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Theorem List for Metamath Proof Explorer - 33601-33700   *Has distinct variable group(s)
TypeLabelDescription
Statement

Theoremcolinearperm5 33601 Permutation law for colinearity. Part of theorem 4.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 36. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ ↔ 𝐶 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremcolineartriv1 33602 Trivial case of colinearity. Theorem 4.12 of [Schwabhauser] p. 37. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) → 𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩)

Theoremcolineartriv2 33603 Trivial case of colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) → 𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐵⟩)

Theorembtwncolinear1 33604 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩))

Theorembtwncolinear2 33605 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩))

Theorembtwncolinear3 33606 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐵 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩))

Theorembtwncolinear4 33607 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐵 Colinear ⟨𝐶, 𝐴⟩))

Theorembtwncolinear5 33608 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐶 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩))

Theorembtwncolinear6 33609 Betweenness implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐶 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremcolinearxfr 33610 Transfer law for colinearity. Theorem 4.13 of [Schwabhauser] p. 37. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐵 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩Cgr3⟨𝐷, ⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩⟩) → 𝐸 Colinear ⟨𝐷, 𝐹⟩))

Theoremlineext 33611* Extend a line with a missing point. Theorem 4.14 of [Schwabhauser] p. 37. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 6-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐸⟩) → ∃𝑓 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩Cgr3⟨𝐷, ⟨𝐸, 𝑓⟩⟩))

Theorembrofs2 33612 Change some conditions for outer five segment predicate. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 6-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩⟩ OuterFiveSeg ⟨⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩, ⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩⟩ ↔ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩Cgr3⟨𝐸, ⟨𝐹, 𝐺⟩⟩ ∧ (⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐻⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐹, 𝐻⟩))))

Theorembrifs2 33613 Change some conditions for inner five segment predicate. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 6-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩⟩ InnerFiveSeg ⟨⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩, ⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩⟩ ↔ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩Cgr3⟨𝐸, ⟨𝐹, 𝐺⟩⟩ ∧ (⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐻⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩))))

Theorembrfs 33614 Binary relation form of the general five segment predicate. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩⟩ FiveSeg ⟨⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩, ⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩⟩ ↔ (𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩⟩Cgr3⟨𝐸, ⟨𝐹, 𝐺⟩⟩ ∧ (⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐻⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐹, 𝐻⟩))))

Theoremfscgr 33615 Congruence law for the general five segment configuration. Theorem 4.16 of [Schwabhauser] p. 37. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 5-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((⟨⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩, ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩⟩ FiveSeg ⟨⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩, ⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩⟩ ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩))

Theoremlinecgr 33616 Congruence rule for lines. Theorem 4.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 37. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 6-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴𝐵𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) ∧ (⟨𝐴, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝑄⟩)) → ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑄⟩))

Theoremlinecgrand 33617 Deduction form of linecgr 33616. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 14-Oct-2013.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐴𝐵)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → ⟨𝐴, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝑄⟩)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → ⟨𝐵, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝑄⟩)       ((𝜑𝜓) → ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑄⟩)

Theoremlineid 33618 Identity law for points on lines. Theorem 4.18 of [Schwabhauser] p. 38. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴𝐵𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) ∧ (⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐷⟩)) → 𝐶 = 𝐷))

Theoremidinside 33619 Law for finding a point inside a segment. Theorem 4.19 of [Schwabhauser] p. 38. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐷⟩) → 𝐶 = 𝐷))

Theoremendofsegid 33620 If 𝐴, 𝐵, and 𝐶 fall in order on a line, and 𝐴𝐵 and 𝐴𝐶 are congruent, then 𝐶 = 𝐵. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 7-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩) → 𝐶 = 𝐵))

Theoremendofsegidand 33621 Deduction form of endofsegid 33620. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   (𝜑𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩)    &   ((𝜑𝜓) → ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩)       ((𝜑𝜓) → 𝐵 = 𝐶)

20.9.32.5  Connectivity of betweenness

Theorembtwnconn1lem1 33622 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. The next several lemmas introduce various properties of hypothetical points that end up eliminating alternatives to connectivity. We begin by showing a congruence property of those hypothetical points. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑋⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑋⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩)))) → ⟨𝐵, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝑋, 𝐶⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem2 33623 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now, we show that two of the hypotheticals we introduced in the first lemma are identical. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑋⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑋⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩)))) → 𝑋 = 𝑏)

