Home Metamath Proof ExplorerTheorem List (p. 424 of 453) < Previous  Next > Bad symbols? Try the GIF version. Mirrors  >  Metamath Home Page  >  MPE Home Page  >  Theorem List Contents  >  Recent Proofs       This page: Page List

 Color key: Metamath Proof Explorer (1-28699) Hilbert Space Explorer (28700-30222) Users' Mathboxes (30223-45272)

Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 42301-42400   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremlimsupmnflem 42301* The superior limit of a function is -∞ if and only if every real number is the upper bound of the restriction of the function to an upper interval of real numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ sup((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) = -∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))

Theoremlimsupmnf 42302* The superior limit of a function is -∞ if and only if every real number is the upper bound of the restriction of the function to an upper interval of real numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) = -∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))

Theoremlimsupequzlem 42303* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 Fn (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺 Fn (ℤ𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝐾)) → (𝐹𝑘) = (𝐺𝑘))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐺))

Theoremlimsupequz 42304* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   𝑘𝐺    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 Fn (ℤ𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐺 Fn (ℤ𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℤ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝐾)) → (𝐹𝑘) = (𝐺𝑘))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐺))

Theoremlimsupre2lem 42305* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is smaller than the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually larger than the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 < (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) < 𝑥))))

Theoremlimsupre2 42306* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is smaller than the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually larger than the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 < (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) < 𝑥))))

Theoremlimsupmnfuzlem 42307* The superior limit of a function is -∞ if and only if every real number is the upper bound of the restriction of the function to a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) = -∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))

Theoremlimsupmnfuz 42308* The superior limit of a function is -∞ if and only if every real number is the upper bound of the restriction of the function to a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) = -∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))

Theoremlimsupequzmptlem 42309* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)    &   𝐾 = if(𝑀𝑁, 𝑁, 𝑀)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))

Theoremlimsupequzmpt 42310* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))

Theoremlimsupre2mpt 42311* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is smaller than the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually larger than the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝑦 < 𝐵) ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝐵 < 𝑦))))

Theoremlimsupequzmptf 42312* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑗𝐵    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐴) → 𝐶𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝐵) → 𝐶𝑊)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim sup‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))

Theoremlimsupre3lem 42313* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))))

Theoremlimsupre3 42314* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))))

Theoremlimsupre3mpt 42315* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, at some point, in any upper part of the reals; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝑦𝐵) ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥𝐴 (𝑘𝑥𝐵𝑦))))

Theoremlimsupre3uzlem 42316* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))

Theoremlimsupre3uz 42317* Given a function on the extended reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is eventually greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))

Theoremlimsupreuz 42318* Given a function on the reals, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 (𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥)))

Theoremlimsupvaluz2 42319* The superior limit, when the domain of a real-valued function is a set of upper integers, and the superior limit is real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = inf(ran (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)), ℝ*, < )), ℝ, < ))

Theoremlimsupreuzmpt 42320* Given a function on the reals, defined on a set of upper integers, its supremum limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is less than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥𝐵 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝐵𝑥)))

Theoremsupcnvlimsup 42321* If a function on a set of upper integers has a real superior limit, the supremum of the rightmost parts of the function, converges to that superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)), ℝ*, < )) ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremsupcnvlimsupmpt 42322* If a function on a set of upper integers has a real superior limit, the supremum of the rightmost parts of the function, converges to that superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Oct-2021.)
𝑗𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑗𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)) ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝑘𝑍 ↦ sup(ran (𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘) ↦ 𝐵), ℝ*, < )) ⇝ (lim sup‘(𝑗𝑍𝐵)))

Theorem0cnv 42323 If is a complex number, then it converges to itself. See 0ncn 10544 and its comment; see also the comment in climlimsupcex 42350. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(∅ ∈ ℂ → ∅ ⇝ ∅)

Theoremclimuzlem 42324* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)) < 𝑥)))

