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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 42701-42800   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremwallispi2lem2 42701 Two expressions are proven to be equal, and this is used to complete the proof of the second version of Wallis' formula for π . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
(𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (seq1( · , (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((2 · 𝑘)↑4) / (((2 · 𝑘) · ((2 · 𝑘) − 1))↑2))))‘𝑁) = (((2↑(4 · 𝑁)) · ((!‘𝑁)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑁))↑2)))

Theoremwallispi2 42702 An alternative version of Wallis' formula for π ; this second formula uses factorials and it is later used to prove Stirling's approximation formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))       𝑉 ⇝ (π / 2)

20.37.14  Stirling's approximation formula for ` n ` factorial

Theoremstirlinglem1 42703 A simple limit of fractions is computed. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 30-Jun-2017.)
𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 − (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / 𝑛))       𝐻 ⇝ (1 / 2)

Theoremstirlinglem2 42704 𝐴 maps to positive reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐴𝑁) ∈ ℝ+)

Theoremstirlinglem3 42705 Long but simple algebraic transformations are applied to show that 𝑉, the Wallis formula for π , can be expressed in terms of 𝐴, the Stirling's approximation formula for the factorial, up to a constant factor. This will allow (in a later theorem) to determine the right constant factor to be put into the 𝐴, in order to get the exact Stirling's formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))       𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)) · ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))))

Theoremstirlinglem4 42706* Algebraic manipulation of ((𝐵 n ) - ( B (𝑛 + 1))). It will be used in other theorems to show that 𝐵 is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) = (𝐽𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem5 42707* If 𝑇 is between 0 and 1, then a series (without alternating negative and positive terms) is given that converges to log((1+T)/(1-T)). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐷 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((-1↑(𝑗 − 1)) · ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗))    &   𝐹 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((-1↑(𝑗 − 1)) · ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)) + ((𝑇𝑗) / 𝑗)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑗) + 1)) · (𝑇↑((2 · 𝑗) + 1)))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((2 · 𝑗) + 1))    &   (𝜑𝑇 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝑇) < 1)       (𝜑 → seq0( + , 𝐻) ⇝ (log‘((1 + 𝑇) / (1 − 𝑇))))

Theoremstirlinglem6 42708* A series that converges to log (N+1)/N. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐻 = (𝑗 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑗) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑((2 · 𝑗) + 1)))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq0( + , 𝐻) ⇝ (log‘((𝑁 + 1) / 𝑁)))

Theoremstirlinglem7 42709* Algebraic manipulation of the formula for J(n). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))    &   𝐻 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (2 · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑((2 · 𝑘) + 1)))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ (𝐽𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem8 42710 If 𝐴 converges to 𝐶, then 𝐹 converges to C^2 . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑛𝜑    &   𝑛𝐴    &   𝑛𝐷    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   (𝜑𝐴:ℕ⟶ℝ+)    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐴𝑛)↑4))    &   𝑀 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝐷𝑛)↑2))    &   ((𝜑𝑛 ∈ ℕ) → (𝐷𝑛) ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑𝐹 ⇝ (𝐶↑2))

Theoremstirlinglem9 42711* ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) is expressed as a limit of a series. This result will be used both to prove that 𝐵 is decreasing and to prove that 𝐵 is bounded (below). It will follow that 𝐵 converges in the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐽 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((1 + (2 · 𝑛)) / 2) · (log‘((𝑛 + 1) / 𝑛))) − 1))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → seq1( + , 𝐾) ⇝ ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))))

Theoremstirlinglem10 42712* A bound for any B(N)-B(N + 1) that will allow to find a lower bound for the whole 𝐵 sequence. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))    &   𝐿 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / (((2 · 𝑁) + 1)↑2))↑𝑘))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵𝑁) − (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1))) ≤ ((1 / 4) · (1 / (𝑁 · (𝑁 + 1)))))

Theoremstirlinglem11 42713* 𝐵 is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐾 = (𝑘 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((1 / ((2 · 𝑘) + 1)) · ((1 / ((2 · 𝑁) + 1))↑(2 · 𝑘))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐵‘(𝑁 + 1)) < (𝐵𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem12 42714* The sequence 𝐵 is bounded below. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (1 / (𝑛 · (𝑛 + 1))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → ((𝐵‘1) − (1 / 4)) ≤ (𝐵𝑁))

Theoremstirlinglem13 42715* 𝐵 is decreasing and has a lower bound, then it converges. Since 𝐵 is log𝐴, in another theorem it is proven that 𝐴 converges as well. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))       𝑑 ∈ ℝ 𝐵𝑑

Theoremstirlinglem14 42716* The sequence 𝐴 converges to a positive real. This proves that the Stirling's formula converges to the factorial, up to a constant. In another theorem, using Wallis' formula for π& , such constant is exactly determined, thus proving the Stirling's formula. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (log‘(𝐴𝑛)))       𝑐 ∈ ℝ+ 𝐴𝑐

Theoremstirlinglem15 42717* The Stirling's formula is proven using a number of local definitions. The main theorem stirling 42718 will use this final lemma, but it will not expose the local definitions. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑛𝜑    &   𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛))))    &   𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝐴‘(2 · 𝑛)))    &   𝐸 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((√‘(2 · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑉 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((((2↑(4 · 𝑛)) · ((!‘𝑛)↑4)) / ((!‘(2 · 𝑛))↑2)) / ((2 · 𝑛) + 1)))    &   𝐹 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (((𝐴𝑛)↑4) / ((𝐷𝑛)↑2)))    &   𝐻 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((𝑛↑2) / (𝑛 · ((2 · 𝑛) + 1))))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐶)       (𝜑 → (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛))) ⇝ 1)