Theorembtwnconn1lem3 33624 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Establish the next congruence in the series. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩)))) → ⟨𝐵, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝑏, 𝐷⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem4 33625 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Assuming 𝐶𝑐, we now attempt to force 𝐷 = 𝑑 from here out via a series of congruences. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩)))) → ⟨𝑑, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐶⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem5 33626 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now, we introduce 𝐸, the intersection of 𝐶𝑐 and 𝐷𝑑. We begin by showing that it is the midpoint of 𝐶 and 𝑐. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ (𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩))) → ⟨𝐸, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝑐⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem6 33627 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Next, we show that 𝐸 is the midpoint of 𝐷 and 𝑑. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ (𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩))) → ⟨𝐸, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝑑⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem7 33628 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Under our assumptions, 𝐶 and 𝑑 are distinct. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ (𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩))) → 𝐶𝑑)

Theorembtwnconn1lem8 33629 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now, we introduce the last three points used in the construction: 𝑃, 𝑄, and 𝑅 will turn out to be equal further down, and will provide us with the key to the final statement. We begin by establishing congruence of 𝑅𝑃 and 𝐸𝑑. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ ((𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩) ∧ ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑃⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑑, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐸⟩) ∧ (𝑅 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩))))) → ⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝑑⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem9 33630 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now, a quick use of transitivity to establish congruence on 𝑅𝑄 and 𝐸𝐷. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ ((𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩) ∧ ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑃⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑑, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐸⟩) ∧ (𝑅 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩))))) → ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐷⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem10 33631 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now we establish a congruence that will give us 𝐷 = 𝑑 when we compute 𝑃 = 𝑄 later on. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ ((𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩) ∧ ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑃⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑑, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐸⟩) ∧ (𝑅 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩))))) → ⟨𝑑, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem11 33632 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Now, we establish that 𝐷 and 𝑄 are equidistant from 𝐶. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 8-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ ((𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩) ∧ ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑃⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑑, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐸⟩) ∧ (𝑅 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩))))) → ⟨𝐷, 𝐶⟩Cgr⟨𝑄, 𝐶⟩)

Theorembtwnconn1lem12 33633 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Using a long string of invocations of linecgr 33616, we show that 𝐷 = 𝑑. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝑐) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩))) ∧ ((𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐷, 𝑑⟩) ∧ ((𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑃⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑃⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝑑, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑅⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐸⟩) ∧ (𝑅 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝑄⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑅, 𝑄⟩Cgr⟨𝑅, 𝑃⟩))))) → 𝐷 = 𝑑)

Theorembtwnconn1lem13 33634 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Begin back-filling and eliminating hypotheses. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
((((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ ((𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)))) ∧ (((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐷, 𝑐⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩) ∧ (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝑑⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)) ∧ ((𝑐 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑐, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐵⟩) ∧ (𝑑 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑏⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑑, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝐷, 𝐵⟩)))) → (𝐶 = 𝑐𝐷 = 𝑑))

Theorembtwnconn1lem14 33635 Lemma for btwnconn1 33636. Final statement of the theorem when 𝐵𝐶. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) ∧ ((𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐶) ∧ (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩))) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩ ∨ 𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩))

Theorembtwnconn1 33636 Connectitivy law for betweenness. Theorem 5.1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 39-41. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐴𝐵𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩ ∨ 𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩)))

Theorembtwnconn2 33637 Another connectivity law for betweenness. Theorem 5.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 41. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐴𝐵𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩) → (𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝐷⟩ ∨ 𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)))

Theorembtwnconn3 33638 Inner connectivity law for betweenness. Theorem 5.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 41. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 9-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩ ∧ 𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩) → (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∨ 𝐶 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩)))

Theoremmidofsegid 33639 If two points fall in the same place in the middle of a segment, then they are identical. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝐷 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ 𝐸 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐴, 𝐸⟩) → 𝐷 = 𝐸))

Theoremsegcon2 33640* Generalization of axsegcon 26719. This time, we generate an endpoint for a segment on the ray 𝑄𝐴 congruent to 𝐵𝐶 and starting at 𝑄, as opposed to axsegcon 26719, where the segment starts at 𝐴 (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 14-Oct-2013.) Remove unneeded inequality. (Revised by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)((𝐴 Btwn ⟨𝑄, 𝑥⟩ ∨ 𝑥 Btwn ⟨𝑄, 𝐴⟩) ∧ ⟨𝑄, 𝑥⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩))

20.9.32.6  Segment less than or equal to

Syntaxcsegle 33641 Declare the constant for the segment less than or equal to relationship.
class Seg