Theoremclimuz 42325* Express the predicate: The limit of complex number sequence 𝐹 is 𝐴, or 𝐹 converges to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐴 ↔ (𝐴 ∈ ℂ ∧ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ+𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)) < 𝑥)))

Theoremlmbr3v 42326* Express the binary relation "sequence 𝐹 converges to point 𝑃 " in a metric space using an arbitrary upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝐽 ∈ (TopOn‘𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹 ∈ (𝑋pm ℂ) ∧ 𝑃𝑋 ∧ ∀𝑢𝐽 (𝑃𝑢 → ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ∈ 𝑢)))))

Theoremclimisp 42327* If a sequence converges to an isolated point (w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers) then the sequence eventually becomes that point. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ≠ 𝐴) → 𝑋 ≤ (abs‘((𝐹𝑘) − 𝐴)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝐹𝑘) = 𝐴)

Theoremlmbr3 42328* Express the binary relation "sequence 𝐹 converges to point 𝑃 " in a metric space using an arbitrary upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (TopOn‘𝑋))       (𝜑 → (𝐹(⇝𝑡𝐽)𝑃 ↔ (𝐹 ∈ (𝑋pm ℂ) ∧ 𝑃𝑋 ∧ ∀𝑢𝐽 (𝑃𝑢 → ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∀𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(𝑘 ∈ dom 𝐹 ∧ (𝐹𝑘) ∈ 𝑢)))))

Theoremclimrescn 42329* A sequence converging w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, eventually becomes a sequence of complex numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹 Fn 𝑍)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℂ)

Theoremclimxrrelem 42330* If a seqence ranging over the extended reals converges w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, then there exists an upper set of the integers over which the function is real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑 ∧ +∞ ∈ ℂ) → 𝐷 ≤ (abs‘(+∞ − 𝐴)))    &   ((𝜑 ∧ -∞ ∈ ℂ) → 𝐷 ≤ (abs‘(-∞ − 𝐴)))       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℝ)

Theoremclimxrre 42331* If a sequence ranging over the extended reals converges w.r.t. the standard topology on the complex numbers, then there exists an upper set of the integers over which the function is real-valued (the weaker hypothesis 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ is probably not enough, since in principle we could have +∞ ∈ ℂ and -∞ ∈ ℂ). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝐴)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑗)):(ℤ𝑗)⟶ℝ)

20.37.7.1  Inferior limit (lim inf)

Syntaxclsi 42332 Extend class notation to include the liminf function. (actually, it makes sense for any extended real function defined on a subset of RR which is not upper-bounded)
class lim inf

Definitiondf-liminf 42333* Define the inferior limit of a sequence of extended real numbers. (Contributed by GS, 2-Jan-2022.)
lim inf = (𝑥 ∈ V ↦ sup(ran (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝑥 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < )), ℝ*, < ))

Theoremlimsuplt2 42334* The defining property of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) < 𝐴 ↔ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ) < 𝐴))

Theoremliminfgord 42335 Ordering property of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
((𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → inf(((𝐹 “ (𝐴[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ) ≤ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝐵[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))

Theoremlimsupvald 42336* The superior limit of a sequence 𝐹 of extended real numbers is the infimum of the set of suprema of all restrictions of 𝐹 to an upperset of reals . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) = inf(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))

Theoremlimsupresicompt 42337* The superior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to the upper part of the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = (lim sup‘(𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝑍) ↦ 𝐵)))

Theoremlimsupcli 42338 Closure of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹𝑉       (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*

Theoremliminfgf 42339 Closure of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       𝐺:ℝ⟶ℝ*

Theoremliminfval 42340* The inferior limit of a set 𝐹. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝐹𝑉 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))

Theoremclimlimsup 42341 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if it converges to its superior limit. The first hypothesis is needed (see climlimsupcex 42350 for a counterexample). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹)))

Theoremlimsupge 42342* The defining property of the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐵⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (𝐴 ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹) ↔ ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ 𝐴 ≤ sup(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < )))

