in df-cgra 26160 and expanded in iscgra 26161. This does not mean our system is weaker; dfcgrg2 26216 proves that these two definitions are equivalent, and using the Tarski definition instead (given in [Schwabhauser] p. 35) is simpler. Once two triangles are proven congruent as defined here, you can use various theorems to prove that corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent (CPCTC). For example, see cgr3simp1 25875, cgr3simp2 25876, cgr3simp3 25877, cgrcgra 26173, and permutation laws such as cgr3swap12 25878 and dfcgrg2 26216.

Ideally, we would define this for functions of any set, but we will use words (see df-word 13604) in most cases.

(Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)

cgrG = (𝑔 ∈ V ↦ {⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩ ∣ ((𝑎 ∈ ((Base‘𝑔) ↑pm ℝ) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ ((Base‘𝑔) ↑pm ℝ)) ∧ (dom 𝑎 = dom 𝑏 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝑎𝑗 ∈ dom 𝑎((𝑎𝑖)(dist‘𝑔)(𝑎𝑗)) = ((𝑏𝑖)(dist‘𝑔)(𝑏𝑗))))})

Theoremiscgrg 25867* The congruence property for sequences of points. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ((𝐴 ∈ (𝑃pm ℝ) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝑃pm ℝ)) ∧ (dom 𝐴 = dom 𝐵 ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗))))))

Theoremiscgrgd 25868* The property for two sequences 𝐴 and 𝐵 of points to be congruent. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴:𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵:𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗))))

Theoremiscgrglt 25869* The property for two sequences 𝐴 and 𝐵 of points to be congruent, where the congruence is only required for indices verifying a less-than relation. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 7-Oct-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴:𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵:𝐷𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵 ↔ ∀𝑖 ∈ dom 𝐴𝑗 ∈ dom 𝐴(𝑖 < 𝑗 → ((𝐴𝑖) (𝐴𝑗)) = ((𝐵𝑖) (𝐵𝑗)))))

Theoremtrgcgrg 25870 The property for two triangles to be congruent to each other. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)       (𝜑 → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩ ↔ ((𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸) ∧ (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹) ∧ (𝐶 𝐴) = (𝐹 𝐷))))

Theoremtrgcgr 25871 Triangle congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶 𝐴) = (𝐹 𝐷))       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)

Theoremercgrg 25872 The shape congruence relation is an equivalence relation. Statement 4.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 9-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)       (𝐺 ∈ TarskiG → (cgrG‘𝐺) Er (𝑃pm ℝ))

Theoremtgcgrxfr 25873* A line segment can be divided at the same place as a congruent line segment is divided. Theorem 4.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 35. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 9-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐶) = (𝐷 𝐹))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑒𝑃 (𝑒 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹) ∧ ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝑒𝐹”⟩))

Theoremcgr3id 25874 Reflexivity law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 28-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩)

Theoremcgr3simp1 25875 Deduce segment congruence from a triangle congruence. This is a portion of the theorem that corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent (CPCTC), focusing on a specific segment. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 𝐵) = (𝐷 𝐸))

Theoremcgr3simp2 25876 Deduce segment congruence from a triangle congruence. This is a portion of CPCTC, focusing on a specific segment. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → (𝐵 𝐶) = (𝐸 𝐹))

Theoremcgr3simp3 25877 Deduce segment congruence from a triangle congruence. This is a portion of CPCTC, focusing on a specific segment. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → (𝐶 𝐴) = (𝐹 𝐷))

Theoremcgr3swap12 25878 Permutation law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐵𝐴𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐸𝐷𝐹”⟩)

Theoremcgr3swap23 25879 Permutation law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐶𝐵”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐹𝐸”⟩)

Theoremcgr3swap13 25880 Permutation law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 3-Oct-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐶𝐵𝐴”⟩ ⟨“𝐹𝐸𝐷”⟩)

Theoremcgr3rotr 25881 Permutation law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Aug-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐶𝐴𝐵”⟩ ⟨“𝐹𝐷𝐸”⟩)

Theoremcgr3rotl 25882 Permutation law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 1-Aug-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐵𝐶𝐴”⟩ ⟨“𝐸𝐹𝐷”⟩)

Theoremtrgcgrcom 25883 Commutative law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩ ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩)

Theoremcgr3tr 25884 Transitivity law for three-place congruence. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)    &   (𝜑𝐽𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐿𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩ ⟨“𝐽𝐾𝐿”⟩)       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐽𝐾𝐿”⟩)