Definitiondf-segle 33642* Define the segment length comparison relationship. This relationship expresses that the segment 𝐴𝐵 is no longer than 𝐶𝐷. In this section, we establish various properties of this relationship showing that it is a transitive, reflexive relationship on pairs of points that is substitutive under congruence. Definition 5.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 41. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
Seg = {⟨𝑝, 𝑞⟩ ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑎 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)∃𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)∃𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)∃𝑑 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)(𝑝 = ⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩ ∧ 𝑞 = ⟨𝑐, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ∃𝑦 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)(𝑦 Btwn ⟨𝑐, 𝑑⟩ ∧ ⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩Cgr⟨𝑐, 𝑦⟩))}

Theorembrsegle 33643* Binary relation form of the segment comparison relationship. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ↔ ∃𝑦 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝑦 Btwn ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝑦⟩)))

Theorembrsegle2 33644* Alternate characterization of segment comparison. Theorem 5.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 41-42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ↔ ∃𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩)))

Theoremseglecgr12im 33645 Substitution law for segment comparison under congruence. Theorem 5.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩) → ⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩ Seg𝐺, 𝐻⟩))

Theoremseglecgr12 33646 Substitution law for segment comparison under congruence. Biconditional version. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐺 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐻 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩Cgr⟨𝐺, 𝐻⟩) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ↔ ⟨𝐸, 𝐹⟩ Seg𝐺, 𝐻⟩)))

Theoremseglerflx 33647 Segment comparison is reflexive. Theorem 5.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) → ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐵⟩)

Theoremseglemin 33648 Any segment is at least as long as a degenerate segment. Theorem 5.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ⟨𝐴, 𝐴⟩ Seg𝐵, 𝐶⟩)

Theoremsegletr 33649 Segment less than is transitive. Theorem 5.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 11-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐸 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐹 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩ Seg𝐸, 𝐹⟩) → ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐸, 𝐹⟩))

Theoremsegleantisym 33650 Antisymmetry law for segment comparison. Theorem 5.9 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 14-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐵⟩) → ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩Cgr⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩))

Theoremseglelin 33651 Linearity law for segment comparison. Theorem 5.10 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 14-Oct-2013.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐷 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐶, 𝐷⟩ ∨ ⟨𝐶, 𝐷⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐵⟩))

Theorembtwnsegle 33652 If 𝐵 falls between 𝐴 and 𝐶, then 𝐴𝐵 is no longer than 𝐴𝐶. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 16-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ → ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐶⟩))

Theoremcolinbtwnle 33653 Given three colinear points 𝐴, 𝐵, and 𝐶, 𝐵 falls in the middle iff the two segments to 𝐵 are no longer than 𝐴𝐶. Theorem 5.12 of [Schwabhauser] p. 42. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 15-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝐴 Colinear ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ → (𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ↔ (⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐶⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ Seg𝐴, 𝐶⟩))))

20.9.32.7  Outside-of relationship

Syntaxcoutsideof 33654 Declare the syntax for the outside of constant.
class OutsideOf

Definitiondf-outsideof 33655 The outside of relationship. This relationship expresses that 𝑃, 𝐴, and 𝐵 fall on a line, but 𝑃 is not on the segment 𝐴𝐵. This definition is taken from theorem 6.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43, since it requires no dummy variables. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Oct-2013.)
OutsideOf = ( Colinear ∖ Btwn )

Theorembroutsideof 33656 Binary relation form of OutsideOf. Theorem 6.4 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ (𝑃 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ ¬ 𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩))

Theorembroutsideof2 33657 Alternate form of OutsideOf. Definition 6.1 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 17-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ (𝐴𝑃𝐵𝑃 ∧ (𝐴 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝐵⟩ ∨ 𝐵 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝐴⟩))))

Theoremoutsidene1 33658 Outsideness implies inequality. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐴𝑃))

Theoremoutsidene2 33659 Outsideness implies inequality. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → 𝐵𝑃))

Theorembtwnoutside 33660 A principle linking outsideness to betweenness. Theorem 6.2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴𝑃𝐵𝑃𝐶𝑃) ∧ 𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩) → (𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩ ↔ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩)))

Theorembroutsideof3 33661* Characterization of outsideness in terms of relationship to a fourth point. Theorem 6.3 of [Schwabhauser] p. 43. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ (𝐴𝑃𝐵𝑃 ∧ ∃𝑐 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝑐𝑃𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐴, 𝑐⟩ ∧ 𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝐵, 𝑐⟩))))

Theoremoutsideofrflx 33662 Reflexitivity of outsideness. Theorem 6.5 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) → (𝐴𝑃𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremoutsideofcom 33663 Commutitivity law for outsideness. Theorem 6.6 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ↔ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐵, 𝐴⟩))