Theoremliminfgval 42343* Value of the inferior limit function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝑀 ∈ ℝ → (𝐺𝑀) = inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑀[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))

Theoremliminfcl 42344 Closure of the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝐹𝑉 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*)

Theoremliminfvald 42345* The inferior limit of a set 𝐹. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))

Theoremliminfval5 42346* The inferior limit of an infinite sequence 𝐹 of extended real numbers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)    &   𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)), ℝ*, < ))       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup(ran 𝐺, ℝ*, < ))

Theoremlimsupresxr 42347 The superior limit of a function only depends on the restriction of that function to the preimage of the set of extended reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)    &   𝐴 = (𝐹 “ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝐹𝐴)) = (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfresxr 42348 The inferior limit of a function only depends on the preimage of the extended real part. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → Fun 𝐹)    &   𝐴 = (𝐹 “ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝐴)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfval2 42349* The superior limit, relativized to an unbounded set. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐺 = (𝑘 ∈ ℝ ↦ inf(((𝐹 “ (𝑘[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*), ℝ*, < ))    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → sup(𝐴, ℝ*, < ) = +∞)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = sup((𝐺𝐴), ℝ*, < ))

Theoremclimlimsupcex 42350 Counterexample for climlimsup 42341, showing that the first hypothesis is needed, if the empty set is a complex number (see 0ncn 10544 and its comment). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
¬ 𝑀 ∈ ℤ    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐹 = ∅       ((∅ ∈ ℂ ∧ ¬ -∞ ∈ ℂ) → (𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ ∧ 𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ∧ ¬ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim sup‘𝐹)))

Theoremliminfcld 42351 Closure of the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ*)

Theoremliminfresico 42352 The inferior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to an upperset of reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))

Theoremlimsup10exlem 42353* The range of the given function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 “ (𝐾[,)+∞)) = {0, 1})

Theoremlimsup10ex 42354 The superior limit of a function that alternates between two values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim sup‘𝐹) = 1

Theoremliminf10ex 42355 The inferior limit of a function that alternates between two values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim inf‘𝐹) = 0

Theoremliminflelimsuplem 42356* The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremliminflelimsup 42357* The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. The second hypothesis is needed (see liminflelimsupcex 42378 for a counterexample). The inequality can be strict, see liminfltlimsupex 42362. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremlimsupgtlem 42358* For any positive real, the superior limit of F is larger than any of its values at large enough arguments, up to that positive real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) − 𝑋) < (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremlimsupgt 42359* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's appxoximated from below by the superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)((𝐹𝑘) − 𝑋) < (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfresre 42360 The inferior limit of a function only depends on the real part of its domain. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹 ↾ ℝ)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfresicompt 42361* The inferior limit doesn't change when a function is restricted to the upper part of the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑀[,)+∞)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥 ∈ (𝐴𝑍) ↦ 𝐵)) = (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)))

Theoremliminfltlimsupex 42362 An example where the lim inf is strictly smaller than the lim sup. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ if(2 ∥ 𝑛, 0, 1))       (lim inf‘𝐹) < (lim sup‘𝐹)

Theoremliminfgelimsup 42363* The inferior limit is greater than or equal to the superior limit if and only if they are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑗 ∈ (𝑘[,)+∞)((𝐹 “ (𝑗[,)+∞)) ∩ ℝ*) ≠ ∅)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹) ↔ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹)))

Theoremliminfvalxr 42364* Alternate definition of lim inf when 𝐹 is an extended real-valued function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒(𝐹𝑥))))

Theoremliminfresuz 42365 If the real part of the domain of a function is a subset of the integers, the inferior limit doesn't change when the function is restricted to an upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → dom (𝐹 ↾ ℝ) ⊆ ℤ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))

Theoremliminflelimsupuz 42366 The superior limit is greater than or equal to the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≤ (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfvalxrmpt 42367* Alternate definition of lim inf when 𝐹 is an extended real-valued function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐴) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))