Theoremstirling 42718 Stirling's approximation formula for 𝑛 factorial. The proof follows two major steps: first it is proven that 𝑆 and 𝑛 factorial are asymptotically equivalent, up to an unknown constant. Then, using Wallis' formula for π it is proven that the unknown constant is the square root of π and then the exact Stirling's formula is established. This is Metamath 100 proof #90. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))       (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛))) ⇝ 1

Theoremstirlingr 42719 Stirling's approximation formula for 𝑛 factorial: here convergence is expressed with respect to the standard topology on the reals. The main theorem stirling 42718 is proven for convergence in the topology of complex numbers. The variable 𝑅 is used to denote convergence with respect to the standard topology on the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 29-Jun-2017.)
𝑆 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ ((√‘((2 · π) · 𝑛)) · ((𝑛 / e)↑𝑛)))    &   𝑅 = (⇝𝑡‘(topGen‘ran (,)))       (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ ((!‘𝑛) / (𝑆𝑛)))𝑅1

20.37.15  Dirichlet kernel

Theoremdirkerval 42720* The Nth Dirichlet Kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁) = (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑁) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))

Theoremdirker2re 42721 The Dirchlet Kernel value is a real if the argument is not a multiple of π . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) ∧ ¬ (𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0) → ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑆)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2)))) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremdirkerdenne0 42722 The Dirchlet Kernel denominator is never 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝑆 ∈ ℝ ∧ ¬ (𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0) → ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2))) ≠ 0)

Theoremdirkerval2 42723* The Nth Dirichlet Kernel evaluated at a specific point 𝑆. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑆) = if((𝑆 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑁) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑆)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑆 / 2))))))

Theoremdirkerre 42724* The Dirichlet Kernel at any point evaluates to a real. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑆) ∈ ℝ)

Theoremdirkerper 42725* the Dirichlet Kernel has period . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝑇 = (2 · π)       ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑥 ∈ ℝ) → ((𝐷𝑁)‘(𝑥 + 𝑇)) = ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑥))

Theoremdirkerf 42726* For any natural number 𝑁, the Dirichlet Kernel (𝐷𝑁) is a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁):ℝ⟶ℝ)

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem1 42727* Sum of an even number of alternating cos values. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐾 ∈ ℕ → Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...(2 · 𝐾))(cos‘(𝑛 · π)) = 0)

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem2 42728* Trigonomic equality lemma for the Dirichlet Kernel trigonomic equality. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (sin‘𝐴) ≠ 0)    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑛 · 𝐴))) / π) = ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝐴)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))

Theoremdirkertrigeqlem3 42729* Trigonometric equality lemma for the Dirichlet Kernel trigonometric equality. Here we handle the case for an angle that's an odd multiple of π. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ ℤ)    &   𝐴 = (((2 · 𝐾) + 1) · π)       (𝜑 → (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑛 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑛 · 𝐴))) / π) = ((sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝐴)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)))))

Theoremdirkertrigeq 42730* Trigonometric equality for the Dirichlet kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑠 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐹 = (𝐷𝑁)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ ℝ ↦ (((1 / 2) + Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)(cos‘(𝑘 · 𝑠))) / π))       (𝜑𝐹 = 𝐻)

Theoremdirkeritg 42731* The definite integral of the Dirichlet Kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑥 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑥)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑥 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   𝐹 = (𝐷𝑁)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   𝐺 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵) ↦ (((𝑥 / 2) + Σ𝑘 ∈ (1...𝑁)((sin‘(𝑘 · 𝑥)) / 𝑘)) / π))       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)(𝐹𝑥) d𝑥 = ((𝐺𝐵) − (𝐺𝐴)))

Theoremdirkercncflem1 42732* If 𝑌 is a multiple of π then it belongs to an open inerval (𝐴(,)𝐵) such that for any other point 𝑦 in the interval, cos y/2 and sin y/2 are nonzero. Such an interval is needed to apply De L'Hopital theorem. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐴 = (𝑌 − π)    &   𝐵 = (𝑌 + π)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)       (𝜑 → (𝑌 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})((sin‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0 ∧ (cos‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)))

Theoremdirkercncflem2 42733* Lemma used to prove that the Dirichlet Kernel is continuous at 𝑌 points that are multiples of (2 · π). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ (sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) → (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)    &   𝐻 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ ((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · (cos‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦))))    &   𝐼 = (𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌}) ↦ (π · (cos‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   𝐿 = (𝑤 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · (cos‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑤))) / (π · (cos‘(𝑤 / 2)))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)    &   ((𝜑𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) → (cos‘(𝑦 / 2)) ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑌) ∈ (((𝐷𝑁) ↾ ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∖ {𝑌})) lim 𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncflem3 42734* The Dirichlet Kernel is continuous at 𝑌 points that are multiples of (2 · π). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   𝐴 = (𝑌 − π)    &   𝐵 = (𝑌 + π)    &   𝐹 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))    &   𝐺 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) = 0)       (𝜑 → ((𝐷𝑁)‘𝑌) ∈ ((𝐷𝑁) lim 𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncflem4 42735* The Dirichlet Kernel is continuos at points that are not multiple of 2 π . This is the easier condition, for the proof of the continuity of the Dirichlet kernel. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑌 mod (2 · π)) ≠ 0)    &   𝐴 = (⌊‘(𝑌 / (2 · π)))    &   𝐵 = (𝐴 + 1)    &   𝐶 = (𝐴 · (2 · π))    &   𝐸 = (𝐵 · (2 · π))       (𝜑 → (𝐷𝑁) ∈ (((topGen‘ran (,)) CnP (topGen‘ran (,)))‘𝑌))