Theoremoutsideoftr 33664 Transitivity law for outsideness. Theorem 6.7 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ ∧ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) → 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐶⟩))

Theoremoutsideofeq 33665 Uniqueness law for OutsideOf. Analogue of segconeq 33545. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 24-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑋 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑌 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (((𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑋, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑋⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩) ∧ (𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑌, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑌⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)) → 𝑋 = 𝑌))

Theoremoutsideofeu 33666* Given a nondegenerate ray, there is a unique point congruent to the segment 𝐵𝐶 lying on the ray 𝐴𝑅. Theorem 6.11 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 23-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐶 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → ((𝑅𝐴𝐵𝐶) → ∃!𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)(𝐴OutsideOf⟨𝑥, 𝑅⟩ ∧ ⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩Cgr⟨𝐵, 𝐶⟩)))

Theoremoutsidele 33667 Relate OutsideOf to Seg. Theorem 6.13 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 24-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁))) → (𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩ → (⟨𝑃, 𝐴⟩ Seg𝑃, 𝐵⟩ ↔ 𝐴 Btwn ⟨𝑃, 𝐵⟩)))

Theoremoutsideofcol 33668 Outside of implies colinearity. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩ → 𝑃 Colinear ⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩)

20.9.32.8  Lines and Rays

Syntaxcline2 33669 Declare the constant for the line function.
class Line

Syntaxcray 33670 Declare the constant for the ray function.
class Ray

Syntaxclines2 33671 Declare the constant for the set of all lines.
class LinesEE

Definitiondf-line2 33672* Define the Line function. This function generates the line passing through the distinct points 𝑎 and 𝑏. Adapted from definition 6.14 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.)
Line = {⟨⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩, 𝑙⟩ ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑎 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑏 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑎𝑏) ∧ 𝑙 = [⟨𝑎, 𝑏⟩] Colinear )}

Definitiondf-ray 33673* Define the Ray function. This function generates the set of all points that lie on the ray starting at 𝑝 and passing through 𝑎. Definition 6.8 of [Schwabhauser] p. 44. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.)
Ray = {⟨⟨𝑝, 𝑎⟩, 𝑟⟩ ∣ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ((𝑝 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑎 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∧ 𝑝𝑎) ∧ 𝑟 = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛) ∣ 𝑝OutsideOf⟨𝑎, 𝑥⟩})}

Definitiondf-lines2 33674 Define the set of all lines. Definition 6.14, part 2 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. See ellines 33687 for membership. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.)
LinesEE = ran Line

Theoremfunray 33675 Show that the Ray relationship is a function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
Fun Ray

Theoremfvray 33676* Calculate the value of the Ray function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 21-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝐴)) → (𝑃Ray𝐴) = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∣ 𝑃OutsideOf⟨𝐴, 𝑥⟩})

Theoremfunline 33677 Show that the Line relationship is a function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
Fun Line

Theoremlinedegen 33678 When Line is applied with the same argument, the result is the empty set. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴Line𝐴) = ∅

Theoremfvline 33679* Calculate the value of the Line function. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) = {𝑥𝑥 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩})

Theoremliness 33680 A line is a subset of the space its two points lie in. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) ⊆ (𝔼‘𝑁))

Theoremfvline2 33681* Alternate definition of a line. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 25-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝐴 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐵 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝐴𝐵)) → (𝐴Line𝐵) = {𝑥 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∣ 𝑥 Colinear ⟨𝐴, 𝐵⟩})

Theoremlineunray 33682 A line is composed of a point and the two rays emerging from it. Theorem 6.15 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 26-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑅 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁)) ∧ (𝑃𝑄𝑃𝑅)) → (𝑃 Btwn ⟨𝑄, 𝑅⟩ → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (((𝑃Ray𝑄) ∪ {𝑃}) ∪ (𝑃Ray𝑅))))

Theoremlineelsb2 33683 If 𝑆 lies on 𝑃𝑄, then 𝑃𝑄 = 𝑃𝑆. Theorem 6.16 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 27-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄) ∧ (𝑆 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑆)) → (𝑆 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄) → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (𝑃Line𝑆)))

Theoremlinerflx1 33684 Reflexivity law for line membership. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → 𝑃 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremlinecom 33685 Commutativity law for lines. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → (𝑃Line𝑄) = (𝑄Line𝑃))