Theoremliminfresuz2 42368 If the domain of a function is a subset of the integers, the inferior limit doesn't change when the function is restricted to an upper set of integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹𝑉)    &   (𝜑 → dom 𝐹 ⊆ ℤ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝐹𝑍)) = (lim inf‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfgelimsupuz 42369 The inferior limit is greater than or equal to the superior limit if and only if they are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹) ↔ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹)))

Theoremliminfval4 42370* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given function is eventually real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝐵)))

Theoremliminfval3 42371* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given function is eventually extended real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))

Theoremliminfequzmpt2 42372* Two functions that are eventually equal to one another have the same superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐴    &   𝑗𝐵    &   𝐴 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   𝐵 = (ℤ𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐾𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝐾)) → 𝐶𝑉)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑗𝐴𝐶)) = (lim inf‘(𝑗𝐵𝐶)))

Theoremliminfvaluz 42373* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))

Theoremliminf0 42374 The inferior limit of the empty set. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(lim inf‘∅) = +∞

Theoremlimsupval4 42375* Alternate definition of lim inf when the given a function is eventually extended real-valued. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑥𝜑    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑉)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ (𝐴 ∩ (𝑀[,)+∞))) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑥𝐴𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑥𝐴 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))

Theoremliminfvaluz2 42376* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝐵)))

Theoremliminfvaluz3 42377* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒(𝐹𝑘))))

Theoremliminflelimsupcex 42378 A counterexample for liminflelimsup 42357, showing that the second hypothesis is needed. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(lim sup‘∅) < (lim inf‘∅)

Theoremlimsupvaluz3 42379* Alternate definition of lim inf for an extended real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝑒𝐵)))

Theoremliminfvaluz4 42380* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = -𝑒(lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -(𝐹𝑘))))

Theoremlimsupvaluz4 42381* Alternate definition of lim inf for a real-valued function, defined on a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝜑    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   ((𝜑𝑘𝑍) → 𝐵 ∈ ℝ)       (𝜑 → (lim sup‘(𝑘𝑍𝐵)) = -𝑒(lim inf‘(𝑘𝑍 ↦ -𝐵)))

Theoremclimliminflimsupd 42382 If a sequence of real numbers converges, its inferior limit and its superior limit are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )       (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))

Theoremliminfreuzlem 42383* Given a function on the reals, its inferior limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is smaller than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗))))

Theoremliminfreuz 42384* Given a function on the reals, its inferior limit is real if and only if two condition holds: 1. there is a real number that is greater than or equal to the function, infinitely often; 2. there is a real number that is smaller than or equal to the function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ↔ (∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥 ∧ ∃𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝑍 𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗))))

Theoremliminfltlem 42385* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's approximated from above by the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(lim inf‘𝐹) < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑋))

Theoremliminflt 42386* Given a sequence of real numbers, there exists an upper part of the sequence that's approximated from above by the inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
𝑘𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗𝑍𝑘 ∈ (ℤ𝑗)(lim inf‘𝐹) < ((𝐹𝑘) + 𝑋))

Theoremclimliminf 42387 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if it converges to its inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ 𝐹 ⇝ (lim inf‘𝐹)))

Theoremliminflimsupclim 42388 A sequence of real numbers converges if its inferior limit is real, and it is greater than or equal to the superior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminflelimsupuz 42366). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))       (𝜑𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ )

Theoremclimliminflimsup 42389 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its inferior limit is real and it is greater than or equal to its superior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminfgelimsupuz 42369). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))))

Theoremclimliminflimsup2 42390 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its superior limit is real and it is less than or equal to its inferior limit (in such a case, they are actually equal, see liminfgelimsupuz 42369). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim sup‘𝐹) ≤ (lim inf‘𝐹))))

Theoremclimliminflimsup3 42391 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its inferior limit is real and equal to its superior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim inf‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))))

Theoremclimliminflimsup4 42392 A sequence of real numbers converges if and only if its superior limit is real and equal to its inferior limit. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 2-Jan-2022.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (𝐹 ∈ dom ⇝ ↔ ((lim sup‘𝐹) ∈ ℝ ∧ (lim inf‘𝐹) = (lim sup‘𝐹))))