Theoremdirkercncf 42736* For any natural number 𝑁, the Dirichlet Kernel (𝐷𝑁) is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐷 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (𝑦 ∈ ℝ ↦ if((𝑦 mod (2 · π)) = 0, (((2 · 𝑛) + 1) / (2 · π)), ((sin‘((𝑛 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑦)) / ((2 · π) · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2)))))))       (𝑁 ∈ ℕ → (𝐷𝑁) ∈ (ℝ–cn→ℝ))

20.37.16  Fourier Series

Theoremfourierdlem1 42737 A partition interval is a subset of the partitioned interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ((𝑄𝐼)[,](𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))))       (𝜑𝑋 ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem2 42738* Membership in a partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ → (𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀) ↔ (𝑄 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑀)) ∧ (((𝑄‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑄𝑀) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)(𝑄𝑖) < (𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))))

Theoremfourierdlem3 42739* Membership in a partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ ((-π[,]π) ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = -π ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = π) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})       (𝑀 ∈ ℕ → (𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀) ↔ (𝑄 ∈ ((-π[,]π) ↑m (0...𝑀)) ∧ (((𝑄‘0) = -π ∧ (𝑄𝑀) = π) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)(𝑄𝑖) < (𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))))

Theoremfourierdlem4 42740* 𝐸 is a function that maps any point to a periodic corresponding point in (𝐴, 𝐵]. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))       (𝜑𝐸:ℝ⟶(𝐴(,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem5 42741* 𝑆 is a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑆 = (𝑥 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ (sin‘((𝑋 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑥)))       (𝑋 ∈ ℝ → 𝑆:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem6 42742 𝑋 is in the periodic partition, when the considered interval is centered at 𝑋. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 < 𝐽)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐼 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐽 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴[,]𝐵))       (𝜑𝐽 = (𝐼 + 1))

Theoremfourierdlem7 42743* The difference between the periodic sawtooth function and the identity function is decreasing. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝑌)       (𝜑 → ((𝐸𝑌) − 𝑌) ≤ ((𝐸𝑋) − 𝑋))

Theoremfourierdlem8 42744 A partition interval is a subset of the partitioned interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))       (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼)[,](𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))) ⊆ (𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem9 42745* 𝐻 is a complex function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 0, (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − if(0 < 𝑠, 𝑌, 𝑊)) / 𝑠)))       (𝜑𝐻:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem10 42746 Condition on the bounds of a nonempty subinterval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶(,)𝐷) ⊆ (𝐴(,)𝐵))       (𝜑 → (𝐴𝐶𝐷𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem11 42747* If there is a partition, than the lower bound is strictly less than the upper bound. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))       (𝜑 → (𝐴 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐵 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝐴 < 𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem12 42748* A point of a partition is not an element of any open interval determined by the partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ran 𝑄)       ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → ¬ 𝑋 ∈ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))

Theoremfourierdlem13 42749* Value of 𝑉 in terms of value of 𝑄. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = (𝐴 + 𝑋) ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = (𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0...𝑀))    &   𝑄 = (𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑉𝑖) − 𝑋))       (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼) = ((𝑉𝐼) − 𝑋) ∧ (𝑉𝐼) = (𝑋 + (𝑄𝐼))))

Theoremfourierdlem14 42750* Given the partition 𝑉, 𝑄 is the partition shifted to the left by 𝑋. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = (𝐴 + 𝑋) ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = (𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝑂 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   𝑄 = (𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑉𝑖) − 𝑋))       (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑂𝑀))

Theoremfourierdlem15 42751* The range of the partition is between its starting point and its ending point. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))       (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem16 42752* The coefficients of the fourier series are integrable and reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   𝐶 = (-π(,)π)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (cos‘(𝑛 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 / π))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)       (𝜑 → (((𝐴𝑁) ∈ ℝ ∧ (𝑥𝐶 ↦ (𝐹𝑥)) ∈ 𝐿1) ∧ ∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (cos‘(𝑁 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 ∈ ℝ))

Theoremfourierdlem17 42753* The defined 𝐿 is actually a function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝐿 = (𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑥 = 𝐵, 𝐴, 𝑥))       (𝜑𝐿:(𝐴(,]𝐵)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem18 42754* The function 𝑆 is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑆 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ (sin‘((𝑁 + (1 / 2)) · 𝑠)))       (𝜑𝑆 ∈ ((-π[,]π)–cn→ℝ))

Theoremfourierdlem19 42755* If two elements of 𝐷 have the same periodic image in (𝐴(,]𝐵) then they are equal. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐷 = {𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴 + 𝑋)(,](𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐶}    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝑊𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑍𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸𝑍) = (𝐸𝑊))       (𝜑 → ¬ 𝑊 < 𝑍)