Theoremlinerflx2 33686 Reflexivity law for line membership. Part of theorem 6.17 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → 𝑄 ∈ (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremellines 33687* Membership in the set of all lines. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
(𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ↔ ∃𝑛 ∈ ℕ ∃𝑝 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)∃𝑞 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑛)(𝑝𝑞𝐴 = (𝑝Line𝑞)))

Theoremlinethru 33688 If 𝐴 is a line containing two distinct points 𝑃 and 𝑄, then 𝐴 is the line through 𝑃 and 𝑄. Theorem 6.18 of [Schwabhauser] p. 45. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ∧ (𝑃𝐴𝑄𝐴) ∧ 𝑃𝑄) → 𝐴 = (𝑃Line𝑄))

Theoremhilbert1.1 33689* There is a line through any two distinct points. Hilbert's axiom I.1 for geometry. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → ∃𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremhilbert1.2 33690* There is at most one line through any two distinct points. Hilbert's axiom I.2 for geometry. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by NM, 17-Jun-2017.)
(𝑃𝑄 → ∃*𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremlinethrueu 33691* There is a unique line going through any two distinct points. Theorem 6.19 of [Schwabhauser] p. 46. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝑁 ∈ ℕ ∧ (𝑃 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑄 ∈ (𝔼‘𝑁) ∧ 𝑃𝑄)) → ∃!𝑥 ∈ LinesEE (𝑃𝑥𝑄𝑥))

Theoremlineintmo 33692* Two distinct lines intersect in at most one point. Theorem 6.21 of [Schwabhauser] p. 46. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 29-Oct-2013.) (Revised by Mario Carneiro, 19-Apr-2014.)
((𝐴 ∈ LinesEE ∧ 𝐵 ∈ LinesEE ∧ 𝐴𝐵) → ∃*𝑥(𝑥𝐴𝑥𝐵))

20.9.33  Forward difference

Syntaxcfwddif 33693 Declare the syntax for the forward difference operator.
class

Definitiondf-fwddif 33694* Define the forward difference operator. This is a discrete analogue of the derivative operator. Definition 2.42 of [GramKnuthPat], p. 47. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-May-2020.)
△ = (𝑓 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℂ) ↦ (𝑥 ∈ {𝑦 ∈ dom 𝑓 ∣ (𝑦 + 1) ∈ dom 𝑓} ↦ ((𝑓‘(𝑥 + 1)) − (𝑓𝑥))))

Syntaxcfwddifn 33695 Declare the syntax for the nth forward difference operator.
class n

Definitiondf-fwddifn 33696* Define the nth forward difference operator. This works out to be the forward difference operator iterated 𝑛 times. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
n = (𝑛 ∈ ℕ0, 𝑓 ∈ (ℂ ↑pm ℂ) ↦ (𝑥 ∈ {𝑦 ∈ ℂ ∣ ∀𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑛)(𝑦 + 𝑘) ∈ dom 𝑓} ↦ Σ𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑛)((𝑛C𝑘) · ((-1↑(𝑛𝑘)) · (𝑓‘(𝑥 + 𝑘))))))

Theoremfwddifval 33697 Calculate the value of the forward difference operator at a point. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 18-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)    &   (𝜑 → (𝑋 + 1) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (( △ ‘𝐹)‘𝑋) = ((𝐹‘(𝑋 + 1)) − (𝐹𝑋)))

Theoremfwddifnval 33698* The value of the forward difference operator at a point. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁)) → (𝑋 + 𝑘) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((𝑁n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = Σ𝑘 ∈ (0...𝑁)((𝑁C𝑘) · ((-1↑(𝑁𝑘)) · (𝐹‘(𝑋 + 𝑘)))))

Theoremfwddifn0 33699 The value of the n-iterated forward difference operator at zero is just the function value. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋𝐴)       (𝜑 → ((0 △n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (𝐹𝑋))

Theoremfwddifnp1 33700* The value of the n-iterated forward difference at a successor. (Contributed by Scott Fenton, 28-May-2020.)
(𝜑𝑁 ∈ ℕ0)    &   (𝜑𝐴 ⊆ ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝐹:𝐴⟶ℂ)    &   (𝜑𝑋 ∈ ℂ)    &   ((𝜑𝑘 ∈ (0...(𝑁 + 1))) → (𝑋 + 𝑘) ∈ 𝐴)       (𝜑 → (((𝑁 + 1) △n 𝐹)‘𝑋) = (((𝑁n 𝐹)‘(𝑋 + 1)) − ((𝑁n 𝐹)‘𝑋)))

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