Theoremtgbtwnxfr 25885 A condition for extending betweenness to a new set of points based on congruence with another set of points. Theorem 4.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 36. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 27-Apr-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐸𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑃)    &   (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝐴𝐼𝐶))       (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐷𝐼𝐹))

Theoremtgcgr4 25886 Two quadrilaterals to be congruent to each other if one triangle formed by their vertices is, and the additional points are equidistant too. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 8-Oct-2020.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   𝐼 = (Itv‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑊𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑌𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝑃)       (𝜑 → (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷”⟩ ⟨“𝑊𝑋𝑌𝑍”⟩ ↔ (⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝑊𝑋𝑌”⟩ ∧ ((𝐴 𝐷) = (𝑊 𝑍) ∧ (𝐵 𝐷) = (𝑋 𝑍) ∧ (𝐶 𝐷) = (𝑌 𝑍)))))

15.2.6  Motions

Syntaxcismt 25887 Declare the constant for the isometry builder.
class Ismt

Definitiondf-ismt 25888* Define the set of isometries between two structures. Definition 4.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 36. See isismt 25889. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 13-Dec-2019.)
Ismt = (𝑔 ∈ V, ∈ V ↦ {𝑓 ∣ (𝑓:(Base‘𝑔)–1-1-onto→(Base‘) ∧ ∀𝑎 ∈ (Base‘𝑔)∀𝑏 ∈ (Base‘𝑔)((𝑓𝑎)(dist‘)(𝑓𝑏)) = (𝑎(dist‘𝑔)𝑏))})

Theoremisismt 25889* Property of being an isometry. Compare with isismty 34229. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 13-Dec-2019.)
𝐵 = (Base‘𝐺)    &   𝑃 = (Base‘𝐻)    &   𝐷 = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐻)       ((𝐺𝑉𝐻𝑊) → (𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐻) ↔ (𝐹:𝐵1-1-onto𝑃 ∧ ∀𝑎𝐵𝑏𝐵 ((𝐹𝑎) (𝐹𝑏)) = (𝑎𝐷𝑏))))

Theoremismot 25890* Property of being an isometry mapping to the same space. In geometry, this is also called a motion. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)       (𝐺𝑉 → (𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺) ↔ (𝐹:𝑃1-1-onto𝑃 ∧ ∀𝑎𝑃𝑏𝑃 ((𝐹𝑎) (𝐹𝑏)) = (𝑎 𝑏))))

Theoremmotcgr 25891 Property of a motion: distances are preserved. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑 → ((𝐹𝐴) (𝐹𝐵)) = (𝐴 𝐵))

Theoremidmot 25892 The identity is a motion. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)       (𝜑 → ( I ↾ 𝑃) ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))

Theoremmotf1o 25893 Motions are bijections. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑𝐹:𝑃1-1-onto𝑃)

Theoremmotcl 25894 Closure of motions. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴) ∈ 𝑃)

Theoremmotco 25895 The composition of two motions is a motion. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐻) ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))

Theoremcnvmot 25896 The converse of a motion is a motion. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))

Theoremmotplusg 25897* The operation for motions is their composition. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   𝐼 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), (𝐺Ismt𝐺)⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺), 𝑔 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺) ↦ (𝑓𝑔))⟩}    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑 → (𝐹(+g𝐼)𝐻) = (𝐹𝐻))

Theoremmotgrp 25898* The motions of a geometry form a group with respect to function composition, called the Isometry group. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   𝐼 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), (𝐺Ismt𝐺)⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺), 𝑔 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺) ↦ (𝑓𝑔))⟩}       (𝜑𝐼 ∈ Grp)

Theoremmotcgrg 25899* Property of a motion: distances are preserved. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺𝑉)    &   𝐼 = {⟨(Base‘ndx), (𝐺Ismt𝐺)⟩, ⟨(+g‘ndx), (𝑓 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺), 𝑔 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺) ↦ (𝑓𝑔))⟩}    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ Word 𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝑇) 𝑇)

Theoremmotcgr3 25900 Property of a motion: distances are preserved, special case of triangles. (Contributed by Thierry Arnoux, 15-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (Base‘𝐺)    &    = (dist‘𝐺)    &    = (cgrG‘𝐺)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ TarskiG)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝑃)    &   (𝜑𝐷 = (𝐻𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐸 = (𝐻𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐹 = (𝐻𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐻 ∈ (𝐺Ismt𝐺))       (𝜑 → ⟨“𝐴𝐵𝐶”⟩ ⟨“𝐷𝐸𝐹”⟩)

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206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42900 430 42901-43000 431 43001-43100 432 43101-43200 433 43201-43300 434 43301-43400 435 43401-43500 436 43501-43600 437 43601-43667
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