Theoremfourierdlem20 42756* Every interval in the partition 𝑆 is included in an interval of the partition 𝑄. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑄‘0) ≤ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ≤ (𝑄𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝑇 = ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∪ (ran 𝑄 ∩ (𝐴(,)𝐵)))    &   (𝜑𝑆 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝑇))    &   𝐼 = sup({𝑘 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ (𝑄𝑘) ≤ (𝑆𝐽)}, ℝ, < )       (𝜑 → ∃𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)((𝑆𝐽)(,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))

Theoremfourierdlem21 42757* The coefficients of the fourier series are integrable and reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   𝐶 = (-π(,)π)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑛 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 / π))    &   (𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)       (𝜑 → (((𝐵𝑁) ∈ ℝ ∧ (𝑥𝐶 ↦ ((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑁 · 𝑥)))) ∈ 𝐿1) ∧ ∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑁 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 ∈ ℝ))

Theoremfourierdlem22 42758* The coefficients of the fourier series are integrable and reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   𝐶 = (-π(,)π)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹𝐶) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   𝐴 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 ↦ (∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (cos‘(𝑛 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 / π))    &   𝐵 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ (∫𝐶((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑛 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 / π))       (𝜑 → ((𝑛 ∈ ℕ0 → (𝐴𝑛) ∈ ℝ) ∧ (𝑛 ∈ ℕ → (𝐵𝑛) ∈ ℝ)))

Theoremfourierdlem23 42759* If 𝐹 is continuous and 𝑋 is constant, then (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ (𝐴cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑠𝐵) → (𝑋 + 𝑠) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (𝑠𝐵 ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠))) ∈ (𝐵cn→ℂ))

Theoremfourierdlem24 42760 A sufficient condition for module being nonzero. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝐴 ∈ ((-π[,]π) ∖ {0}) → (𝐴 mod (2 · π)) ≠ 0)

Theoremfourierdlem25 42761* If 𝐶 is not in the range of the partition, then it is in an open interval induced by the partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝑄‘0)[,](𝑄𝑀)))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 𝐶 ∈ ran 𝑄)    &   𝐼 = sup({𝑘 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ (𝑄𝑘) < 𝐶}, ℝ, < )       (𝜑 → ∃𝑗 ∈ (0..^𝑀)𝐶 ∈ ((𝑄𝑗)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑗 + 1))))

Theoremfourierdlem26 42762* Periodic image of a point 𝑌 that's in the period that begins with the point 𝑋. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸𝑋) = 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝑋(,](𝑋 + 𝑇)))       (𝜑 → (𝐸𝑌) = (𝐴 + (𝑌𝑋)))

Theoremfourierdlem27 42763 A partition open interval is a subset of the partitioned open interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ*)    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))       (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼)(,)(𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))) ⊆ (𝐴(,)𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem28 42764* Derivative of (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)). (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐷 = (ℝ D (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵))))    &   (𝜑𝐷:((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵))⟶ℝ)       (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)))) = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (𝐷‘(𝑋 + 𝑠))))

Theoremfourierdlem29 42765* Explicit function value for 𝐾 applied to 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 1, (𝑠 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2))))))       (𝐴 ∈ (-π[,]π) → (𝐾𝐴) = if(𝐴 = 0, 1, (𝐴 / (2 · (sin‘(𝐴 / 2))))))

Theoremfourierdlem30 42766* Sum of three small pieces is less than ε. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝐼 ↦ (𝐹 · -𝐺)) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐼) → 𝐹 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐼) → 𝐺 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑋 = (abs‘𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑌 = (abs‘𝐶)    &   𝑍 = (abs‘∫𝐼(𝐹 · -𝐺) d𝑥)    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ((((𝑋 + 𝑌) + 𝑍) / 𝐸) + 1) ≤ 𝑅)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐵) ≤ 1)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℂ)    &   (𝜑 → (abs‘𝐷) ≤ 1)       (𝜑 → (abs‘(((𝐴 · -(𝐵 / 𝑅)) − (𝐶 · -(𝐷 / 𝑅))) − ∫𝐼(𝐹 · -(𝐺 / 𝑅)) d𝑥)) < 𝐸)

Theoremfourierdlem31 42767* If 𝐴 is finite and for any element in 𝐴 there is a number 𝑚 such that a property holds for all numbers larger than 𝑚, then there is a number 𝑛 such that the property holds for all numbers larger than 𝑛 and for all elements in 𝐴. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.) (Revised by AV, 29-Sep-2020.)
𝑖𝜑    &   𝑟𝜑    &   𝑖𝑉    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑 → ∀𝑖𝐴𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑟 ∈ (𝑚(,)+∞)𝜒)    &   𝑀 = {𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∣ ∀𝑟 ∈ (𝑚(,)+∞)𝜒}    &   𝑉 = (𝑖𝐴 ↦ inf(𝑀, ℝ, < ))    &   𝑁 = sup(ran 𝑉, ℝ, < )       (𝜑 → ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑟 ∈ (𝑛(,)+∞)∀𝑖𝐴 𝜒)

Theoremfourierdlem32 42768 Limit of a continuous function on an open subinterval. Lower bound version. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶(,)𝐷) ⊆ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   𝑌 = if(𝐶 = 𝐴, 𝑅, (𝐹𝐶))    &   𝐽 = ((TopOpen‘ℂfld) ↾t (𝐴[,)𝐵))       (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐶(,)𝐷)) lim 𝐶))