Theoremlimsupub2 42393* A extended real valued function, with limsup that is not +∞, is eventually less than +∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑗𝐴 (𝑘𝑗 → (𝐹𝑗) < +∞))

Theoremlimsupubuz2 42394* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with limsup that is not +∞, is eventually less than +∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)(𝐹𝑗) < +∞)

Theoremxlimpnfxnegmnf 42395* A sequence converges to +∞ if and only if its negation converges to -∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝐹    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → (∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗) ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)-𝑒(𝐹𝑗) ≤ 𝑥))

Theoremliminflbuz2 42396* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with liminf that is not -∞, is eventually greater than -∞. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝜑    &   𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≠ -∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)-∞ < (𝐹𝑗))

Theoremliminfpnfuz 42397* The inferior limit of a function is +∞ if and only if every real number is the lower bound of the restriction of the function to a set of upper integers. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
𝑗𝐹    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)       (𝜑 → ((lim inf‘𝐹) = +∞ ↔ ∀𝑥 ∈ ℝ ∃𝑘𝑍𝑗 ∈ (ℤ𝑘)𝑥 ≤ (𝐹𝑗)))

Theoremliminflimsupxrre 42398* A sequence with values in the extended reals, and with real liminf and limsup, is eventually real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 23-Apr-2023.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝑍 = (ℤ𝑀)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝑍⟶ℝ*)    &   (𝜑 → (lim sup‘𝐹) ≠ +∞)    &   (𝜑 → (lim inf‘𝐹) ≠ -∞)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑘𝑍 (𝐹 ↾ (ℤ𝑘)):(ℤ𝑘)⟶ℝ)

20.37.7.2  Limits for sequences of extended real numbers

Textbooks generally use a single symbol to denote the limit of a sequence of real numbers. But then, three distinct definitions are usually given: one for the case of convergence to a real number, one for the case of limit to +∞ and one for the case of limit to -∞. It turns out that these three definitions can be expressed as the limit w.r.t. to the standard topology on the extended reals. In this section, a relation ~~>* is defined that captures all three definitions (and can be applied to sequences of extended reals, also), see dfxlim2 42429.

Syntaxclsxlim 42399 Extend class notation with convergence relation for limits in the extended real numbers.
class ~~>*

Definitiondf-xlim 42400 Define the convergence relation for extended real sequences. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 5-Feb-2022.)
~~>* = (⇝𝑡‘(ordTop‘ ≤ ))