Theoremfourierdlem33 42769 Limit of a continuous function on an open subinterval. Upper bound version. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝐿 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐶(,)𝐷) ⊆ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   𝑌 = if(𝐷 = 𝐵, 𝐿, (𝐹𝐷))    &   𝐽 = ((TopOpen‘ℂfld) ↾t ((𝐴(,)𝐵) ∪ {𝐵}))       (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ (𝐶(,)𝐷)) lim 𝐷))

Theoremfourierdlem34 42770* A partition is one to one. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))       (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)–1-1→ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem35 42771 There is a single point in (𝐴(,]𝐵) that's distant from 𝑋 a multiple integer of 𝑇. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ ℤ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐼 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴(,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + (𝐽 · 𝑇)) ∈ (𝐴(,]𝐵))       (𝜑𝐼 = 𝐽)

Theoremfourierdlem36 42772* 𝐹 is an isomorphism. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐹 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐴))    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐴) − 1)       (𝜑𝐹 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐴))

Theoremfourierdlem37 42773* 𝐼 is a function that maps any real point to the point that in the partition that immediately precedes the corresponding periodic point in the interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑦 = 𝐵, 𝐴, 𝑦))    &   𝐼 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ sup({𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ (𝑄𝑖) ≤ (𝐿‘(𝐸𝑥))}, ℝ, < ))       (𝜑 → (𝐼:ℝ⟶(0..^𝑀) ∧ (𝑥 ∈ ℝ → sup({𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ (𝑄𝑖) ≤ (𝐿‘(𝐸𝑥))}, ℝ, < ) ∈ {𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ (𝑄𝑖) ≤ (𝐿‘(𝐸𝑥))})))

Theoremfourierdlem38 42774* The function 𝐹 is continuous on every interval induced by the partition 𝑄. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (dom 𝐹cn→ℂ))    &   𝑃 = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑛)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = -π ∧ (𝑝𝑛) = π) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑛)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   𝐻 = (𝐴 ∪ ((-π[,]π) ∖ dom 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝑄 = 𝐻)       ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) ∈ (((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))–cn→ℂ))

Theoremfourierdlem39 42775* Integration by parts of ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑅 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹 ∈ ((𝐴[,]𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   𝐺 = (ℝ D 𝐹)    &   (𝜑𝐺 ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑 → ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ ∀𝑥 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)(abs‘(𝐺𝑥)) ≤ 𝑦)    &   (𝜑𝑅 ∈ ℝ+)       (𝜑 → ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)((𝐹𝑥) · (sin‘(𝑅 · 𝑥))) d𝑥 = ((((𝐹𝐵) · -((cos‘(𝑅 · 𝐵)) / 𝑅)) − ((𝐹𝐴) · -((cos‘(𝑅 · 𝐴)) / 𝑅))) − ∫(𝐴(,)𝐵)((𝐺𝑥) · -((cos‘(𝑅 · 𝑥)) / 𝑅)) d𝑥))

Theoremfourierdlem40 42776* 𝐻 is a continuous function on any partition interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (-π[,]π))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (-π[,]π))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐹 ↾ ((𝐴 + 𝑋)(,)(𝐵 + 𝑋))) ∈ (((𝐴 + 𝑋)(,)(𝐵 + 𝑋))–cn→ℂ))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 0, (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − if(0 < 𝑠, 𝑌, 𝑊)) / 𝑠)))       (𝜑 → (𝐻 ↾ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℂ))

Theoremfourierdlem41 42777* Lemma used to prove that every real is a limit point for the domain of the derivative of the periodic function to be approximated. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐷𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇))    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + (𝑍𝑥)))    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))) ⊆ 𝐷)       (𝜑 → (∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ (𝑦 < 𝑋 ∧ (𝑦(,)𝑋) ⊆ 𝐷) ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ ℝ (𝑋 < 𝑦 ∧ (𝑋(,)𝑦) ⊆ 𝐷)))

Theoremfourierdlem42 42778* The set of points in a moved partition are finite. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.) (Revised by AV, 29-Sep-2020.)
(𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 < 𝐶)    &   𝑇 = (𝐶𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (𝐵[,]𝐶))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶𝐴)    &   𝐷 = (abs ∘ − )    &   𝐼 = ((𝐴 × 𝐴) ∖ I )    &   𝑅 = ran (𝐷𝐼)    &   𝐸 = inf(𝑅, ℝ, < )    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐽 = (topGen‘ran (,))    &   𝐾 = (𝐽t (𝑋[,]𝑌))    &   𝐻 = {𝑥 ∈ (𝑋[,]𝑌) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐴}    &   (𝜓 ↔ ((𝜑 ∧ (𝑎 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑏 ∈ ℝ ∧ 𝑎 < 𝑏)) ∧ ∃𝑗 ∈ ℤ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ ((𝑎 + (𝑗 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐴 ∧ (𝑏 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐴)))       (𝜑𝐻 ∈ Fin)

Theoremfourierdlem43 42779 𝐾 is a real function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 1, (𝑠 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2))))))       𝐾:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ

Theoremfourierdlem44 42780 A condition for having (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)) nonzero. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
((𝐴 ∈ (-π[,]π) ∧ 𝐴 ≠ 0) → (sin‘(𝐴 / 2)) ≠ 0)

Theoremfourierdlem46 42781* The function 𝐹 has a limit at the bounds of every interval induced by the partition 𝑄. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹 ∈ (dom 𝐹cn→ℂ))    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ((-π[,)π) ∖ dom 𝐹)) → ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑥(,)+∞)) lim 𝑥) ≠ ∅)    &   ((𝜑𝑥 ∈ ((-π(,]π) ∖ dom 𝐹)) → ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝑥)) lim 𝑥) ≠ ∅)    &   (𝜑𝑄 Isom < , < ((0...𝑀), 𝐻))    &   (𝜑𝑄:(0...𝑀)⟶𝐻)    &   (𝜑𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀))    &   (𝜑 → (𝑄𝐼) < (𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1)))    &   (𝜑 → ((𝑄𝐼)(,)(𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))) ⊆ (-π(,)π))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = ({-π, π, 𝐶} ∪ ((-π[,]π) ∖ dom 𝐹))    &   (𝜑 → ran 𝑄 = 𝐻)       (𝜑 → (((𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝐼)(,)(𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1)))) lim (𝑄𝐼)) ≠ ∅ ∧ ((𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝐼)(,)(𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1)))) lim (𝑄‘(𝐼 + 1))) ≠ ∅))

Theoremfourierdlem47 42782* For 𝑟 large enough, the final expression is less than the given positive 𝐸. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑 → (𝑥𝐼𝐹) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   ((𝜑𝑟 ∈ ℝ) → (𝑥𝐼 ↦ (𝐹 · -𝐺)) ∈ 𝐿1)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐼) → 𝐹 ∈ ℂ)    &   (((𝜑𝑥𝐼) ∧ 𝑟 ∈ ℂ) → 𝐺 ∈ ℂ)    &   (((𝜑𝑥𝐼) ∧ 𝑟 ∈ ℝ) → (abs‘𝐺) ≤ 1)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑋 = (abs‘𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℂ)    &   𝑌 = (abs‘𝐶)    &   𝑍 = ∫𝐼(abs‘𝐹) d𝑥    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ ℝ+)    &   ((𝜑𝑟 ∈ ℂ) → 𝐵 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑟 ∈ ℝ) → (abs‘𝐵) ≤ 1)    &   ((𝜑𝑟 ∈ ℂ) → 𝐷 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑟 ∈ ℝ) → (abs‘𝐷) ≤ 1)    &   𝑀 = ((⌊‘((((𝑋 + 𝑌) + 𝑍) / 𝐸) + 1)) + 1)       (𝜑 → ∃𝑚 ∈ ℕ ∀𝑟 ∈ (𝑚(,)+∞)(abs‘(((𝐴 · -(𝐵 / 𝑟)) − (𝐶 · -(𝐷 / 𝑟))) − ∫𝐼(𝐹 · -(𝐺 / 𝑟)) d𝑥)) < 𝐸)

Theoremfourierdlem48 42783* The given periodic function 𝐹 has a right limit at every point in the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐷𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐷𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝐹‘(𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇))) = (𝐹𝑥))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) ∈ (((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))–cn→ℂ))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → 𝑅 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) lim (𝑄𝑖)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇))    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + (𝑍𝑥)))    &   (𝜒 ↔ ((((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) ∧ 𝑦 ∈ ((𝑄𝑖)[,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) ∧ 𝑘 ∈ ℤ) ∧ 𝑦 = (𝑋 + (𝑘 · 𝑇))))       (𝜑 → ((𝐹 ↾ (𝑋(,)+∞)) lim 𝑋) ≠ ∅)

Theoremfourierdlem49 42784* The given periodic function 𝐹 has a left limit at every point in the reals. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ⊆ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐷⟶ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐷𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐷)    &   ((𝜑𝑥𝐷𝑘 ∈ ℤ) → (𝐹‘(𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇))) = (𝐹𝑥))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) ∈ (((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))–cn→ℂ))    &   ((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) → 𝐿 ∈ ((𝐹 ↾ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) lim (𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑍 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇))    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + (𝑍𝑥)))       (𝜑 → ((𝐹 ↾ (-∞(,)𝑋)) lim 𝑋) ≠ ∅)

Theoremfourierdlem50 42785* Continuity of 𝑂 and its limits with respect to the 𝑆 partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = (-π + 𝑋) ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = (π + 𝑋)) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑉 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴[,]𝐵) ⊆ (-π[,]π))    &   𝑄 = (𝑖 ∈ (0...𝑀) ↦ ((𝑉𝑖) − 𝑋))    &   𝑇 = ({𝐴, 𝐵} ∪ (ran 𝑄 ∩ (𝐴(,)𝐵)))    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝑇) − 1)    &   𝑆 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝑇))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝑈 = (𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)((𝑆𝐽)(,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1))))    &   (𝜒 ↔ ((((𝜑𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) ∧ ((𝑆𝐽)(,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ ((𝑄𝑖)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)))) ∧ 𝑘 ∈ (0..^𝑀)) ∧ ((𝑆𝐽)(,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ ((𝑄𝑘)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑘 + 1)))))       (𝜑 → (𝑈 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∧ ((𝑆𝐽)(,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ ((𝑄𝑈)(,)(𝑄‘(𝑈 + 1)))))