Page List
Jump to page: Contents  1 1-100 2 101-200 3 201-300 4 301-400 5 401-500 6 501-600 7 601-700 8 701-800 9 801-900 10 901-1000 11 1001-1100 12 1101-1200 13 1201-1300 14 1301-1400 15 1401-1500 16 1501-1600 17 1601-1700 18 1701-1800 19 1801-1900 20 1901-2000 21 2001-2100 22 2101-2200 23 2201-2300 24 2301-2400 25 2401-2500 26 2501-2600 27 2601-2700 28 2701-2800 29 2801-2900 30 2901-3000 31 3001-3100 32 3101-3200 33 3201-3300 34 3301-3400 35 3401-3500 36 3501-3600 37 3601-3700 38 3701-3800 39 3801-3900 40 3901-4000 41 4001-4100 42 4101-4200 43 4201-4300 44 4301-4400 45 4401-4500 46 4501-4600 47 4601-4700 48 4701-4800 49 4801-4900 50 4901-5000 51 5001-5100 52 5101-5200 53 5201-5300 54 5301-5400 55 5401-5500 56 5501-5600 57 5601-5700 58 5701-5800 59 5801-5900 60 5901-6000 61 6001-6100 62 6101-6200 63 6201-6300 64 6301-6400 65 6401-6500 66 6501-6600 67 6601-6700 68 6701-6800 69 6801-6900 70 6901-7000 71 7001-7100 72 7101-7200 73 7201-7300 74 7301-7400 75 7401-7500 76 7501-7600 77 7601-7700 78 7701-7800 79 7801-7900 80 7901-8000 81 8001-8100 82 8101-8200 83 8201-8300 84 8301-8400 85 8401-8500 86 8501-8600 87 8601-8700 88 8701-8800 89 8801-8900 90 8901-9000 91 9001-9100 92 9101-9200 93 9201-9300 94 9301-9400 95 9401-9500 96 9501-9600 97 9601-9700 98 9701-9800 99 9801-9900 100 9901-10000 101 10001-10100 102 10101-10200 103 10201-10300 104 10301-10400 105 10401-10500 106 10501-10600 107 10601-10700 108 10701-10800 109 10801-10900 110 10901-11000 111 11001-11100 112 11101-11200 113 11201-11300 114 11301-11400 115 11401-11500 116 11501-11600 117 11601-11700 118 11701-11800 119 11801-11900 120 11901-12000 121 12001-12100 122 12101-12200 123 12201-12300 124 12301-12400 125 12401-12500 126 12501-12600 127 12601-12700 128 12701-12800 129 12801-12900 130 12901-13000 131 13001-13100 132 13101-13200 133 13201-13300 134 13301-13400 135 13401-13500 136 13501-13600 137 13601-13700 138 13701-13800 139 13801-13900 140 13901-14000 141 14001-14100 142 14101-14200 143 14201-14300 144 14301-14400 145 14401-14500 146 14501-14600 147 14601-14700 148 14701-14800 149 14801-14900 150 14901-15000 151 15001-15100 152 15101-15200 153 15201-15300 154 15301-15400 155 15401-15500 156 15501-15600 157 15601-15700 158 15701-15800 159 15801-15900 160 15901-16000 161 16001-16100 162 16101-16200 163 16201-16300 164 16301-16400 165 16401-16500 166 16501-16600 167 16601-16700 168 16701-16800 169 16801-16900 170 16901-17000 171 17001-17100 172 17101-17200 173 17201-17300 174 17301-17400 175 17401-17500 176 17501-17600 177 17601-17700 178 17701-17800 179 17801-17900 180 17901-18000 181 18001-18100 182 18101-18200 183 18201-18300 184 18301-18400 185 18401-18500 186 18501-18600 187 18601-18700 188 18701-18800 189 18801-18900 190 18901-19000 191 19001-19100 192 19101-19200 193 19201-19300 194 19301-19400 195 19401-19500 196 19501-19600 197 19601-19700 198 19701-19800 199 19801-19900 200 19901-20000 201 20001-20100 202 20101-20200 203 20201-20300 204 20301-20400 205 20401-20500 206 20501-20600 207 20601-20700 208 20701-20800 209 20801-20900 210 20901-21000 211 21001-21100 212 21101-21200 213 21201-21300 214 21301-21400 215 21401-21500 216 21501-21600 217 21601-21700 218 21701-21800 219 21801-21900 220 21901-22000 221 22001-22100 222 22101-22200 223 22201-22300 224 22301-22400 225 22401-22500 226 22501-22600 227 22601-22700 228 22701-22800 229 22801-22900 230 22901-23000 231 23001-23100 232 23101-23200 233 23201-23300 234 23301-23400 235 23401-23500 236 23501-23600 237 23601-23700 238 