Theoremfourierdlem51 42786* 𝑋 is in the periodic partition, when the considered interval is centered at 𝑋. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 0)    &   (𝜑 → 0 < 𝐵)    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ Fin)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ⊆ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐵𝐶)    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸𝑋) ∈ 𝐶)    &   𝐷 = ({(𝐴 + 𝑋), (𝐵 + 𝑋)} ∪ {𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴 + 𝑋)[,](𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐶})    &   𝐹 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...((♯‘𝐷) − 1)), 𝐷))    &   𝐻 = {𝑦 ∈ ((𝐴 + 𝑋)(,](𝐵 + 𝑋)) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ 𝐶}       (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ran 𝐹)

Theoremfourierdlem52 42787* d16:d17,d18:jca |- ( ph -> ( ( S 0) ≤ 𝐴𝐴 ≤ (𝑆 0 ) ) ) . (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝑇 ∈ Fin)    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝑇) − 1)    &   𝑆 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝑇))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑇 ⊆ (𝐴[,]𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐴𝑇)    &   (𝜑𝐵𝑇)       (𝜑 → ((𝑆:(0...𝑁)⟶(𝐴[,]𝐵) ∧ (𝑆‘0) = 𝐴) ∧ (𝑆𝑁) = 𝐵))

Theoremfourierdlem53 42788* The limit of 𝐹(𝑠) at (𝑋 + 𝐷) is the limit of 𝐹(𝑋 + 𝑠) at 𝐷. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℝ)    &   𝐺 = (𝑠𝐴 ↦ (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)))    &   ((𝜑𝑠𝐴) → (𝑋 + 𝑠) ∈ 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ⊆ ℝ)    &   ((𝜑𝑠𝐴) → 𝑠𝐷)    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ((𝐹𝐵) lim (𝑋 + 𝐷)))    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℂ)       (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐷))

Theoremfourierdlem54 42789* Given a partition 𝑄 and an arbitrary interval [𝐶, 𝐷], a partition 𝑆 on [𝐶, 𝐷] is built such that it preserves any periodic function piecewise continuous on 𝑄 will be piecewise continuous on 𝑆, with the same limits. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   𝑂 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐶 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐷) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝐻 = ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∪ {𝑥 ∈ (𝐶[,]𝐷) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ ran 𝑄})    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐻) − 1)    &   𝑆 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐻))       (𝜑 → ((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑆 ∈ (𝑂𝑁)) ∧ 𝑆 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐻)))

Theoremfourierdlem55 42790* 𝑈 is a real function. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑊 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 0, (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − if(0 < 𝑠, 𝑌, 𝑊)) / 𝑠)))    &   𝐾 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 1, (𝑠 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2))))))    &   𝑈 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ ((𝐻𝑠) · (𝐾𝑠)))       (𝜑𝑈:(-π[,]π)⟶ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem56 42791* Derivative of the 𝐾 function on an interval not containing ' 0 '. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (𝑠 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑠 = 0, 1, (𝑠 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2))))))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ ((-π[,]π) ∖ {0}))    &   ((𝜑𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵)) → 𝑠 ≠ 0)       (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (𝐾𝑠))) = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ ((((sin‘(𝑠 / 2)) − (((cos‘(𝑠 / 2)) / 2) · 𝑠)) / ((sin‘(𝑠 / 2))↑2)) / 2)))

Theoremfourierdlem57 42792* The derivative of 𝑂. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵)))):((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵))⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → (𝐴(,)𝐵) ⊆ (-π[,]π))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝑂 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − 𝐶) / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))       ((𝜑 → ((ℝ D 𝑂):(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ ∧ (ℝ D 𝑂) = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((((ℝ D (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵))))‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) · (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))) − ((cos‘(𝑠 / 2)) · ((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − 𝐶))) / ((2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))↑2))))) ∧ (ℝ D (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2))))) = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (cos‘(𝑠 / 2))))

Theoremfourierdlem58 42793* The derivative of 𝐾 is continuous on the given interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (𝑠𝐴 ↦ (𝑠 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑠 / 2)))))    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ (-π[,]π))    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ 𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (topGen‘ran (,)))       (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐾) ∈ (𝐴cn→ℝ))

Theoremfourierdlem59 42794* The derivative of 𝐻 is continuous on the given interval. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐹:ℝ⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑 → ¬ 0 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑 → (ℝ D (𝐹 ↾ ((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵)))) ∈ (((𝑋 + 𝐴)(,)(𝑋 + 𝐵))–cn→ℝ))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (𝐴(,)𝐵) ↦ (((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑠)) − 𝐶) / 𝑠))       (𝜑 → (ℝ D 𝐻) ∈ ((𝐴(,)𝐵)–cn→ℝ))

Theoremfourierdlem60 42795* Given a differentiable function 𝐹, with finite limit of the derivative at 𝐴 the derived function 𝐻 has a limit at 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐵))    &   𝐺 = (ℝ D 𝐹)    &   (𝜑 → dom 𝐺 = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐵))    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ ((𝐴𝐵)(,)0) ↦ (((𝐹‘(𝐵 + 𝑠)) − 𝑌) / 𝑠))    &   𝑁 = (𝑠 ∈ ((𝐴𝐵)(,)0) ↦ ((𝐹‘(𝐵 + 𝑠)) − 𝑌))    &   𝐷 = (𝑠 ∈ ((𝐴𝐵)(,)0) ↦ 𝑠)       (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐻 lim 0))

Theoremfourierdlem61 42796* Given a differentiable function 𝐹, with finite limit of the derivative at 𝐴 the derived function 𝐻 has a limit at 0. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
(𝜑𝐴 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 < 𝐵)    &   (𝜑𝐹:(𝐴(,)𝐵)⟶ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ (𝐹 lim 𝐴))    &   𝐺 = (ℝ D 𝐹)    &   (𝜑 → dom 𝐺 = (𝐴(,)𝐵))    &   (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐺 lim 𝐴))    &   𝐻 = (𝑠 ∈ (0(,)(𝐵𝐴)) ↦ (((𝐹‘(𝐴 + 𝑠)) − 𝑌) / 𝑠))    &   𝑁 = (𝑠 ∈ (0(,)(𝐵𝐴)) ↦ ((𝐹‘(𝐴 + 𝑠)) − 𝑌))    &   𝐷 = (𝑠 ∈ (0(,)(𝐵𝐴)) ↦ 𝑠)       (𝜑𝐸 ∈ (𝐻 lim 0))

Theoremfourierdlem62 42797 The function 𝐾 is continuous. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝐾 = (𝑦 ∈ (-π[,]π) ↦ if(𝑦 = 0, 1, (𝑦 / (2 · (sin‘(𝑦 / 2))))))       𝐾 ∈ ((-π[,]π)–cn→ℝ)

Theoremfourierdlem63 42798* The upper bound of intervals in the moved partition are mapped to points that are not greater than the corresponding upper bounds in the original partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   𝑂 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐶 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐷) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝐻 = ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∪ {𝑥 ∈ (𝐶[,]𝐷) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑥 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ ran 𝑄})    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐻) − 1)    &   𝑆 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐻))    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   (𝜑𝐾 ∈ (0...𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑌 ∈ ((𝑆𝐽)[,)(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))))    &   (𝜑 → (𝐸𝑌) < (𝑄𝐾))    &   𝑋 = ((𝑄𝐾) − ((𝐸𝑌) − 𝑌))       (𝜑 → (𝐸‘(𝑆‘(𝐽 + 1))) ≤ (𝑄𝐾))

Theoremfourierdlem64 42799* The partition 𝑉 is finer than 𝑄, when 𝑄 is moved on the same interval where 𝑉 lies. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐶 < 𝐷)    &   𝐻 = ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∪ {𝑦 ∈ (𝐶[,]𝐷) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ∈ ran 𝑄})    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘𝐻) − 1)    &   𝑉 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), 𝐻))    &   (𝜑𝐽 ∈ (0..^𝑁))    &   𝐿 = sup({𝑘 ∈ ℤ ∣ ((𝑄‘0) + (𝑘 · 𝑇)) ≤ (𝑉𝐽)}, ℝ, < )    &   𝐼 = sup({𝑗 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∣ ((𝑄𝑗) + (𝐿 · 𝑇)) ≤ (𝑉𝐽)}, ℝ, < )       (𝜑 → ((𝐼 ∈ (0..^𝑀) ∧ 𝐿 ∈ ℤ) ∧ ∃𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑀)∃𝑙 ∈ ℤ ((𝑉𝐽)(,)(𝑉‘(𝐽 + 1))) ⊆ (((𝑄𝑖) + (𝑙 · 𝑇))(,)((𝑄‘(𝑖 + 1)) + (𝑙 · 𝑇)))))

Theoremfourierdlem65 42800* The distance of two adjacent points in the moved partition is preserved in the original partition. (Contributed by Glauco Siliprandi, 11-Dec-2019.)
𝑃 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐴 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐵) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝑇 = (𝐵𝐴)    &   (𝜑𝑀 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝑃𝑀))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ ℝ)    &   (𝜑𝐷 ∈ (𝐶(,)+∞))    &   𝑂 = (𝑚 ∈ ℕ ↦ {𝑝 ∈ (ℝ ↑m (0...𝑚)) ∣ (((𝑝‘0) = 𝐶 ∧ (𝑝𝑚) = 𝐷) ∧ ∀𝑖 ∈ (0..^𝑚)(𝑝𝑖) < (𝑝‘(𝑖 + 1)))})    &   𝑁 = ((♯‘({𝐶, 𝐷} ∪ {𝑦 ∈ (𝐶[,]𝐷) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · (𝐵𝐴))) ∈ ran 𝑄})) − 1)    &   𝑆 = (℩𝑓𝑓 Isom < , < ((0...𝑁), ({𝐶, 𝐷} ∪ {𝑦 ∈ (𝐶[,]𝐷) ∣ ∃𝑘 ∈ ℤ (𝑦 + (𝑘 · (𝐵𝐴))) ∈ ran 𝑄})))    &   𝐸 = (𝑥 ∈ ℝ ↦ (𝑥 + ((⌊‘((𝐵𝑥) / 𝑇)) · 𝑇)))    &   𝐿 = (𝑦 ∈ (𝐴(,]𝐵) ↦ if(𝑦 = 𝐵, 𝐴, 𝑦))    &   𝑍 = ((𝑆𝑗) + (𝐵 − (𝐸‘(𝑆𝑗))))       ((𝜑𝑗 ∈ (0..^𝑁)) → ((𝐸‘(𝑆‘(𝑗 + 1))) − (𝐿‘(𝐸‘(𝑆𝑗)))) = ((𝑆‘(𝑗 + 1)) − (𝑆𝑗)))

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