23701-23800 239 23801-23900 240 23901-24000 241 24001-24100 242 24101-24200 243 24201-24300 244 24301-24400 245 24401-24500 246 24501-24600 247 24601-24700 248 24701-24800 249 24801-24900 250 24901-25000 251 25001-25100 252 25101-25200 253 25201-25300 254 25301-25400 255 25401-25500 256 25501-25600 257 25601-25700 258 25701-25800 259 25801-25900 260 25901-26000 261 26001-26100 262 26101-26200 263 26201-26300 264 26301-26400 265 26401-26500 266 26501-26600 267 26601-26700 268 26701-26800 269 26801-26900 270 26901-27000 271 27001-27100 272 27101-27200 273 27201-27300 274 27301-27400 275 27401-27500 276 27501-27600 277 27601-27700 278 27701-27800 279 27801-27900 280 27901-28000 281 28001-28100 282 28101-28200 283 28201-28300 284 28301-28400 285 28401-28500 286 28501-28600 287 28601-28700 288 28701-28800 289 28801-28900 290 28901-29000 291 29001-29100 292 29101-29200 293 29201-29300 294 29301-29400 295 29401-29500 296 29501-29600 297 29601-29700 298 29701-29800 299 29801-29900 300 29901-30000 301 30001-30100 302 30101-30200 303 30201-30300 304 30301-30400 305 30401-30500 306 30501-30600 307 30601-30700 308 30701-30800 309 30801-30900 310 30901-31000 311 31001-31100 312 31101-31200 313 31201-31300 314 31301-31400 315 31401-31500 316 31501-31600 317 31601-31700 318 31701-31800 319 31801-31900 320 31901-32000 321 32001-32100 322 32101-32200 323 32201-32300 324 32301-32400 325 32401-32500 326 32501-32600 327 32601-32700 328 32701-32800 329 32801-32900 330 32901-33000 331 33001-33100 332 33101-33200 333 33201-33300 334 33301-33400 335 33401-33500 336 33501-33600 337 33601-33700 338 33701-33800 339 33801-33900 340 33901-34000 341 34001-34100 342 34101-34200 343 34201-34300 344 34301-34400 345 34401-34500 346 34501-34600 347 34601-34700 348 34701-34800 349 34801-34900 350 34901-35000 351 35001-35100 352 35101-35200 353 35201-35300 354 35301-35400 355 35401-35500 356 35501-35600 357 35601-35700 358 35701-35800 359 35801-35900 360 35901-36000 361 36001-36100 362 36101-36200 363 36201-36300 364 36301-36400 365 36401-36500 366 36501-36600 367 36601-36700 368 36701-36800 369 36801-36900 370 36901-37000 371 37001-37100 372 37101-37200 373 37201-37300 374 37301-37400 375 37401-37500 376 37501-37600 377 37601-37700 378 37701-37800 379 37801-37900 380 37901-38000 381 38001-38100 382 38101-38200 383 38201-38300 384 38301-38400 385 38401-38500 386 38501-38600 387 38601-38700 388 38701-38800 389 38801-38900 390 38901-39000 391 39001-39100 392 39101-39200 393 39201-39300 394 39301-39400 395 39401-39500 396 39501-39600 397 39601-39700 398 39701-39800 399 39801-39900 400 39901-40000 401 40001-40100 402 40101-40200 403 40201-40300 404 40301-40400 405 40401-40500 406 40501-40600 407 40601-40700 408 40701-40800 409 40801-40900 410 40901-41000 411 41001-41100 412 41101-41200 413 41201-41300 414 41301-41400 415 41401-41500 416 41501-41600 417 41601-41700 418 41701-41800 419 41801-41900 420 41901-42000 421 42001-42100 422 42101-42200 423 42201-42300 424 42301-42400 425 42401-42500 426 42501-42600 427 42601-42700 428 42701-42800 429 42801-42900 430 42901-43000 431 43001-43100 432 43101-43200 433 43201-43300 434 43301-43400 435 43401-43500 436 43501-43600 437 43601-43700 438 43701-43800 439 43801-43900 440 43901-44000 441 44001-44100 442 44101-44200 443 44201-44300 444 44301-44400 445 44401-44500 446 44501-44600 447 44601-44700 448 44701-44800 449 44801-44900 450 44901-45000 451 45001-45100 452 45101-45200 453 45201-45272
 Copyright terms: Public domain < Previous  Next >